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2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 586, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022478

RESUMO

The performance of a laboratory-developed IgG/IgA flow cytometry-based immunoassay (FCI) using Jurkat T cells stably expressing full-length native S protein was compared against Elecsys electrochemiluminiscent (ECLIA) Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche Diagnostics, Pleasanton, CA, USA), and Liaison SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG chemiluminiscent assay (CLIA) (Diasorin S.p.a, Saluggia, IT) for detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. A total of 225 serum/plasma specimens from 120 acute or convalescent COVID-19 individuals were included. Overall, IgG/IgA-FCI yielded the highest number of positives (n = 179), followed by IgA-FCI (n = 177), Roche ECLIA (n = 175), IgG-FCI (n = 172) and Diasorin CLIA (n = 154). For sera collected early after the onset of symptoms (within 15 days) IgG/IgA-FCI also returned the highest number of positive results (52/72; 72.2%). Positive percent agreement between FCI and compared immunoassays was highest for Roche ECLIA, ranging from 96.1 (IgG/IgA-FCI) to 97.7% (IgG-FCI), whereas negative percent agreement was higher between FCI and Diasosin CLIA, regardless of antibody isotype. The data suggest that FCI may outperform Roche ECLIA and Diasorin CLIA in terms of clinical sensitivity for serological diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

3.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 222-228, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449894

RESUMO

The current study aimed at characterizing the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) antigenemia in a cohort of critically ill adult COVID-19 patients and assessing its potential association with plasma levels of biomarkers of clinical severity and mortality. Seventy-three consecutive critically ill COVID-19 patients (median age, 65 years) were recruited. Serial plasma (n = 340) specimens were collected. A lateral flow immunochromatography assay and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used for SARS-CoV-2 N protein detection and RNA quantitation and in plasma, respectively. Serum levels of inflammatory and tissue-damage biomarkers in paired specimens were measured. SARS-CoV-RNA N-antigenemia and viral RNAemia were documented in 40.1% and 35.6% of patients, respectively at a median of 9 days since symptoms onset. The level of agreement between the qualitative results returned by the N-antigenemia assay and plasma RT-PCR was moderate (k = 0.57; p < 0.0001). A trend towards higher SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads was seen in plasma specimens testing positive for N-antigenemia assay than in those yielding negative results (p = 0.083). SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in tracheal aspirates was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the presence of concomitant N-antigenemia than in its absence. Significantly higher serum levels of ferritin, lactose dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer were quantified in paired plasma SARS-CoV-2 N-positive specimens than in those testing negative. Occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia was not associated with increased mortality in univariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-3.34; p = 0.59). In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia detection is relatively common in ICU patients and appears to associate with increased serum levels of inflammation and tissue-damage markers. Whether this virological parameter may behave as a biomarker of poor clinical outcome awaits further investigations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/sangue , Estado Terminal , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/sangue , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Traqueia/virologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13771, 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that infection with the nonpathogenic human pegivirus type 1 (HPgV-1) exerts a clinical benefit in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients, which could be attributable to immunomodulatory effects. Whether this impact can be extrapolated to kidney transplantation (KT) remains largely unknown. METHODS: We measured plasma HPgV-1 RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the 5' untranslated region at various points (pretransplantation, day 7, months 1, 3, 6, and 12) in 199 KT recipients. Study outcomes included posttransplant serious infection, immunosuppression-related adverse event (opportunistic infection and/or de novo cancer), and acute graft rejection. RESULTS: HPgV-1 infection was demonstrated in 52 (26.1%) patients, with rates increasing from 14.7% at baseline to 19.1% by month 12 (p-value = .071). De novo infection occurred in 13.8% of patients with no detectable HPgV-1 RNA before transplantation. Double-organ (liver-kidney or kidney-pancreas) transplantation (odds ratio [OR]: 5.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-20.82) and donation after brain death (OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.00-4.88) were associated with posttransplant HPgV-1 infection, whereas pretransplant hypertension was protective (OR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09-0.55). There were no significant differences in the incidence of study outcomes according to HPgV-1 status. Plasma HPgV-1 RNA levels at different points did not significantly differ between patients that subsequently developed outcomes and those remaining free from these events. No correlation between HPgV-1 RNA and immune parameters or torque teno virus DNA load was observed either. CONCLUSION: Unlike patients living with HIV, HPgV-1 infection does not seem to influence patient or graft outcomes after KT.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The current study was aimed at examining SARS-CoV-2 immune responses following two doses of Comirnaty® COVID-19 vaccine among elderly people in nursing homes. METHODS: A prospective cohort study in a representative sample from nursing homes in Valencia (n = 881; males: 271, females 610; median age, 86 years) recruited residents using a random one-stage cluster sampling approach. A lateral flow immunochromatography device (LFIC) (OnSite COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test; CTK BIOTECH, Poway, CA, USA) was used as the front-line test for detecting SARS-CoV-2-Spike (S)-specific antibodies in whole blood obtained using a fingerstick. Residents returning negative LFIC results underwent venipuncture and testing for presence of SARS-CoV-2-S-reactive antibodies and T cells using the Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche Diagnostics, Pleasanton, CA, USA), the LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assay (Diasorin S.p.A, Saluggia, Italy) and by flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: The SARS-CoV-2-S antibody detection rate in nursing home residents was 99.6% (283/284) and 98.3% (587/597) for SARS-CoV-2 recovered and naïve residents, respectively, within a median of 99 days (range 17-125 days) after full vaccination. Three out of five residents lacking SARS-CoV-2-S antibodies had detectable S-reactive CD8+ and/or CD4+ T cells. In addition, 50/50 and 40/50 participants with detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies also had SARS-CoV-2-S-reactive interferon-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, respectively. DISCUSSION: The Comirnaty® COVID-19 vaccine is highly immunogenic in nursing home residents.

8.
Nat Genet ; 53(10): 1405-1414, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594042

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the world radically since 2020. Spain was one of the European countries with the highest incidence during the first wave. As a part of a consortium to monitor and study the evolution of the epidemic, we sequenced 2,170 samples, diagnosed mostly before lockdown measures. Here, we identified at least 500 introductions from multiple international sources and documented the early rise of two dominant Spanish epidemic clades (SECs), probably amplified by superspreading events. Both SECs were related closely to the initial Asian variants of SARS-CoV-2 and spread widely across Spain. We inferred a substantial reduction in the effective reproductive number of both SECs due to public-health interventions (Re < 1), also reflected in the replacement of SECs by a new variant over the summer of 2020. In summary, we reveal a notable difference in the initial genetic makeup of SARS-CoV-2 in Spain compared with other European countries and show evidence to support the effectiveness of lockdown measures in controlling virus spread, even for the most successful genetic variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Modelos Estatísticos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Filogenia , Distanciamento Físico , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/organização & administração , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha/epidemiologia
10.
J Clin Virol ; 142: 104943, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an imperative need to determine the durability of adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2. We enumerated SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells targeting S1 and M proteins and measured RBD-specific serum IgG over a period of 2-6 months after symptoms onset in a cohort of subjects who had recovered from severe clinical forms of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 58 patients (38 males and 20 females; median age, 62.5 years), who had been hospitalized with bilateral pneumonia, 60% with one or more comorbidities. IgG antibodies binding to SARS-CoV-2 RBD were measured by ELISA. SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD69+-expressing-IFNγ-producing-CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were enumerated in heparinized whole blood by flow cytometry for ICS. RESULTS: Detectable SARS-CoV-2-S1/M-reactive CD69+-IFN-γ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were displayed in 17 (29.3%) and 6 (10.3%) subjects respectively, at a median of 84 days after onset of symptoms (range, 58-191 days). Concurrent comorbidities increased the risk (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.03-9.61; P = 0.04) of undetectable T-cell responses in models adjusted for age, sex and hospitalization ward. Twenty-one out of the 35 patients (60%) had detectable RBD-specific serum IgGs at a median of 118 days (range, 60-145 days) after symptoms onset. SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgG serum levels were found to drop significantly over time. CONCLUSION: A relatively limited number of subjects who developed severe forms of COVID-19 had detectable SARS-CoV-2-S1/M IFNγ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at midterm after clinical diagnosis. Our data also indicated that serum levels of RBD-specific IgGs decline over time, becoming undetectable in some patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(12): 1858.e1-1858.e7, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies comparing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA load in the upper respiratory tract (URT) between children and adults-who either presented with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or were asymptomatic-have yielded inconsistent results. Here, we conducted a retrospective, single-centre study to address this issue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Included were 1184 consecutive subjects (256 children and 928 adults) testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in nasopharyngeal exudates (NPs); of these, 424 (121 children and 303 adults) had COVID-19 and 760 (135 children and 625 adults) were asymptomatic close contacts of COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing was carried out using the TaqPath COVID-19 Combo Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific, MS, USA). The AMPLIRUN® TOTAL SARS-CoV-2 RNA Control (Vircell SA, Granada, Spain) was used for estimating SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads (in copies/mL). SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads at the time of laboratory diagnosis (single specimen/patient) were used for comparison purposes. RESULTS: Median initial SARS-CoV-2 RNA load was lower (p 0.094) in children (6.98 log10 copies/mL, range 3.0-11.7) than in adults (7.14 log10 copies/mL, range 2.2-13.4) with COVID-19. As for asymptomatic individuals, median SARS-CoV-2 RNA load was comparable (p 0.97) in children (6.20 log10 copies/mL, range 1.8-11.6) and adults (6.48 log10 copies/mL, range 1.9-11.8). Children with COVID-19 symptoms displayed SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads (6.98 log10 copies/mL, range 3.0-11.7) comparable to those of their asymptomatic counterparts (6.20 log10 copies/mL, range 1.8-11.6) (p 0.61). Meanwhile in adults, median SARS-CoV-2 RNA load was significantly higher in symptomatic (7.14 log10 copies/mL, range 2.2-13.4) than in asymptomatic subjects (6.48 log10 copies/mL, range 1.9-11.8) (p < 0.001). Overall, the observed URT SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance rate was faster in children than in adults. CONCLUSIONS: Based on viral load data at the time of diagnosis, our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2-infected children, with or without COVID-19, may display NP viral loads of comparable magnitude to those found in their adult counterparts. However, children may have shorter viral shedding than adults.

13.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6803-6807, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289136

RESUMO

We evaluated the Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test Device as a point-of-care diagnostic tool for COVID-19 in 357 patients at a pediatric emergency department. Thirty-four patients tested positive by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, of which 24 were positive by the antigen assay. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 70.5% and 100%, respectively.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Lactente , Masculino , Nasofaringe/imunologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(11): 1672-1677, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The immunogenicity of the Comirnaty® vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not been adequately studied in elderly people with comorbidities. We assessed antibody and T-cell responses targeted to the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) following full vaccination in nursing-home residents. METHODS: Sixty nursing-home residents (44 female, age 53-100 years), of whom ten had previously been diagnosed with COVID-19, and 18 healthy controls (15 female, age 27-54 years) were recruited. Pre- and post-vaccination blood specimens were available for quantification of total antibodies binding the SARS-CoV-2 S protein and for enumeration of SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive IFN-γ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The seroconversion rate in (presumably) SARS-CoV-2-naïve nursing-home residents (41/43, 95.3%) was similar to that in controls (17/18, 94.4%). A booster effect was documented in post-vaccination samples of nursing-home residents with prior COVID-19. Plasma antibody levels were higher (p < 0.01) in recovered nursing-home residents (all 2500 IU/mL) than in individuals across the other two groups (median 1120 IU/mL in naïve nursing-home residents and 2211 IU/ml in controls). A large percentage of nursing-home residents had SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive IFN-γ CD8+ (naïve 31/49, 63.2%; recovered 8/10, 80%) or CD4+ T cells (naïve 35/49, 71.4%; recovered 7/10, 70%) at baseline, in contrast to healthy controls (3/17, 17.6% and 5/17, 29%, respectively). SARS-CoV-2 IFN-γ CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses were documented in 88% (15/17) and all control subjects after vaccination, respectively, but only in 65.5% (38/58) and 22.4% (13/58) of nursing-home residents. Overall, the median frequency of SARS-CoV-2 IFN-γ CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in nursing-home residents decreased in post-vaccination specimens, whereas it increased in controls. CONCLUSION: The Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine elicits robust SARS-CoV-2 S antibody responses in nursing-home residents. Nevertheless, the rate and frequency of detectable SARS-CoV-2 IFN-γ T-cell responses after vaccination was lower in nursing-home residents than in controls.

17.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(9): 1925-1932, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876385

RESUMO

We optimized and prospectively evaluated a simple MALDI-TOF MS-based method for direct detection of third-generation oxymino-cephalosporin resistance (3rd CephR) in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. from blood cultures (BC). In addition, we assessed the performance of a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIC) for detecting extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL) (NG-Test CTX-M MULTI assay) using bacterial pellets from BC. A total of 168 BCs from unique patients were included. A pre-established volume of BC flagged as positive was transferred in brain heart infusion with or without ceftriaxone (2 mg/ml). After 2-h incubation, intact bacterial pellets were used for MALDI-TOF MS testing. Identification of bacterial species (index score > 2) in the presence of CRO was considered marker of 3rd CephR. The LFIC assay was evaluated in 141 BC. Bacteremia episodes were caused by E. coli (n = 115) or Klebsiella spp. (n = 53). A total of 49 strains were 3rd CephR by broth microdilution, of which 41 were ESBL producers, seven expressed ESBL and OXA-48 type D carbapenemase, and one harbored a plasmid-mediated AmpC. The MALDI-TOF MS method yielded four very major errors (false susceptibility) and two major errors (false resistance). The overall sensitivity of the assay was 91.8% and the specificity 98.3%. Concordance between the LFIC assay and the MALDI-TOF MS method for detection of ESBL-mediated 3rd CephR was 100%. Both evaluated methods may prove useful for early adjustment of empirical therapy in patients with E. coli and Klebsiella spp. bloodstream infections. Whether their use has a beneficial impact on patient outcomes is currently under investigation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Hemocultura/métodos , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/sangue , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio/normas , Infecções por Klebsiella/sangue , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
18.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(4): e13627, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908148

RESUMO

The potential role of active CMV infection in promoting acute Graft-versus-Host Disease (aGvHD) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains a matter of debate. We further addressed this issue conducting a retrospective, observational, multicenter study of 632 patients subjected to allogeneic peripheral blood HSCT at 20 Spanish centers. Monitoring of CMV DNA load in plasma or whole blood was performed by real-time PCR assays. Cumulative incidence of CMV DNAemia was 48.9% (95% CI, 45%-52.9%), of any grade aGvHD, 45.6; 95% (CI, 41.3%-50.1%), and of grade II-IV aGvHD, 30.7 (95% CI, 24.9%-36.4%). Overall, development of CMV DNAemia at any level resulted in an increased risk of subsequent all grade (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.08 - 1.76; P = .009) or grade II-IV (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.22 - 2.06; P = .001) aGvHD. The increased risk of aGvHD linked to prior occurrence of CMV DNAemia was similar to the above when only clinically significant episodes were considered for the analyses (HR for all grade aGvHD, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.13 - 1.91; P = .041, and HR for grade II-IV aGvHD, 1.53; 95% CI. 1.13-1.81; P = .04). The CMV DNA doubling time in blood was comparable overall in episodes of CMV DNAemia whether followed by aGvHD or not. Whether CMV replication is a surrogate risk marker of aGvHD or it is causally involved is an important question to be addressed in future experimental research.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico , Citomegalovirus/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(8): 4773-4779, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605457

RESUMO

It is uncertain whether gastrointestinal (GI) infection caused by viral and bacterial pathogens may predispose to gastrointestinal acute Graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD-GI) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (allo-HSCT). We investigated the potential association between detection of enteropathogenic viruses or bacteria in stools and subsequent occurrence of aGvHD-GI in a cohort of 121 allo-HSCT patients. Eighty-six out of 121 patients (71%) had acute diarrhea and underwent screening for primary GI pathogens by molecular diagnostic methods. One or more GI pathogens were detected in 27 out of the 86 patients with diarrhea (31.3%). Specifically, Clostridioides difficile was found in 16 patients (18.6%), enteropathogenic viruses in 11 patients (12.7%) (Astrovirus, n = 4; Norovirus, n = 2; Sapovirus, n = 2; Adenovirus, n = 2; and Rotavirus, n = 1), and Campylobacter spp. in two patients (2.3%). Thirty patients were diagnosed with all grade aGvHD-GI by histopathology. Detection of primary GI pathogens was achieved in 12 out of 30 patients (Clostridium difficile, n = 5; enteric viruses, n = 8; Campylobacter spp., n = 1) who either subsequently developed (n = 9) or previously had (n = 3) grade I-IV IaGvHD (n = 9). Neither the detection of these microorganisms (all combined), enteric viruses, nor C. difficile was significantly associated with subsequent aGvHD-GI development in Cox models (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11, p = .80; HR = 1.64, p = .62; HR = 0.75, p = .64, respectively). Analogous results were obtained when grade II-IV aGvHD-GI was selected as the clinical outcome. In summary, data in the current study did not support an association between GI infection and subsequent occurrence of aGvHD-GI in an unselected cohort of allo-HSCT recipients.

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