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Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(3): 1253-1262, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770642


Since November 2018, several countries in West and Central Africa have reported mortalities in donkeys and horses. Specifically, more than 66,000 horses and donkeys have succumbed to disease in Burkina Faso, Chad, Cameroon, The Gambia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal. Strangles caused by Streptococcus equi subsp equi, African Horse Sickness (AHS) virus, and Equine influenza virus (EIV) were all suspected as potential causative agents. This study reports the identification of EIV in field samples collected in Niger and Senegal. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes revealed that the identified viruses belonged to clade 1 of the Florida sublineage and were very similar to viruses identified in Nigeria in 2019. Interestingly, they were also more similar to EIVs from recent outbreaks in South America than to those in Europe and the USA. This is one of the first reports providing detailed description and characterization of EIVs in West and Central Africa region.

Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Genes Virais , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/transmissão , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/classificação , Neuraminidase/genética , Níger/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Senegal/epidemiologia
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5310, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757953


The role of Africa in the dynamics of the global spread of a zoonotic and economically-important virus, such as the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5Nx of the Gs/GD lineage, remains unexplored. Here we characterise the spatiotemporal patterns of virus diffusion during three HPAI H5Nx intercontinental epidemic waves and demonstrate that Africa mainly acted as an ecological sink of the HPAI H5Nx viruses. A joint analysis of host dynamics and continuous spatial diffusion indicates that poultry trade as well as wild bird migrations have contributed to the virus spreading into Africa, with West Africa acting as a crucial hotspot for virus introduction and dissemination into the continent. We demonstrate varying paths of avian influenza incursions into Africa as well as virus spread within Africa over time, which reveal that virus expansion is a complex phenomenon, shaped by an intricate interplay between avian host ecology, virus characteristics and environmental variables.

Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , África , África Ocidental , Animais , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/economia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/economia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/economia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia