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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 296: 81-86, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466884

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) may be at higher risk for cancer, possibly due to the presence of coexisting risk factors. In this study, we investigate the magnitude and predictors of this potential risk within a population-based study. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study cohort included 332,555 AF patients aged ≥20 years without past history of cancer. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was used as a measure of relative risk, comparing observed cancer incidence among patients with AF with that expected based on cancer incidence in the Taiwanese population. During the observation period, 22,911 incident cancers occurred with an incidence of 1.65%/year. Compared with the general population, AF patients had a significantly higher cancer risk with a SIR of 1.37 (95%CI = 1.36-1.39). Patients with new-onset AF had an elevated cancer risk which was highest within 1 year (SIR = 2.30; 95%CI, 2.25-2.36) and persisted beyond 10 years after AF was diagnosed (SIR = 1.18; 95%CI, 1.11-1.25). Age ≥ 65 years, male gender, hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and liver cirrhosis were significantly associated with development of cancers among AF patients. The hazard ratio of cancers increased from 1.40 (95%CI = 1.28-1.53) for patients having 1 risk factor to 5.14 (95%CI = 4.03-6.06) for patients with 6 risk factors, in comparison to those without any risk factors. CONCLUSION: In the nationwide cohort study, we show that AF patients had a higher risk of cancer. Age, male gender, hypertension, diabetes, COPD and liver cirrhosis are important risk factors of cancer among AF patients. Prompt and detailed examinations may be considered for incident AF patients with multiple risk factors to early detect the occult malignancy.

2.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(7): e007474, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248281
3.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216010

RESUMO

AIMS: Growing data suggest that antibiotic exposure is associated with a long-lasting alteration in gut microbiota, and may be related to subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated associations of life-stage and duration of antibiotic exposure during adulthood with subsequent CVD events. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study included 36 429 women initially free of CVD and cancer from the Nurses' Health Study. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD (a composite endpoint of coronary heart disease or stroke) according to duration of antibiotic use in young (age 20-39), middle (age 40-59), and late (age 60 and older) adulthood. During an average of 7.6 years of follow-up, 1056 participants developed CVD. Women with long-term use of antibiotics (for ≥2 months) in late adulthood had a significantly increased risk of CVD (HR 1.32, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.70) after adjustment for covariates (such as demographic factors, diet and lifestyle, reasons for antibiotic use, overweight or obesity, disease status, and other medication use), as compared to women who did not use antibiotics in this life-stage. Longer duration of antibiotic use in middle adulthood was also related to higher risk of CVD (P trend = 0.003) after controlling for these covariates. There was no significant relationship between the use in young adulthood and the risk of CVD. CONCLUSION: In this study which examined the antibiotic use in different life-stages, longer duration of exposure to antibiotics in the middle and older adulthood was related to an increased risk of future CVD events among elderly women at usual risk.

6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(2): 144-152, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673084

RESUMO

Importance: Increased free thyroxine (FT4) and decreased thyrotropin are associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in observational studies, but direct involvement is unclear. Objective: To evaluate the potential direct involvement of thyroid traits on AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: Study-level mendelian randomization (MR) included 11 studies, and summary-level MR included 55 114 AF cases and 482 295 referents, all of European ancestry. Exposures: Genomewide significant variants were used as instruments for standardized FT4 and thyrotropin levels within the reference range, standardized triiodothyronine (FT3):FT4 ratio, hypothyroidism, standardized thyroid peroxidase antibody levels, and hyperthyroidism. Mendelian randomization used genetic risk scores in study-level analysis or individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 2-sample MR for the summary-level data. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalent and incident AF. Results: The study-level analysis included 7679 individuals with AF and 49 233 referents (mean age [standard error], 62 [3] years; 15 859 men [29.7%]). In study-level random-effects meta-analysis, the pooled hazard ratio of FT4 levels (nanograms per deciliter) for incident AF was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.09-2.20; P = .02; I2 = 76%) and the pooled odds ratio (OR) for prevalent AF was 2.80 (95% CI, 1.41-5.54; P = .003; I2 = 64%) in multivariable-adjusted analyses. The FT4 genetic risk score was associated with an increase in FT4 by 0.082 SD (standard error, 0.007; P < .001) but not with incident AF (risk ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.62-1.14; P = .27) or prevalent AF (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.64-2.73; P = .46). Similarly, in summary-level inverse-variance weighted random-effects MR, gene-based FT4 within the reference range was not associated with AF (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.89-1.14; P = .88). However, gene-based increased FT3:FT4 ratio, increased thyrotropin within the reference range, and hypothyroidism were associated with AF with inverse-variance weighted random-effects OR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.08-1.63; P = .006), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92; P < .001), and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90-0.99; P = .009), respectively, and robust to tests of horizontal pleiotropy. However, the subset of hypothyroidism single-nucleotide polymorphisms involved in autoimmunity and thyroid peroxidase antibodies levels were not associated with AF. Gene-based hyperthyroidism was associated with AF with MR-Egger OR of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.05-1.63; P = .02) with evidence of horizontal pleiotropy (P = .045). Conclusions and Relevance: Genetically increased FT3:FT4 ratio and hyperthyroidism, but not FT4 within the reference range, were associated with increased AF, and increased thyrotropin within the reference range and hypothyroidism were associated with decreased AF, supporting a pathway involving the pituitary-thyroid-cardiac axis.

7.
Heart Fail Clin ; 15(1): 55-64, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449380

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation often occurs as a cause or consequence of heart failure. Clinical outcomes are worse when atrial fibrillation and heart failure coexist. There are important sex-related differences in the incidence, prevalence, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcomes of these patients. Women with heart failure are at greater risk of developing atrial fibrillation than men, and more women with atrial fibrillation develop heart failure. More women die of atrial fibrillation-related strokes. Despite significant morbidity and mortality, current treatments for women are inadequate. This review explores sex differences in atrial fibrillation and heart failure, emphasizing risk stratification and treatments to improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
JAMA ; 320(22): 2354-2364, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535219

RESUMO

Importance: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia affecting 1% of the population. Young individuals with AF have a strong genetic association with the disease, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Objective: To perform large-scale whole-genome sequencing to identify genetic variants related to AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program includes longitudinal and cohort studies that underwent high-depth whole-genome sequencing between 2014 and 2017 in 18 526 individuals from the United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Barbados, and Samoa. This case-control study included 2781 patients with early-onset AF from 9 studies and identified 4959 controls of European ancestry from the remaining participants. Results were replicated in the UK Biobank (346 546 participants) and the MyCode Study (42 782 participants). Exposures: Loss-of-function (LOF) variants in genes at AF loci and common genetic variation across the whole genome. Main Outcomes and Measures: Early-onset AF (defined as AF onset in persons <66 years of age). Due to multiple testing, the significance threshold for the rare variant analysis was P = 4.55 × 10-3. Results: Among 2781 participants with early-onset AF (the case group), 72.1% were men, and the mean (SD) age of AF onset was 48.7 (10.2) years. Participants underwent whole-genome sequencing at a mean depth of 37.8 fold and mean genome coverage of 99.1%. At least 1 LOF variant in TTN, the gene encoding the sarcomeric protein titin, was present in 2.1% of case participants compared with 1.1% in control participants (odds ratio [OR], 1.76 [95% CI, 1.04-2.97]). The proportion of individuals with early-onset AF who carried a LOF variant in TTN increased with an earlier age of AF onset (P value for trend, 4.92 × 10-4), and 6.5% of individuals with AF onset prior to age 30 carried a TTN LOF variant (OR, 5.94 [95% CI, 2.64-13.35]; P = 1.65 × 10-5). The association between TTN LOF variants and AF was replicated in an independent study of 1582 patients with early-onset AF (cases) and 41 200 control participants (OR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.19-3.92]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: In a case-control study, there was a statistically significant association between an LOF variant in the TTN gene and early-onset AF, with the variant present in a small percentage of participants with early-onset AF (the case group). Further research is necessary to understand whether this is a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Conectina/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Adulto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Qualidade
9.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482683

RESUMO

Despite advancements in prevention and treatment, sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains a leading cause of mortality and is responsible for approximately half of all deaths from cardiovascular disease. Outcomes continue to remain poor following a sudden cardiac arrest, with most individuals not surviving. Although coronary heart disease remains the dominant underlying condition, our understanding of SCD is improving through greater knowledge of clinical risk factors, cardiomyopathies, and primary arrhythmic disorders. However, despite a growing wealth of information from studies in North America, Europe, and Japan, data from other global regions (and particularly from low-and middle-income countries) remains scarce.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(20): 2431-2439, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have consistently demonstrated that blacks have an approximate 2-fold higher incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) than whites; however, these analyses have lacked individual-level sociodemographic, medical comorbidity, and behavioral health data. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether racial differences in SCD incidence are attributable to differences in the prevalence of risk factors or rather to underlying susceptibility to fatal arrhythmias. METHODS: The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study is a prospective, population-based cohort of adults from across the United States. Associations between race and SCD defined per National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria were assessed. RESULTS: Among 22,507 participants (9,416 blacks and 13,091 whites) without a history of clinical cardiovascular disease, there were 174 SCD events (67 whites and 107 blacks) over a median follow-up of 6.1 years (interquartile range: 4.6 to 7.3 years). The age-adjusted SCD incidence rate (per 1,000 person-years) was higher in blacks (1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4 to 2.2) compared with whites (0.7; 95% CI: 0.6 to 0.9), with an unadjusted hazard ratio of 2.35; 95% CI: 1.74 to 3.20. The association of black race with SCD risk remained significant after adjustment for sociodemographics, comorbidities, behavioral measures of health, intervening cardiovascular events, and competing risks of non-SCD mortality (hazard ratio: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.39 to 2.77). CONCLUSIONS: In a large biracial population of adults without a history of cardiovascular disease, SCD rates were significantly higher in blacks as compared with whites. These racial differences were not fully explained by demographics, adverse socioeconomic measures, cardiovascular risk factors, and behavioral measures of health.

11.
N Engl J Med ; 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher intake of marine n-3 (also called omega-3) fatty acids has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and cancer in several observational studies. Whether supplementation with n-3 fatty acids has such effects in general populations at usual risk for these end points is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, with a two-by-two factorial design, of vitamin D3 (at a dose of 2000 IU per day) and marine n-3 fatty acids (at a dose of 1 g per day) in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer among men 50 years of age or older and women 55 years of age or older in the United States. Primary end points were major cardiovascular events (a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes) and invasive cancer of any type. Secondary end points included individual components of the composite cardiovascular end point, the composite end point plus coronary revascularization (expanded composite of cardiovascular events), site-specific cancers, and death from cancer. Safety was also assessed. This article reports the results of the comparison of n-3 fatty acids with placebo. RESULTS: A total of 25,871 participants, including 5106 black participants, underwent randomization. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, a major cardiovascular event occurred in 386 participants in the n-3 group and in 419 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.06; P=0.24). Invasive cancer was diagnosed in 820 participants in the n-3 group and in 797 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.13; P=0.56). In the analyses of key secondary end points, the hazard ratios were as follows: for the expanded composite end point of cardiovascular events, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.82 to 1.04); for total myocardial infarction, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.90); for total stroke, 1.04 (95% CI, 0.83 to 1.31); for death from cardiovascular causes, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.21); and for death from cancer (341 deaths from cancer), 0.97 (95% CI, 0.79 to 1.20). In the analysis of death from any cause (978 deaths overall), the hazard ratio was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.15). No excess risks of bleeding or other serious adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids did not result in a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events or cancer than placebo. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; VITAL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01169259 .).

12.
Int J Cardiol ; 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrocardiographic (ECG) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular events. However, limited data is available on the prognostic values of different ECG LVH criteria specifically to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Our goal was to assess relationships of different ECG LVH criteria to SCD. METHODS: Three traditional and clinically useful (Sokolow-Lyon, Cornell, RaVL) and a recently proposed (Peguero-Lo Presti) ECG LVH voltage criteria were measured in 5730 subjects in the Health 2000 Survey, a national general population cohort study. Relationships between LVH criteria, as well as their selected composites, to SCD were analyzed with Cox regression models. In addition, population-attributable fractions for LVH criteria were calculated. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 12.5 ±â€¯2.2 years, 134 SCDs had occurred. When used as continuous variables, all LVH criteria except for RaVL were associated with SCD in multivariable analyses. When single LVH criteria were used as dichotomous variables, only Cornell was significant after adjustments. The dichotomous composite of Sokolow-Lyon and Cornell was also significant after adjustments (hazard ratio for SCD 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.20-2.70, P = 0.006) and was the only LVH measure that showed statistically significant population-attributable fraction (11.0%, 95% confidence interval 1.9-19.2%, P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Sokolow-Lyon, Cornell, and Peguero-Lo Presti ECG, but not RaVL voltage, are associated with SCD risk as continuous ECG voltage LVH variables. When SCD risk assessment/adjustment is performed using a dichotomous ECG LVH measure, composite of Sokolow-Lyon and Cornell voltages is the preferred option.

13.
Am J Cardiol ; 122(10): 1684-1687, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266256

RESUMO

Negative emotions have been linked to the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), and positive effect may be protective. However, there are few large-scale studies examining the association between psychosocial stressors that may provoke these emotions and the occurrence of AF. We examined the cross-sectional relation between psychosocial stress and AF in 24,809 women participating in the Women's Health Study. Participants answered questions about work stress (e.g., excessive work, conflicting demands), work-family spillover stress (e.g., too stressed after work to participate in activities with family), financial stress (e.g., difficulty paying monthly bills), traumatic life events (e.g., death of a child), everyday discrimination (e.g., less respect, poor service), intimate partner stress (e.g., how judgmental is your spouse/partner), neighborhood stress (e.g., neighborhood safety, trust), negative life events within 5 years (e.g., life threatening illness, legal problems), and cumulative stress (a weighted measure of the stress domains). The prevalence of confirmed AF was 3.84% (N = 953) and risk factor profiles differed by AF status. Women with AF reported significantly higher financial stress, traumatic life events, and neighborhood stress (peach < 0.05). Only traumatic life events (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.59) was significantly associated with AF after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, socioeconomic and psychosocial status. These large-scale cross-sectional data thus indicate a potential relationship between traumatic life events and AF in older women.

14.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 4(9): 1200-1210, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the association of myocardial scar and ischemia with major arrhythmic events (MAEs) in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35%. BACKGROUND: Although myocardial scar is a known substrate for ventricular arrhythmias, the association of myocardial ischemia with ventricular arrhythmias in stable patients with left ventricular dysfunction is less clear. METHODS: A total of 439 consecutive patients (median age, 70 years; 78% male; 55% with implantable cardioverter defibrillator [ICD]) referred for stress/rest positron emission tomography (PET) and resting LVEF ≤35% were included. Primary outcome was time-to-first MAE defined as sudden cardiac death, resuscitated sudden cardiac death, or appropriate ICD shocks for ventricular tachyarrhythmias ascertained by blinded adjudication of hospital records, Social Security Administration's Death Masterfile, National Death Index, and ICD vendor databases. RESULTS: Ninety-one MAEs including 20 sudden cardiac deaths occurred in 75 (17%) patients during a median follow-up of 3.2 years. Transmural myocardial scar was strongly associated with MAEs beyond age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, beta-blocker therapy, and resting LVEF (adjusted hazard ratio per 10% increase in scar, 1.48 [95% confidence interval: 1.22 to 1.80]; p < 0.001). However, non transmural scar/hibernation or markers of myocardial ischemia on PET including global or peri-infarct ischemia, coronary flow reserve, and resting or hyperemic myocardial blood flows were not associated with MAEs in univariable or multivariable analysis. These findings remained robust in subgroup analyses of patients with ICD (n = 223), with ischemic cardiomyopathy (n = 287), and in patients without revascularization after the PET scan (n = 365). CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial scar but not ischemia was associated with appropriate ICD shocks and sudden cardiac death in patients with LVEF ≤35%. These findings have implications for risk-stratification of patients with left ventricular dysfunction who may benefit from ICD therapy.

15.
Eur Heart J ; 39(44): 3961-3969, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169657

RESUMO

Aims: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) accounts for 10% of adult mortality in Western populations. We aim to identify potential loci associated with SCA and to identify risk factors causally associated with SCA. Methods and results: We carried out a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) for SCA (n = 3939 cases, 25 989 non-cases) to examine common variation genome-wide and in candidate arrhythmia genes. We also exploited Mendelian randomization (MR) methods using cross-trait multi-variant genetic risk score associations (GRSA) to assess causal relationships of 18 risk factors with SCA. No variants were associated with SCA at genome-wide significance, nor were common variants in candidate arrhythmia genes associated with SCA at nominal significance. Using cross-trait GRSA, we established genetic correlation between SCA and (i) coronary artery disease (CAD) and traditional CAD risk factors (blood pressure, lipids, and diabetes), (ii) height and BMI, and (iii) electrical instability traits (QT and atrial fibrillation), suggesting aetiologic roles for these traits in SCA risk. Conclusions: Our findings show that a comprehensive approach to the genetic architecture of SCA can shed light on the determinants of a complex life-threatening condition with multiple influencing factors in the general population. The results of this genetic analysis, both positive and negative findings, have implications for evaluating the genetic architecture of patients with a family history of SCA, and for efforts to prevent SCA in high-risk populations and the general community.

17.
Nat Genet ; 50(9): 1225-1233, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892015

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects more than 33 million individuals worldwide1 and has a complex heritability2. We conducted the largest meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for AF to date, consisting of more than half a million individuals, including 65,446 with AF. In total, we identified 97 loci significantly associated with AF, including 67 that were novel in a combined-ancestry analysis, and 3 that were novel in a European-specific analysis. We sought to identify AF-associated genes at the GWAS loci by performing RNA-sequencing and expression quantitative trait locus analyses in 101 left atrial samples, the most relevant tissue for AF. We also performed transcriptome-wide analyses that identified 57 AF-associated genes, 42 of which overlap with GWAS loci. The identified loci implicate genes enriched within cardiac developmental, electrophysiological, contractile and structural pathways. These results extend our understanding of the biological pathways underlying AF and may facilitate the development of therapeutics for AF.

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(11)2018 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29776960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether reducing plasma homocysteine concentrations with long-term, combined treatment with folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 alters plasma biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in women at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a blood substudy of 300 treatment-adherent participants (150 in the active treatment group, 150 in the placebo group) in the WAFACS (Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study), a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial testing a daily combination of folic acid (2.5 mg), vitamin B6 (50 mg), vitamin B12 (1 mg), or matching placebo, in cardiovascular disease prevention among women at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Plasma concentration of 3 biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and fibrinogen) and a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) were measured at baseline and at the end of treatment and follow-up. After 7.3 years of combined treatment with folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, homocysteine concentrations were reduced by 18% in the active treatment group as compared with the placebo group (P<0.001). However, there was no difference between treatment groups in change in blood concentration from baseline to follow-up for C-reactive protein (P=0.77), interleukin-6 (P=0.91), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (P=0.38), or fibrinogen (P=0.68). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that long-term, combined treatment with folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 lowers homocysteine concentrations, but does not alter major biomarkers of vascular inflammation, consistent with the lack of clinical cardiovascular disease benefit in the trial. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000541.

19.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(7): 591-600, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801082

RESUMO

Importance: The majority of sudden and/or arrhythmic deaths (SAD) in patients with coronary heart disease occur in those without severe systolic dysfunction, for whom strategies for sudden death prevention are lacking. Objective: To provide contemporary estimates of SAD vs other competing causes of death in patients with coronary heart disease without severe systolic dysfunction to search for high-risk subgroups that might be targeted in future trials of SAD prevention. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective observational cohort study included 135 clinical sites in the United States and Canada. A total of 5761 participants with coronary heart disease who did not qualify for primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy based on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of more than 35% or New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart failure class (LVEF >30%, NYHA I). Exposures: Clinical risk factors measured at baseline including age, LVEF, and NYHA heart failure class. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome of SAD, which is a composite of SAD and resuscitated ventricular fibrillation arrest. Results: The mean (SD) age of the cohort was 64 (11) years. During a median of 3.9 years, the cumulative incidence of SAD and non-SAD was 2.1% and 7.7%, respectively. Sudden and/or arrhythmic death was the most common mode of cardiovascular death accounting for 114 of 202 cardiac deaths (56%), although noncardiac death was the primary mode of death in this population. The 4-year cumulative incidence of SAD was lowest in those with an LVEF of more than 60% (1.0%) and highest among those with LVEF of 30% to 40% (4.9%) and class III/IV heart failure (5.1%); however, the cumulative incidence of non-SAD was similarly elevated in these latter high-risk subgroups. Patients with a moderately reduced LVEF (40%-49%) were more likely to die of SAD, whereas those with class II heart failure and advancing age were more likely to die of non-SAD. The proportion of deaths due to SAD varied widely, from 14% (18 of 131 deaths) in patients with NYHA II to 49% (37 of 76 deaths) in those younger than 60 years. Conclusions and Relevance: In a contemporary population of patients with coronary heart disease without severe systolic dysfunction, SAD accounts for a significant proportion of overall mortality. Moderately reduced LVEF, age, and NYHA class distinguished SAD and non-SAD, whereas other markers were equally associated with both modes of death. Absolute and proportional risk of SAD varied significantly across clinical subgroups, and both will need to be maximized in future risk stratification efforts.

20.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(11): 1925-1931, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gallstone disease has been related to a higher prevalence and incidence of chronic conditions, such as dyslipidemia, obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, limited data are available regarding whether gallstone disease is related to mortality. METHODS: We examined the relationship of a history of gallstone disease and risk of death, using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, among 86 030 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 43 949 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. RESULTS: During the up-to 32 years of follow-up, 34 011 all-cause deaths were confirmed, of which 8138 were CVD deaths and 12 173 were cancer deaths. For the participants with a history of gallstone disease compared with those without, the hazard ratio of total mortality was 1.16 (95% confidence interval 1.13, 1.20), of CVD mortality 1.11 (1.05, 1.17), of cancer mortality 1.15 (1.09, 1.20), and of other mortality 1.19 (1.14, 1.25) from a pooled-analysis of women and men (all P < 0.001). The multi-adjusted associations between gallstone disease and total mortality persisted among women and men, and among participants with various risk profiles including the different status of body mass index, hormone therapy use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia (all P for interaction ≥ 0.09). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that gallstone disease is associated with a higher risk of total mortality and disease-specific mortality, including CVD and cancer mortality, independent of various traditional risk factors.


Assuntos
Cálculos Biliares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cálculos Biliares/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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