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1.
AIDS ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the mechanisms that govern natural killer (NK) cell responses to HIV, with a focus on specific receptor-ligand interactions involved in HIV recognition by NK cells. DESIGN AND METHODS: We first performed a mass cytometry-based screen of NK cell receptor expression patterns in healthy controls and HIV individuals. We then focused mechanistic studies on the expression and function of T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains (TIGIT). RESULTS: The mass cytometry screen revealed that TIGIT is upregulated on NK cells of untreated HIV women, but not in antiretroviral-treated women. TIGIT is an inhibitory receptor that is thought to mark exhausted NK cells; however, blocking TIGIT did not improve anti-HIV NK cell responses. In fact, the TIGIT ligands CD112 and CD155 were not upregulated on CD4 T cells in vitro or in vivo, providing an explanation for the lack of benefit from TIGIT blockade. TIGIT expression marked a unique subset of NK cells that express significantly higher levels of NK cell activating receptors (DNAM-1, NTB-A, 2B4, CD2) and exhibit a mature/adaptive phenotype (CD57, NKG2C, LILRB1, FcRγ, Syk). Furthermore, TIGIT NK cells had increased responses to mock-infected and HIV-infected autologous CD4 T cells, and to PMA/ionomycin, cytokine stimulation and the K562 cancer cell line. CONCLUSIONS: TIGIT expression is increased on NK cells from untreated HIV individuals. Although TIGIT does not participate directly to the response to HIV-infected cells, it marks a population of mature/adaptive NK cells with increased functional responses.

2.
Lancet ; 395(10224): 575-590, 2020 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WHO Director-General has issued a call for action to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem. To help inform global efforts, we modelled potential human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical screening scenarios in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) to examine the feasibility and timing of elimination at different thresholds, and to estimate the number of cervical cancer cases averted on the path to elimination. METHODS: The WHO Cervical Cancer Elimination Modelling Consortium (CCEMC), which consists of three independent transmission-dynamic models identified by WHO according to predefined criteria, projected reductions in cervical cancer incidence over time in 78 LMICs for three standardised base-case scenarios: girls-only vaccination; girls-only vaccination and once-lifetime screening; and girls-only vaccination and twice-lifetime screening. Girls were vaccinated at age 9 years (with a catch-up to age 14 years), assuming 90% coverage and 100% lifetime protection against HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58. Cervical screening involved HPV testing once or twice per lifetime at ages 35 years and 45 years, with uptake increasing from 45% (2023) to 90% (2045 onwards). The elimination thresholds examined were an average age-standardised cervical cancer incidence of four or fewer cases per 100 000 women-years and ten or fewer cases per 100 000 women-years, and an 85% or greater reduction in incidence. Sensitivity analyses were done, varying vaccination and screening strategies and assumptions. We summarised results using the median (range) of model predictions. FINDINGS: Girls-only HPV vaccination was predicted to reduce the median age-standardised cervical cancer incidence in LMICs from 19·8 (range 19·4-19·8) to 2·1 (2·0-2·6) cases per 100 000 women-years over the next century (89·4% [86·2-90·1] reduction), and to avert 61·0 million (60·5-63·0) cases during this period. Adding twice-lifetime screening reduced the incidence to 0·7 (0·6-1·6) cases per 100 000 women-years (96·7% [91·3-96·7] reduction) and averted an extra 12·1 million (9·5-13·7) cases. Girls-only vaccination was predicted to result in elimination in 60% (58-65) of LMICs based on the threshold of four or fewer cases per 100 000 women-years, in 99% (89-100) of LMICs based on the threshold of ten or fewer cases per 100 000 women-years, and in 87% (37-99) of LMICs based on the 85% or greater reduction threshold. When adding twice-lifetime screening, 100% (71-100) of LMICs reached elimination for all three thresholds. In regions in which all countries can achieve cervical cancer elimination with girls-only vaccination, elimination could occur between 2059 and 2102, depending on the threshold and region. Introducing twice-lifetime screening accelerated elimination by 11-31 years. Long-term vaccine protection was required for elimination. INTERPRETATION: Predictions were consistent across our three models and suggest that high HPV vaccination coverage of girls can lead to cervical cancer elimination in most LMICs by the end of the century. Screening with high uptake will expedite reductions and will be necessary to eliminate cervical cancer in countries with the highest burden. FUNDING: WHO, UNDP, UN Population Fund, UNICEF-WHO-World Bank Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Canadian Institute of Health Research, Fonds de recherche du Québec-Santé, Compute Canada, National Health and Medical Research Council Australia Centre for Research Excellence in Cervical Cancer Control.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Renda , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vacinação
3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Female sex workers (FSWs) play a key role in HIV transmission in West Africa, while they have limited access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). In line with UNAIDS recommendations extending ART to all HIV-infected individuals, we conducted this demonstration project on immediate treatment as prevention (TasP) among FSWs in Cotonou, Benin. We report data on treatment response and its relation to adherence, as well as on ART-resistant genotypes. METHODS: Complete follow-up varied between 12 and 24 months. At each three-monthly visit, a questionnaire was administered, clinical examinations were carried out and blood samples collected. Adherence to treatment was estimated by self-report. Viral RNA was genotyped at baseline and final visits for drug resistance. Generalized estimating equations for repeated measures with a log-binomial link were used to analyze time trends and the association between adherence and virological response to treatment. RESULTS: One-hundred-seven HIV-positive and ART-naive FSWs were enrolled; 59.8% remained in the cohort till study completion and 62.6% had a final visit. Viral load<1000 (below quantification limit [<50]) was attained in 73.1% (64.6%) of participants at month-6, 84.8% (71.2%) at month-12, and 80.9% (65.1%) at the final visit. The proportion of women with suppressed (below quantification limit) viral load increased with increasing self-reported adherence (p = 0.06 (0.003), tests for trend). The proportion of participants with CD4≤500 also decreased drastically throughout follow-up (p < .0001). Twelve participants exhibited ART-resistant genotypes at baseline, but only two at their final visit. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that TasP is widely accepted among FSWs in Cotonou and could be implemented with relative success. However, due to mobility in this population, follow-up was sub-optimal, suggesting that large geographical coverage of FSW-friendly clinics is needed for sustained treatment implementation. We also fell short of the UNAIDS objective of 90% viral suppression among treated patients, underlining the need for better adherence support programs.

4.
AIDS Care ; 32(2): 242-248, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129988

RESUMO

In Benin, consistent condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM)  is relatively low and providing them with Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could be of great relevance. We aimed to describe PrEP knowledge and intention to use it; identify key facilitators and barriers to PrEP; and describe the perceived impact of PrEP on unsafe sexual behavior. MSM, 18 years or older, HIV-negative or of unknown status, were enrolled in five cities of Benin. Intention to use PrEP was assessed through five focus groups (FG). Data were analyzed using manual thematic sorting. Thirty MSM (six per city) participated in the FG. Mean age (standard deviation) was 27.1 (5.0) years. All participants expressed the intention to use PrEP if made available. Facilitators of PrEP use were: availability of medication, safety, absence of constraints as well as freedom to have multiple sex partners and sex with HIV-positive friends. Barriers were: complex procedures for obtaining medication, size and taste of medication, cost of medication, poor PrEP awareness.. Eighteen men admitted that PrEP could lead to decrease in or even abandonment of condom use. In conclusion, MSM showed openness to use PrEP if available, although they recognized that it could lead to risk compensation.

5.
Women Health ; 60(1): 12-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035910

RESUMO

Trends in the proportion of women reporting ever having perpetrated physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and factors associated with such IPV in Haiti between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed. We used datasets from Haitian couples in the 2000, 2005, and 2012 Demographic and Health Surveys. Physical IPV was assessed by the Conflict Tactics Scale. Trends were tested with the Cochrane-Armitage test. Women's and spouses' factors associated with physical IPV perpetration by women were estimated using binomial multivariable regressions. In 2000, 2005 and 2012, 3.5%, 3.4% and 3.2% women, respectively, reported perpetrating physical IPV (p for trend = 0.732). Factors associated with physical IPV by women included exposure to any IPV [Adjusted prevalence ratio (APR): 9.37; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 5.05-17.38], living with a male partner who had a genital ulcer in the year preceding the survey [APR: 2.92; 95% CI: 1.11-7.65], living with a male partner who drank alcohol [APR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.42-4.69], and having witnessed her father beating her mother during childhood [APR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.14-3.81]. Exposure to IPV and history of genital ulcer in husbands/partners were the important factors associated with perpetration of physical IPV by women in Haiti over a 10-year period.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1634, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the 2015 report of the Joint United Nations Program on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), the prevalence rates of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) varied from 6 to 37% depending on the country, far exceeding the national prevalence rates. The present study on HIV infection among men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa was conducted to describe the different sampling methods used to identify this target population and compare the prevalence rates of HIV infection among MSM to that of men in the general population. METHODS: The selection of studies to be included was carried out in the principal electronic databases. The 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) directives were used throughout the entire process. Bias evaluation was performed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. For each country, HIV prevalence values in both groups were calculated. A prevalence ratio was also calculated to compare the prevalence rates of the two groups. RESULTS: Seventeen articles were selected. Most of the studies (82.35%) used the Respondent-Driven Sampling method. The average prevalence rate was 17.81% (range: 3.7-33.46) for MSM and 6.15% (range: 0.5-19.7) for men in the general population. Overall, the human HIV prevalence rate was 4.94 times higher among MSM than among men in the general population (95%CI: 2.91-8.37). The western and central regions of Africa, as well as low-prevalence countries (prevalence < 1%), had very high prevalence ratios: 14.47 (95% CI: 9.90-21.13) and 28.49 (95% CI: 11.47-72.71), respectively. CONCLUSION: MSM are at higher risk of HIV infection than men in the general population. The prevalence ratios are particularly elevated in West and Central Africa as well as in low-prevalence countries. Close monitoring of the situation, research and preventive measures are essential to control the epidemic amongst MSM.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220326, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Because self-report of sexual behaviours is prone to biases, biomarkers of recent semen exposure are increasingly used to assess unprotected sex. We aimed to present a novel nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting testis-specific protein Y-encoded (TSPY) genes and to compare its performance in detecting recent semen exposure with that of four other assays. METHODS: Forty-five vaginal samples were selected at baseline of a prospective observational demonstration study of early antiretroviral treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis among female sex workers in Benin. Semen exposure was assessed with: a rapid prostate-specific antigen (PSA) detection assay, a quantitative PCR targeting the sex-determining region (SRY) gene, a standard PCR targeting SRY, a standard PCR targeting TSPY, and a nested PCR targeting TSPY (n-TSPY). Because we had hypothesized that n-TSPY would be the most sensitive of the five assays while remaining specific, and as our results suggested that it was the case, sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each assay in comparison with n-TSPY. RESULTS: The n-TSPY could detect male DNA at concentration 16 and 64 times lower compared to s-TSPY and s-SRY, respectively. Among the 45 vaginal samples, prevalences of semen exposure according to the different assays varied from 22.2% (95%CI: 11.2%-37.1%) to 70.5% (95%CI: 54.8%-83.2%), with the highest prevalence measured with n-TSPY. The n-TSPY products were of expected size and we observed no false-positive in female DNA controls. The assay that offered the second best performance in detecting semen exposure was the PSA rapid test, with a sensitivity of 61.3% and a specificity of 100% compared to n-TSPY. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to n-TSPY, all other PCR assays had poor performance to detect semen exposure. The n-TSPY is an accessible assay that may have great utility in assessing semen exposure in studies where many factors are expected to accelerate biomarkers' clearance.

8.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82(3): 257-264, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about risk compensation among female sex workers (FSW) on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and self-report of sexual behaviors is subject to bias. SETTING: Prospective observational PrEP demonstration study conducted among FSW in Cotonou, Benin. METHODS: Over a period of 24 months, we assessed and compared trends in unprotected sex as measured by self-report (last 2 or 14 days), by detection of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and by vaginal detection of prostate-specific antigen and Y-chromosomal DNA, 2 biomarkers of semen exposure in the last 2 or 14 days, respectively. Trends were assessed and compared using a log-binomial regression that was simultaneously fit for all unprotected sex measures. RESULTS: Of 255 participants, 120 (47.1%) completed their follow-up. Prevalence of STI decreased from 15.8% (95% confidence interval: 11.8% to 21.0%) at baseline to 2.1% (95% confidence interval: 0.4% to 10.2%) at 24 months of follow-up (P-trend = 0.04). However, we observed no trend in self-report of unprotected sex in the last 2 (P = 0.42) or 14 days (P = 0.49), nor in prostate-specific antigen (P = 0.53) or Y chromosomal DNA (P = 0.25) over the same period. We observed no statistically significant difference between trends in self-report of unprotected sex and trends in biomarkers of semen exposure in the last 2 days (P = 0.14) or in the last 14 days (P = 0.29). CONCLUSIONS: We observed no evidence of risk compensation, and a decrease in STI among FSW on PrEP. PrEP intervention may be an opportunity to control STI among FSW. Future studies should assess risk compensation with biomarkers of semen exposure when possible.

9.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(6): e1007840, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173604

RESUMO

BLyS/BAFF is recognized for its role in B-cell ontogenesis, as well as cell fate decision towards the first-line/innate marginal zone (MZ) B-cell pool. Excess BLyS/BAFF is associated with hyperglobulinemia and increased frequencies of activated precursor-like MZ B-cells. Herein, we show that HIV highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) commercial sex workers (CSWs) had lower soluble BLyS/BAFF levels and relative frequencies of BLyS/BAFF expressing cells in their genital mucosa when compared to those from HIV-infected CSWs and HIV-uninfected non-CSWs. Furthermore, we identified genital innate and/or marginal zone (MZ)-like CD1c+ B-cells that naturally bind to fully glycosylated gp120, which frequencies were lower in HESNs when compared to HIV-infected CSWs and HIV-uninfected non-CSWs. Although genital levels of total IgA were similar between groups, HESNs had lower levels of total IgG1 and IgG3. Interestingly, HIV-gp41 reactive IgG1 were found in some HESNs. Low genital levels of BLyS/BAFF observed in HESNs may allow for controlled first-line responses, contributing to natural immunity to HIV.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD1/imunologia , Fator Ativador de Células B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Genitália Feminina/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Soronegatividade para HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Profissionais do Sexo , Adulto , Linfócitos B/patologia , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
AIDS Care ; 31(12): 1471-1475, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894006

RESUMO

The objective of this paper is to expose those socio-structural contexts revealing the social injustice and human rights violations that sub-Saharan women face every day when forced into sex work by unemployment or sickness. Results of a qualitative study highlighting some key structural determinants of sex work and HIV infection among FSWs will be presented and examined through the lens of the WHO conceptual framework for action on the social determinants of health. The results showed that most FSWs had lacked the necessary financial support at some point in their lives. Also, both the socioeconomic and political context failed to provide proper support to prevent involvement in sex work and the consequent risks of HIV. The cultural and societal values placed on the health and well-being of FSWs in Benin appear to depend on the degree to which sexual violence and adultery are perceived as a collective social concern. This portrait of FSWs calls for both long-term interventions through a structural determinant approach to HIV prevention, targeting all the women who could face such a financial situation well before their entry into sex work, while maintaining short and medium-term interventions on the intermediary determinants.

11.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(2): ofz010, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746385

RESUMO

Background: Self-reported unprotected sex validity is questionable and is thought to decline with longer recall periods. We used biomarkers of semen to validate self-reported unprotected sex and to compare underreporting of unprotected sex between 2 recall periods among female sex workers (FSW). Methods: At baseline of an early antiretroviral therapy and pre-exposure prophylaxis demonstration study conducted among FSW in Cotonou, Benin, unprotected sex was assessed with retrospective questionnaires, and with vaginal detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Y-chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (Yc-DNA). Underreporting in the last 2 or 14 days was defined as having reported no unprotected sex in the recall period while testing positive for PSA or Yc-DNA, respectively. Log-binomial regression was used to compare underreporting over the 2 recall periods. Results: Unprotected sex prevalence among 334 participants was 25.8% (50.3%) according to self-report in the last 2 (or 14) days, 32.0% according to PSA, and 44.3% according to Yc-DNA. The proportion of participants underreporting unprotected sex was similar when considering the last 2 (18.9%) or 14 days (21.0%; proportion ratio = 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-1.13). Among the 107 participants who tested positive for PSA, 19 (17.8%) tested negative for Yc-DNA. Conclusions: Underreporting of unprotected sex was high among FSW but did not seem to be influenced by the recall period length. Reasons for discrepancies between PSA and Yc-DNA detection, where women tested positive for PSA but negative for Yc-DNA, should be further investigated.

12.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 80(5): 503-512, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite Côte d'Ivoire epidemic being labeled as "generalized," key populations (KPs) are important to overall transmission. Using a dynamic model of HIV transmission, we previously estimated the impact of several treatment-as-prevention strategies that reached-or missed-the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets in different populations groups, including KP and clients of female sex workers (CFSWs). To inform program planning and resources allocation, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of these scenarios. METHODS: Costing was performed from the provider's perspective. Unit costs were obtained from the Ivorian Programme national de lutte contre le Sida (USD 2015) and discounted at 3%. Net incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) per adult HIV infection prevented and per disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) averted were estimated over 2015-2030. RESULTS: The 3 most cost-effective and affordable scenarios were the ones that projected current programmatic trends [ICER = $210; 90% uncertainty interval (90% UI): $150-$300], attaining the 90-90-90 objectives among KP and CFSW (ICER = $220; 90% UI: $80-$510), and among KP only (ICER = $290; 90% UI: $90-$660). The least cost-effective scenario was the one that reached the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target accompanied by a 25% point drop in condom use in KP (ICER = $710; 90% UI: $450-$1270). In comparison, the UNAIDS scenario had a net ICER of $570 (90% UI: $390-$900) per DALY averted. CONCLUSIONS: According to commonly used thresholds, accelerating the HIV response can be considered very cost-effective for all scenarios. However, when balancing epidemiological impact, cost-effectiveness, and affordability, scenarios that sustain both high condom use and rates of viral suppression among KP and CFSW seem most promising in Côte d'Ivoire.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Costa do Marfim , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Alocação de Recursos/economia , Alocação de Recursos/métodos , Profissionais do Sexo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 18(12): 1397-1409, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) experience a high prevalence of incarceration and might be at high risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection during or after incarceration. We aimed to assess whether incarceration history elevates HIV or HCV acquisition risk among PWID. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO databases for studies in any language published from Jan 1, 2000 until June 13, 2017 assessing HIV or HCV incidence among PWID. We included studies that measured HIV or HCV incidence among community-recruited PWID. We included only studies reporting original results and excluded studies that evaluated incident infections by self-report. We contacted authors of cohort studies that met the inclusion or exclusion criteria, but that did not report on the outcomes of interest, to request data. We extracted and pooled data from the included studies using random-effects meta-analyses to quantify the associations between recent (past 3, 6, or 12 months or since last follow-up) or past incarceration and HIV or HCV acquisition (primary infection or reinfection) risk among PWID. We assessed the risk of bias of included studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Between-study heterogeneity was evaluated using the I2 statistic and the P-value for heterogeneity. FINDINGS: We included published results from 20 studies and unpublished results from 21 studies. These studies originated from Australasia, western and eastern Europe, North and Latin America, and east and southeast Asia. Recent incarceration was associated with an 81% (relative risk [RR] 1·81, 95% CI 1·40-2·34) increase in HIV acquisition risk, with moderate heterogeneity between studies (I2=63·5%; p=0·001), and a 62% (RR 1·62, 95% CI 1·28-2·05) increase in HCV acquisition risk, also with moderate heterogeneity between studies (I2=57·3%; p=0·002). Past incarceration was associated with a 25% increase in HIV (RR 1·25, 95% CI 0·94-1·65) and a 21% increase in HCV (1·21, 1·02-1·43) acquisition risk. INTERPRETATION: Incarceration is associated with substantial short-term increases in HIV and HCV acquisition risk among PWID and could be a significant driver of HCV and HIV transmission among PWID. These findings support the need for developing novel interventions to minimise the risk of HCV and HIV acquisition, including addressing structural risks associated with drug laws and excessive incarceration of PWID. FUNDING: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Américas/epidemiologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Australásia/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Glob Health Promot ; 25(3): 81-92, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246630

RESUMO

Cet article présente le processus suivi pour développer et implanter une intervention ciblée encourageant les femmes travailleuses du sexe (TS) à se faire dépister régulièrement pour le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) dans les services de santé adaptés au Bénin. Le modèle de planification d' intervention mapping (IM) de Bartholomew et al. (2006), structuré en six étapes, a servi de référence pour guider le développement et l'implantation de l'intervention. Une analyse des besoins a été réalisée à partir d'une revue de littérature et d'une étude basée sur la théorie du comportement planifié, d'Ajzen (1991). Cette analyse a permis d'identifier les déterminants associés au comportement sur lesquels ont porté les actions de changement. Les méthodes et stratégies d'intervention ont été basées sur des théories et adaptées aux besoins des femmes TS. Les résultats consistent en une intervention de neuf mois visant à couvrir plus de 1200 femmes TS, en impliquant divers acteurs (intervenants communautaires, agents de santé et pairs éducatrices). La perception de contrôle comportemental, la norme descriptive, les connaissances, l'attitude et l'intention d'adopter le dépistage régulier du VIH constituent les cibles d'action. L'intervention comporte des activités visant des changements individuels et environnementaux à travers diverses méthodes comme le counseling motivationnel, l'éducation par les pairs, le modeling, la communication persuasive, le renforcement de capacités et la réorganisation des services cliniques. L'IM a permis de structurer et d'implanter avec transparence une intervention ciblée visant l'adoption d'un comportement favorable à la santé chez les femmes TS. Les enjeux rencontrés et les leçons tirées de l'application de l'IM en contexte africain francophone peuvent inspirer les planificateurs et professionnels pour améliorer leurs interventions en promotion de la santé.

15.
Can J Public Health ; 109(3): 353-361, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, and related risky behaviours among inmates in Quebec's provincial prisons between 2003 and 2014-2015. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were anonymously collected from May 2014 to March 2015 for men (n = 1315) and women (n = 250) and combined with data collected in 2003 to evaluate trends in the last decade. Participants completed a questionnaire and provided saliva samples. The data from the 2003 and 2014-2015 surveys were merged for statistical analysis. RESULTS: HIV prevalence was stable between 2003 and 2014-2015 for men (2.4% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.4), whereas it decreased for women (8.8% vs. 0.8%, p < 0.001). HCV prevalence decreased between 2003 and 2014-2015 for both men (16.6% vs. 11.9%, p < 0.001) and women (29.2% vs. 19.2%, p = 0.02). HIV and HCV prevalence were higher among people who inject drugs (PWID), for both sexes and both studies. PWID-specific prevalence did not change between 2003 and 2014-2015, except for a decrease in HIV prevalence in PWID women. However, the proportion of prisoners reporting a history of injection drug use outside prison was lower in 2014-2015 than in 2003 for men (19.8% vs. 27.7%, p < 0.0001) and women (28.6% vs. 42.6%, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The lower proportion of PWID inmates in 2014-2015 compared to 2003 explained in large part the decrease in HIV and HCV prevalence. Despite the decrease in prevalence, HIV and HCV infections among incarcerated individuals still represent a major public health problem due to the sizable increase of individuals in Quebec's correctional system over the same period.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Saliva/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197251, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746535

RESUMO

Female sex workers (FSWs) continue to carry a heavy burden of sexually transmitted infections (STI). For prevention purposes, there is a need to identify most-at-risk subgroups among them. The objective of this longitudinal cohort study conducted at Dispensaire IST, Cotonou, Benin, was to assess Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) / Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) incidence and determinants; and HIV incidence among FSWs in presence of STI/HIV risk reduction activities. Overall, 319 adult FSWs were followed quarterly from September 2008 to March 2012. NG/CT were detected from endocervical swabs by Amplified DNA Assays employing Strand displacement amplification technology. HIV testing was done on capillary blood using two consecutive rapid diagnostic tests. Anderson-Gill proportional hazard models (HR) were used to determine factors independently associated with NG/CT incidence. The majority of FSWs were HIV-negative (188, 58.9%). There were 6 HIV seroconversions among these 188 HIV-negative women. HIV incidence (95% Confidence interval, CI) was 1.41 (0.28-2.54) seroconversions per 100 person-years at risk (PYAR): 6 events / 425.1 PYAR. Sixty-two out of 319 women experienced 83 new episodes of NG/CT for an overall incidence rate (95% CI) of 10.8 (8.17-13.88) events / 100 PYAR. From month-24 onwards, HIV-positive women (treated: HR (95%CI): 4.2 (1.60-10.77); untreated: HR (95%CI): 4.2 (1.59-11.49) were more likely to acquire NG/CT compared to HIV-negative FSWs. Longer duration in sex work (>2 years: HR; 95%CI: 0.4 (0.22-0.72)) was protective against NG/CT. Refusal by clients (55.8%) was the main reason for non-condom use. Enrolling women from one clinic (Dispensaire IST) may have impaired generalizability of the findings. New NG/CT/HIV infections were observed among FSWs notwithstanding ongoing prevention interventions. To eliminate HIV transmission among FSWs, STI/HIV control programs need to promote women's empowerment and address vulnerability to infection of HIV-positive FSWs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Trabalho Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Benin/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Profissionais do Sexo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Ann Epidemiol ; 28(4): 231-235, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576049

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and identify related risk factors among inmates in Quebec provincial prisons. METHODS: Anonymous cross-sectional data were collected between May 2014 and March 2015 for 1315 men and 250 women who completed a questionnaire and provided oral fluid samples. RESULTS: The global prevalence of HCV infection was 11.9% in male participants and 19.2% in female participants (P = .003). Among people who inject drugs (PWID), the prevalence was much higher compared to that in persons who does not: 51.0% versus 2.4% in men (P < .001) and 61.4% versus 2.8% in women (P < .001). In the multivariable analysis, lifetime history of injection drug use was the most important risk factor for HCV infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 14.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 9.5-21.4), with needle sharing significantly associated with HCV among PWID (AOR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7). Tattooing in prison was frequent, especially among men (37.2%), and independently associated with HCV infection among non-PWID (AOR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.4-5.6). CONCLUSION: Inmates are at high risk for HCV infection especially because of a high proportion of active or past PWID among them. In addition, tattooing while in prison seems to contribute to HCV infection among non-PWID.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/transmissão , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões , Assunção de Riscos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Tatuagem/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Tatuagem/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
BMJ Open ; 8(1): e019388, 2018 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29391367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine the correlates of HIV positivity among participants who injected drugs and engaged in sex work (PWID-SWs) in the SurvUDI network between 2004 and 2016, after stratification by sex, and (2) to compare these correlates with those of sexually active participants who did not engage in sex work (PWID non-SWs). DESIGN AND SETTING: This biobehavioural survey is an open cohort of services where participants who had injected in the past 6 months were recruited mainly through harm reduction programmes in Eastern Central Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Data from 5476 participants (9223 visits in total; 785 not included in multivariate analyses due to missing values) were included. METHODS: Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and provided saliva samples for anti-HIV antibody testing. Generalised estimating equations taking into account multiple participations were used. RESULTS: Baseline HIV prevalence was higher among SWs compared with non-SWs (women: 13.0% vs 7.7%; P<0.001, and men: 17.4% vs 10.8%; P<0.001). PWID-SWs were particularly susceptible to HIV infection as a result of higher levels of vulnerability factors and injection risk behaviours. They also presented different risk-taking patterns than their non-SWs counterparts, as shown by differences in correlates of HIV positivity. Additionally, the importance of sex work for HIV infection varies according to gender, as suggested by a large proportion of injection risk behaviours associated with HIV among women and, conversely, a stronger association between sexual behaviours and HIV positivity observed among men. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that sex work has an impact on the risk of HIV acquisition and that risk behaviours vary according to gender. Public health practitioners should take those specificities into account when designing HIV prevention interventions aimed at PWIDs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Trabalho Sexual , Profissionais do Sexo , Comportamento Sexual , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(2): 287-297, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28633387

RESUMO

Current evidence suggests that anal intercourse (AI) during sex work is common in sub-Saharan Africa, but there have been few studies in which the contribution of heterosexual AI to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics has been investigated. Using a respondent-driven sampling survey of female sex workers (FSWs; n = 466) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, in 2014, we estimated AI prevalence and frequency. Poisson regressions were used to identify AI determinants. Approximately 20% of FSWs engaged in AI during a normal week (95% confidence interval: 15, 26). Women who performed AI were generally younger, had been selling sex for longer, were born in Côte d'Ivoire, and reported higher sex-work income, more frequent sex in public places, and violence from clients than women not reporting AI. Condom use was lower, condom breakage/slippage more frequent, and use of water-based lubricants was less frequently reported for AI than for vaginal intercourse. Using a dynamic transmission model, we estimated that 22% (95% credible interval: 11, 37% of new HIV infections could have been averted among FSWs during 2000-2015 if AI had been substituted for vaginal intercourse. Despite representing a small fraction of all sex acts, AI is an underestimated source of HIV transmission. Increasing availability and uptake of condoms, lubricants, and pre-exposure prophylaxis for women engaging in AI could help mitigate HIV risk.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
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