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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(2): 131, 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260924

RESUMO

The current trial was carried out to evaluate the impacts of adding licury cake (Syagrus coronata) in high-concentrate diets for goat kids feedlot-finished on growth performance and metabolic parameters. Forty crossbred non-castrated Boer goat kids with approximately four months and similar initial live weights (20.15 ± 2.79 kg). The experimental design used in this study was a completely randomized, with four diets (0, 10, 20, and 30% of licury cake inclusion in a dry matter basis (DM)). Licury cake inclusion decreased nutrient intake and digestibility (P < 0.05). Times spent in feeding (P < 0.001) and rumination (P = 0.003) activities, number of events in feeding (P < 0.001) and idling (P = 0.015) increased, whereas a linear reduction occurred in feeding and rumination efficiencies of DM and neutral detergent fiber (P < 0.001). Nitrogen (N) intake, retained N (P < 0.001), triglycerides concentrations (P = 0.002), aspartate-aminotransferase, alanine-aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase decreased with the licury cake inclusion (P < 0.05). Final body weight (P = 0.008), average daily gain (P = 0.001), and total weight gain (P = 0.001) decreased linearly when licury cake was included in diets. High-concentrate diets containing increasing levels of licury cake decrease intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients and performance when supplied for goat kids feedlot-finished. Therefore, the inclusion of the studied levels of licury cake in goat kids fed high-concentrate diets is not recommended for feedlot-finished systems.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cabras , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Cabras/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 35, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988685

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing different levels of spineless-cactus meal instead of ground corn on supplements for crossbred steers grazing in Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandú pastures. Forty crossbred steers with an average body weight (BW) of 261 ± 7.46 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. In supplements, the ground corn grain was substituted with 0%, 30%, 60%, and 90% spineless-cactus meal. The substitution of spineless-cactus meal instead ground corn promoted a linear decrease in the ether extract (EE; P = 0.03) and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC; P < 0.01) intakes. The apparent digestibility of EE was influenced (P < 0.05) showing a linear decrease. The apparent digestibility of NFC had a quadratic effect (P = 0.03). For the neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, the apparent digestibility increased linearly (P = 0.01). The average daily gain showed a quadratic effect (P < 0.01), with a maximum response estimated at 44.94% (1055.52 g/day) substitution with spineless-cactus meal for ground corn. The cost per animal per period and the cost per hectare decreased linearly (P < 0.01). The revenue, net revenue, exchange rate, and monthly revenue of the activity showed quadratic responses to the spineless-cactus meal supplements (P < 0.01), with maximum effects at 44.99%, 47.46%, 61.25%, and 57.35%, respectively. The substitution with up to 44.94% of spineless-cactus meal for ground corn provided daily gains, increased the feed conversion, and was favorable as a cost to the production system. Moreover, the profitability increased with maximum animal performance and improved use of fiber from pastures.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Zea mays , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 36, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988774

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the effects of selenium (Se) and vitamin E (vitE) supplementation on blood cell counts and blood metabolite concentrations in goats and their kids. Fifteen Saanen goats (average age 6 years of age; average initial body weight of 70 ± 10 kg) and 21 ½ Saanen × ½ Pardo Alpine crossbred goat kids (average body weight of 3.70 ± 0.64 kg) were used. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with five replicates per diet for mother goats and seven for goat kids and randomly assigned into three groups in the following diets: CON, control basal diet; Se, inclusion of 3.2 mg of Se/kg DM; SevitE, inclusion of 3.2 mg Se/kg DM and 1145 IU/day vitE/kg DM. Effects of time were observed on red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in goats and goat kids. Effects of time were observed on differential counts of leucocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in goat kids. Interaction was observed for high-density lipoprotein and total protein in goats and for triglycerides, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in goat kids. Effects of time were observed on low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, glucose, lactate, BHBA, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), creatinine, aspartate-aminotransferase, and GGT in goats and all blood metabolites in goat kids. Selenium, vitE, or association in the evaluated levels are not sufficient to change blood cell counts when supplied in diets for goats or goat kids. However, the effect of time or interaction between time and diets change the blood metabolite concentrations in the animals.


Assuntos
Cabras , Selênio , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Período Periparto , Selênio/farmacologia , Vitamina E
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 17, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910258

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestibility, feeding behavior, performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of feedlot Santa Inês (locally adapted breed) and Dorper (transboundary breed) lambs. Twenty non-castrated lambs were used (10 from the Santa Inês genetic group and 10 Dorper), with approximately 3 months of age and an initial body weight of 22.95 ± 2.1 kg (mean ± standard deviation), distributed in a completely randomized design. Nutrient intake and digestibility, feeding behavior, and liver metabolism enzymes were similar (P > 0.05) between genetic groups. Dry matter (DM) feeding and ruminating efficiency were higher (P < 0.05) in the Santa Inês genetic group. There was also no difference (P > 0.05) in the subjective evaluation and morphometric measurements. Genetic groups showed differences and trend to differences (P < 0.05) in performance and commercial cuts. The physicochemical characteristics, centesimal composition, and sensory attributes of the Longissimus lumborum muscle did not differ between the genetic groups (P > 0.05). The Santa Inês genetic group showed higher feeding efficiency and productive parameters when compared to Dorper lambs. Therefore, Santa Inês lambs have greater potential for meat production than Dorper lambs, when kept in the same breeding system as the feedlot.


Assuntos
Carne , Ovinos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Ovinos/genética
5.
Arch Anim Breed ; 64(2): 395-403, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584941

RESUMO

The cottonseed cake has the necessary nutritional characteristics to be able to substitute the traditional ingredients (such as soybean meal) and reduce the costs of the diet. However, it is necessary to determine the best level of inclusion of cottonseed cake in the diets of fattening goats to improve meat production and quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate carcass and meat traits of feedlot goats fed diets containing cottonseed cake replacing soybean meal (33 %, 66 % and 100 %). Thirty-two uncastrated Boer crossbred goats (4 months old, 16  ±  2 kg initial body weight) were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Replacing soybean meal with cottonseed did not compromise ( P > 0.05 ) slaughter weight, carcass traits (dressing percentage, loin-eye area and back-fat thickness), primal cuts or carcass morphometric measurements; moisture, protein, or total lipid contents of meat; or the physicochemical traits of color ( L * , a * and b * coordinates), pH, shear force, and cooking loss. However, there was a reduction ( P = 0.001 ) in the mineral matter content (from 1.08 % to 0.97 %) and an increase ( P = 0.006 ) in the cholesterol content (from 50.85 to 70.55 mg/100 g of meat) of the meat as the dietary levels of cottonseed cake were increased. Based on the results of production and meat quality, we recommend using cottonseed cake as an alternative protein source to replace up to 100 % of soybean meal in feedlot goat diets.

6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 454, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536113

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of including palm kernel cake (PKC) in high-concentrate diets for feedlot goat kids on nutrient intake, digestibility, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, and performance. Thirty-two castrated crossbred Boer × mixed breed goat kids with an average age of 4 months and an initial body weight of 19.65 ± 3.00 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The diets included one of four levels (0, 12, 24, and 36%) of PKC on a total dry matter basis. The PKC inclusion in the diets promoted quadratic effects in the nutrient intakes (P ≤ 0.05). The digestibility of ether extract increased (P = 0.010), whereas the digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrates decreased (P = 0.017) with the inclusion of PKC. Palm kernel cake inclusion promoted a quadratic effect on the time spent per episode feeding and decreased the times spent idling and ruminated bolus per day (P ≤ 0.05). The ingested and retained nitrogen decreased with the inclusion of PKC (P ≤ 0.05). The inclusion of PKC in the diets had quadratic effects in the cholesterol concentrations, albumin (A), globulin (G), A:G ratio, and gamma-glutamyltransferase enzyme activity (P ≤ 0.05). The PKC inclusion promoted a quadratic increase in total weight gain (P = 0.026), with the highest value achieved at the inclusion level of 11.68%. The inclusion of up to 12% PKC in high-concentrate diets increases the intake and growth performance without compromising the digestibility of nutrients and feed efficiency.


Assuntos
Digestão , Cabras , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Nitrogênio
7.
Arch Anim Breed ; 64(2): 355-363, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514082

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of cottonseed processing form and the inclusion of calcium lignosulfonate in high-concentrate diets for feedlot cull ewes on carcass traits and non-carcass components. Thirty Santa Inês cull ewes with an average body weight of 44.2  ±  5.2 kg and an average age of 50 months were distributed into collective stalls in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of diets including whole cottonseed, crushed cottonseed, whole cottonseed treated with lignosulfonate (100 g/kg, as fed), crushed cottonseed treated with lignosulfonate (100 g/kg, as fed), and a control diet without cottonseed. The experimental diets did not influence ( P > 0.05 ) average daily weight gain (0.195 kg/day), slaughter weight (51.74 kg), or in vivo biometric and on-carcass measurements. There was no difference ( P > 0.05 ) in loin-eye area or subcutaneous fat thickness as evaluated in vivo by ultrasound. There was no diet effect on hot carcass weight and yield (24.8 kg and 47.8 %), cold carcass weight and yield (24.2 kg and 46.8 %), or chilling loss (2.1 %). Non-carcass components did not differ in response to the diets ( P > 0.05 ). Dietary inclusion of calcium lignosulfonate increases the proportions of udder and liver relative to empty body weight ( P < 0.05 ). Neither the cottonseed processing method nor the inclusion of calcium lignosulfonate in high-concentrate diets for cull ewes affects their performance, biometric or morphometric measurements, non-carcass components, or qualitative traits of their carcass.

8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 201, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687567

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different traditional or alternative energy and protein sources, associated or not, on feeding behavior, ruminal kinetics, and post-ruminal flow of nutrients. Besides, it was assessed diets' effects on different sites (reticulum and omasum) of buffaloes. Four ruminally cannulated male Murrah buffaloes (average initial weight of 637 ± 66.37 kg) were randomly distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were arranged as 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The first factor evaluated was the inclusion of energy sources (ground corn and crude glycerin), and the second factor was the inclusion of protein sources (soybean meal and cottonseed cake). Buffaloes fed cottonseed cake had a higher content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and potentially digestible detergent fiber (pdNDF) in the rumen environment than buffaloes fed soybean meal. There was a sampling site effect on rumen digestion rates of pdNDF, passage rates of indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF), and pdNDF, and flow of iNDF. In this study, omasal collections were more representative. Total replacement of ground corn by crude glycerin promoted less NDF ruminal digestibility, and care should be taken to include this energy source. The cottonseed cake does not cause a difference in rumen dynamics and can totally replace soybean meal in feedlot buffaloes' diet.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Búfalos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Omaso/química , Rúmen/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Digestão , Glicerol , Gossypium , Masculino , Omaso/efeitos dos fármacos , Omaso/metabolismo , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Soja , Zea mays
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 216, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743087

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) sources on the nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and feeding behavior in diets for buffaloes. Four castrated Murrah buffaloes with approximately 24 months of age and an initial average body weight of 351 ± 15 kg were randomly assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment, containing the following diets: (1) control (CON): control diet based on soybean meal and ground corn, (2) soybean oil (SO): dietary inclusion of 2.20% (DM basis), (3) whole raw soybean (WRS): dietary inclusion of 16.0%, and (4) calcium salts of FA (CSFA): dietary inclusion of 2.60%. There was an effect of diets in ether extract intake among buffaloes fed UFA and CON diets, and among buffaloes fed CSFA and WRS diets (P < 0.05). Diets containing UFA sources provided higher EE digestibility (P < 0.05). Buffaloes fed WRS had higher rumen pH values than animals fed the CSFA diet (P < 0.05). Supplementation of UFA sources decreased the molar concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (P < 0.05). Diets influenced the times spent in chewing, idling, and the rumination efficiencies of DM and NDF (P < 0.05). The supplementation with WRS, SO, and CSFA does not negatively affect intake, digestion, ruminal metabolism, and feeding behavior. The WRS as a fat supplement source decreases dietary costs by replacing ground corn and soybean meal simultaneously compared to other fat sources used. Nevertheless, whole and raw soybean in buffaloes' diet can reduce chewing and rumination activity.


Assuntos
Óleo de Soja , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Búfalos , Cálcio , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos , Comportamento Alimentar , Rúmen , Sais , Soja
10.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; 31(11): 1756-1765, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28728402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of body condition score (BCS) at calving on the metabolic status of female Murrah buffaloes in the transition period. METHODS: Thirty-seven pregnant buffaloes (multiparous) were selected and monitored during the transition period based on their body condition score and on the estimated calving date. Two groups were formed: i) buffaloes with a BCS>3.5 (n = 17); this group was classified and named 'high BCS at calving' (HBCS); and ii) buffaloes with a BCS≤3.5 (n = 20); this group was classified and named 'low BCS at calving' (LBCS). All animals were monitored during the last 30 days of pregnancy and the first 70 days post-calving and kept in the same environment and under the same feeding and management conditions. Mean values for BCS at calving were 2.98±0.9 (mean±standard error of the mean [SEM]) and 4.21±0.9 (mean±SEM) for the HBCS and LBCS groups, respectively. RESULTS: The HBCS group showed higher milk fat content (p = 0.007) and milk fat yield (p = 0.027) and a higher concentration of milk urea nitrogen (p = 0.001) than LBCS buffaloes, which in turn had a lower urine pH value (p = 0.033) than HBCS buffaloes in the pre-calving period (7.86 for HBCS vs 7.76 for LBCS). The HBCS animals had a higher concentration of erythrocytes (p = 0.001) and hematocrit (p = 0.012) post-calving and a higher hemoglobin concentration (p = 0.004) pre-calving. CONCLUSION: Buffaloes during the transition period exhibited some variations in the oxidative stress related to their metabolic status. After calving, buffaloes with a high BCS at calving and greater lipid mobilization have a more marked alteration in oxidative status, but improved production performance.

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