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1.
Front Psychol ; 12: 686390, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589019

RESUMO

False memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm are explained in terms of the interplay between error-inflating and error-editing (e.g., monitoring) mechanisms. In this study, we focused on disqualifying monitoring, a decision process that helps to reject false memories through the recollection of collateral information (i.e., recall-to-reject strategies). Participants engage in recall-to-reject strategies using one or two metacognitive processes: (1) applying the logic of mutual exclusivity or (2) experiencing feelings of contrast between studied items and unstudied lures. We aimed to provide, for the first time in the DRM literature, evidence favorable to the existence of a recall-to-reject strategy based on the experience of feelings of contrast. One hundred and forty participants studied six-word DRM lists (e.g., spy, hell, fist, fight, abduction, mortal), simultaneously associated with three critical lures (e.g., WAR, BAD, FEAR). Lists differed in their ease to identify their critical lures (extremely low-BAS lists vs. high-BAS lists). At recognition test, participants saw either one or the three critical lures of the lists. Participants in the three-critical-lure condition were expected to increase their monitoring, as they would experience stronger feelings of contrast than the participants in the one-critical-lure condition. Results supported our hypothesis, showing lower false recognition in the three-critical-lure condition than in the one-critical-lure condition. Critically, in the three-critical-lure condition, participants reduced even more false memory when they could also resort to another monitoring strategy (i.e., identify-to-reject). These findings suggest that, in the DRM context, disqualifying monitoring could be guided by experiencing feelings of contrast between different types of words.

2.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 219: 103395, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416502

RESUMO

Recent prospective memory (PM) studies have shown that an intention may be erroneously executed despite no-longer-needed (i.e., commission errors), especially under demanding ongoing activities. In the current study, we examined whether PM deactivation benefits from a retroactive interference mechanism. For this, we set up a procedure in which participants are first asked to perform a PM task which is critically declared finished afterwards. Next, they encoded a new and dissimilar PM intention to accomplish later (Experiment 1) or performed filler tasks with increased working memory difficulty levels (Experiment 2). Lastly, all participants encountered several (but irrelevant) PM cues. Together, our findings provide evidence that the efficiency of the deactivation process can be modulated by encoding novel and dissimilar PM tasks and by the type of processing after intention completion. These findings are discussed in terms of strategic or spontaneous retrieval processes and linked to a retroactive interference mechanism which helps to overwrite or deteriorate the old-PM task representation.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Intenção , Memória de Curto Prazo
3.
Scand J Psychol ; 62(4): 502-509, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973256

RESUMO

Destination memory involves remembering to whom we told information. Low accuracy of this memory is linked to higher self-focus and lower attentional resources allocated to the recipient of the information. The present paper aimed to investigate whether the existence of distinctive features (e.g., tattoos) of destination face would improve destination memory, in a within- (Experiment 1 and 2) and between-participants (Experiment 3) design. In a destination memory task, participants had to tell proverbs to faces that presented a distinctive feature and to other faces that did not. Results showed that a destination memory advantage only occurs when faces with different distinctive features are compared to faces without distinctive features (Experiment 1). These results are in accordance with the existing theoretical framework on destination memory and distinctiveness; highlighting the importance of personal attributes, namely, the distinctiveness of the destination face and the relativity of distinctiveness in destination memory.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Reconhecimento Facial , Relações Interpessoais , Memória/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tatuagem , Adulto Jovem
4.
Behav Res Methods ; 53(6): 2326-2337, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826092

RESUMO

Research on familiar faces has been conducted in different countries and resort to celebrities faces, stimuli that are highly constrained by geographic context and cultural peculiarities, since many celebrities are only famous in particular countries. Despite their relevance to psychological research, there are no normative studies of celebrities' facial recognition in Portugal. We developed a database with 160 black and white pictures of famous persons' faces in this work. The data collection took place in two different studies. In study 1, participants were asked to recognize and name celebrity faces; while in study 2, celebrity names were rated for AoA, familiarity, and distinctiveness. Data were gathered from two different samples of Portuguese young adults aged between 18 and 25 years old, and both procedures were performed online through a questionnaire created in Qualtrics software. This database provides ratings of AoA, familiarity, facial distinctiveness, recognition rate, and naming rate for each celebrity, which will allow further selection of celebrities, based on these five attributes, for studies using Portuguese samples. Also, possible relationships between these five variables were analyzed and presented, highlighting facial distinctiveness as a predictor for both naming and recognition rate of celebrity faces.

5.
Cogn Process ; 22(3): 411-434, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694121

RESUMO

The definition of episodic memory has evolved into a multifaceted concept that gathered great attention in several research areas in psychology and neuroscience. Prospective memory (PM), or the ability to remember to perform delayed intentions at a later moment in the future, represents one side of this capacity for which that has been a growing interest. In this review, we examined a counterintuitive finding: PM intentions may persist and affect our behaviour despite successful goal attainment and task completion, which in daily life may be as serious as taking medication twice. This review aims to elucidate the existing knowledge and identify some unresolved questions concerning this specific memory failure. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the uprising research dedicated to both PM omission and commission errors, including an analysis of its definitions, of the current theoretical approaches of PM retrieval, and the main procedures used in this field to offer an integrative perspective on this topic. Finally, the last section is devoted to discussing future directions to test the predictions of our suggested theoretical explanations for PM deactivation. This might be an avenue for research that is likely to extend our understanding of episodic memory's usefulness in everyday life.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Atenção , Humanos , Intenção , Rememoração Mental , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Mem Cognit ; 49(1): 1-13, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789597

RESUMO

The emergence and transmission of false memories is well documented in individual memory tasks. However, the examination of these processes in the context of social interaction still presents mixed findings. The present study further examines the potential of collaboration in minimizing the acceptance and retrieval of misinformation. In Experiment 1 participants watched a video immediately followed by a recall task (collaborative vs. nominal). Then a questionnaire (collaborative vs. individual) containing true information and misinformation about the video was presented. After the questionnaire, participants were given a new recall task (collaborative vs. nominal). We expected that collaboration at encoding and at retrieval would reduce the acceptance and recall of misinformation. Results revealed, as expected, that collaborative groups performed better in answering the questionnaire, accepting more correct information and rejecting more misinformation. Subsequently, they also recalled less misinformation. However, their recall of correct information was also lower. To rule out the potential role of collaborative inhibition in explaining the results observed in the final recall, in Experiment 2 the collaborative manipulation occurred only during the questionnaire and both recall tasks were individual. Again, participants answering the questionnaire collaboratively performed better than those answering individually. Critically, in a subsequent individual recall task, they produced less false memories and more correct information than those answering the questionnaire individually. These results suggest that collaboration during information encoding reduces the acceptance of misinformation and its subsequent recall.


Assuntos
Interação Social , Comunicação , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Memória , Rememoração Mental
7.
J Gen Psychol ; 148(2): 124-148, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880498

RESUMO

Judgments of learning (JOLs) are usually higher for high-frequency words than for low-frequency words, which has been attributed to beliefs about how word frequency affects memory. The main goal of the present study was to explore if identifying word frequency as a relevant cue is necessary for it to affect JOLs. The idea is that for one to base judgments in beliefs of how a variable affects memory, one must first consider that variable. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants studied a list of high- and low-frequency words, made immediate JOLs, and answered questions aimed at identifying the cues used to make those JOLs. The results showed that identifying word frequency as a cue was not necessary for effects on JOLs to occur, suggesting that some participants could not have used beliefs about how word frequency affects memory when making JOLs. In Experiment 3, we measured processing fluency of high- and low-frequency words through a lexical decision task. Participants identified high-frequency words quicker than low-frequency words, suggesting the former to be more fluently processed. In Experiment 4, we explored if response times in a lexical decision task mediated the effect of word frequency on JOLs. Results showed a significant mediation of 8-13%, depending on the analysis technique. We argue that theory-driven processes do not fully account for word frequency effects on JOLs.

8.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 47(2): 282-307, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252967

RESUMO

Emotion is assumed to change how people process information by modulating attentional focus. Two recent studies (Spachtholz et al., 2014; Xie & Zhang, 2016) reported that self-reported negative emotion boosted the precision with which information was stored in visual working memory. Here we attempted and failed to replicate these findings across seven studies conducted in four countries. Emotion was induced by presenting emotional images (negative, neutral, and positive) before each trial of a visual working memory task (six experiments) or the images were combined with emotional music during a 3-min induction phase (one experiment) occurring prior to the memory task. In the visual working memory task, participants stored (emotionally neutral) continuously varying colored dots or oriented triangles. At test, the color or orientation of a probed item was reproduced. Although participants reported changes in their emotional state commensurate with the manipulations, six experiments showed substantial evidence against changes in visual working memory precision (and quantity) under negative (and positive) emotion in comparison with neutral, whereas one condition, in one study, showed increased precision under both negative and positive emotion compared with neutral. These results challenge the view that emotion modulates visual working memory quality and quantity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

9.
Adv Cogn Psychol ; 16(3): 268-290, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149797

RESUMO

This paper is the first systematic review on the role of ongoing task load in prospective remembering, which was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). Forty articles published between 1995 and 2020 were included. They evaluated prospective memory (PM) performance (i.e., the ability to remember to execute a delayed intention) in adult samples aged between 19 and 50 years old when the PM cue appeared under cognitively demanding conditions. The results revealed that people are more likely to fail to remember to perform a delayed intention at the appropriate circumstances or time in the future when their cognitive resources are taxed by demanding ongoing activities. We conclude the review by highlighting that the degree of working memory and executive resources seems to account for some of the discrepant findings and by proposing directions for future research.

10.
Memory ; 28(3): 374-385, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043427

RESUMO

Recent studies consistently show that prospective memory (PM) intentions are not always deactivated when no-longer needed and might be erroneously performed upon encountering the once relevant cue - termed PM commission errors. However, empirical evidence on the potential mechanisms that might lead to this kind of memory failure remains mostly unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the ongoing task demands on PM deactivation of non-performed intentions. Younger adults, except for those in the no-PM condition, were asked to perform a PM task and were then told that the intention was finished. Later, they perform a lexical decision task with some trials containing (irrelevant) PM cues while simultaneously carrying out a counting recall task with two levels of difficulty. The results showed a higher risk of PM commission errors under moderate cognitive load (74%) as compared to the no-load condition (40%). Results also show that commission error risk did not increase in the high-load (54%) compared with the moderate-load condition. Furthermore, comparisons of the ongoign task performance between the no-PM condition and the other conditions with a PM task requirement support that commission errors might arise from a spontaneous PM retrieval. The implications of these findings are discussed within the dual-mechanisms account.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cogn Emot ; 33(8): 1577-1586, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870109

RESUMO

How do we perceive voices coming from different spatial locations, and how is this affected by emotion? The current study probed the interplay between space and emotion during voice perception. Thirty participants listened to nonverbal vocalizations coming from different locations around the head (left vs. right; front vs. back), and differing in valence (neutral, positive [amusement] or negative [anger]). They were instructed to identify the location of the vocalizations (Experiment 1) and to evaluate their emotional qualities (Experiment 2). Emotion-space interactions were observed, but only in Experiment 1: emotional vocalizations were better localised than neutral ones when they were presented from the back and the right side. In Experiment 2, emotion recognition accuracy was increased for positive vs. negative and neutral vocalizations, and perceived arousal was increased for emotional vs. neutral vocalizations, but this was independent of spatial location. These findings indicate that emotional salience affects how we perceive the spatial location of voices. They additionally suggest that the interaction between spatial ("where") and emotional ("what") properties of the voice differs as a function of task.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Memory ; 27(3): 280-294, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084743

RESUMO

Recent research has provided evidence for memory modifications when a post-reactivation treatment (e.g., drugs, new learning) interferes with the memory re-stabilisation (reconsolidation) process. This finding contradicts the long-standing consolidation theory and has high practical and theoretical implications. With an object-learning paradigm, it was shown that episodic memory is highly susceptible to interfering material presented after its reactivation [Hupbach, A., Gomez, R., Hardt, O., & Nadel, L. (2007). Reconsolidation of episodic memories: A subtle reminder triggers integration of new information. Learning & Memory, 14, 47-53. doi: 10.1101/lm.365707 ]. The reactivation of a learned list (List 1) before a second learned list (List 2) led to intrusion errors from List 2 when trying to recall List 1, but not vice-versa. Their work has been widely cited and their findings have been explained according to reconsolidation theory. For the first time, we systematically explored the role of retrieval context as an alternative explanation for Hupbach's results. Our results showed that the intrusion effect occurs independently of the retrieval context (Experiment 1). Additionally, even when the intrusion rate probability is increased (i.e., List 1 memory test is performed in the List 2 learning context), the groups that did not reactivate the original list did not commit intrusion errors (Experiment 2). In sum, we found that the intrusion effect critically depends on the presence of reactivation, discarding alternative interpretations of the results.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mem Cognit ; 47(1): 106-116, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168094

RESUMO

Items presented in large font are rated with higher judgments of learning (JOLs) than those presented in small font. According to current explanations of this phenomenon in terms of processing fluency or implicit beliefs, this effect should be present no matter the type of material under study. However, we hypothesized that the linguistic cues present in sentences may prevent using font size as a cue for JOLs. Experiment 1, with short sentences, showed the standard font-size effect on JOLs, and Experiment 2, with pairs of longer sentences, showed a reduced effect. These results suggest that linguistic factors do not prevent font size from being used for JOLs. However, Experiment 3, with both short and long sentences, showed an effect of font size only for the former and not the latter condition, suggesting that the greater amount of to-be-remembered information eliminated the font-size effect. In Experiment 4, we tested a mechanism to explain this result and manipulated cognitive load using the dot-memory task. The short sentences from Experiments 1 and 3 were used, and the results replicated the font-size effect only in the low-cognitive load condition. Our results are consistent with the idea that perceptual information is used to make JOLs only with materials such as words, word pairs, or short sentences, and that the increased cognitive load required to process longer sentences prevents using font size as a cue for JOLs.


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Leitura , Percepção de Tamanho/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult ; 26(1): 48-57, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922010

RESUMO

Evaluating performance validity is essential in neuropsychological and forensic assessments. Nonetheless, most psychological assessment tests are unable to detect performance validity and other methods must be used for this purpose. A new Performance Validity Test (DETECTS - Memory Performance Validity Test) was developed with several characteristics that enhance test utility. Moreover, precise response time measurement was added to DETECTS. Two groups of participants (normative and simulator group) completed DETECTS and three memory tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale III. Simulators achieved considerably lower scores (hits) and higher response times in DETECTS compared with the normative group. All participants in the normative group were classified correctly and no simulator was classified as having legitimate memory deficits. Thus, DETECTS seems to be a valuable computerized Performance Validity Test with reduced application time and effective cut-off scores as well as high sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive power values. Lastly, response time may be a very useful measure for detecting memory malingering.


Assuntos
Simulação de Doença/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem/normas , Adulto , Diagnóstico por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Escala de Memória de Wechsler/normas , Adulto Jovem
15.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(3): 570-578, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431007

RESUMO

The Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm is often used in the study of false memories. This paradigm typically uses lists of words associated with one critical lure. The primary objective of our study was to understand the production of false memories using the DRM paradigm when lists of words are associated with two critical lures. Three experiments were performed, and it was observed that the critical lures associated with the first set were significantly more frequently recalled than the critical lures associated with the second set. This result was verified when the words were presented in descending order of association with the critical lure (Experiment 1), when the words of the second set were presented in ascending order of association with the critical lure (Experiment 2), and when all the words in the list had the same associative strength (Experiment 3). Results are explained by the activation/monitoring and fuzzy-trace theories.


Assuntos
Associação , Rememoração Mental , Psicolinguística , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eat Weight Disord ; 24(5): 915-922, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382541

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to study autobiographical memories in women with eating disorders regarding emotional verbal expression, according to age. Our hypotheses are threefold: due to the emotional avoidance that occurs in women with eating disorders, in the younger ages, it was hypothesized that younger participants with anorexia and bulimia nervosa will present a lower number of emotional expressions in the descriptions of their memories than women without eating disorders; that older participants with anorexia and bulimia nervosa will present a greater number of negative verbal expressions in the reports of their memories than women without eating disorders, given the development of negative bias that occurs with age in women with eating disorders; and that women with eating disorders will use more words in a description of their sad memories than women without eating disorders because of the existence of negative bias. METHODS: With a sample of 90 women and combining age and the presence or absence of eating disorders, we formed four groups. The task that they had to perform was to recall a sad and a happy life event. RESULTS: The younger women used more words than the older women to describe their memories, and women with eating disorders used more words in their descriptions of the sad memories. However, there were no differences in terms of the number of positive and negative expressions. CONCLUSIONS: Women with eating disorders exhibit higher levels of cognitive reappraisal and thus use more positive expressions and fewer negative expressions. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, Descriptive study.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Memory ; 27(4): 555-560, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293477

RESUMO

Words presented in larger font size are considered more memorable and rated with higher judgments of learning (JOLs). One explanation for this phenomenon is that people believe that font size affects memory. However, it is not clear why people hold this belief. One alternative is that font size represents importance, with larger fonts implying more relevant information. More important information is judged as more memorable and is, in fact, better remembered. In Experiments 1 and 2 we presented words in small (18 points) and extra-large font (250 points) and found higher JOLs and higher judgments of importance with extra-large fonts. A mediation analysis showed that importance accounted for 21-23% of the effect of font size on JOLs. In Experiment 3, we tested whether processing fluency was higher with the extra-large font. In a lexical decision task, participants were slower at detecting words and non-words with extra-large than small font, which is the opposite of what the processing fluency hypothesis predicts. This result shows that the font-size effect persists even in conditions in which perceived fluency should be lower. In sum, this research explained the belief that font size affects memory because words in larger fonts are considered more important.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Aprendizagem , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Adulto , Atenção , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psychol Belg ; 58(1): 91-104, 2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479809

RESUMO

Self-report instruments that allow to characterize the frequency of daily memory failures are essential for a comprehensive assessment of memory functioning. In this context, we aimed to provide preliminary evidence of validity and reliability for the European Portuguese adaptation of the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ). A total of 1052 healthy participants completed an online survey with the PRMQ. The exploration of the construct validity suggested the tripartite model with a general memory, a prospective memory, and a retrospective memory factors to have the best adjustment to the data. Measurement invariance across age and sex groups was also verified. The questionnaire revealed good convergent validity with a general self-report measure of memory (0.778 < r < 0.853), and satisfactory values of internal consistency (0.779 < Cronbach's alpha < 0.887) and of test-retest reliability (0.815 < r < 0.852). There were no prominent effects of sex and age in the PRMQ scores. Although the sample encompassed mainly younger and highly educated adults, this study presented the first evidence of validity and reliability for the European Portuguese version of the questionnaire.

19.
Trends Psychol ; 26(4): 1763-1773, out.-dez. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-986178

RESUMO

Resumo Este trabalho consiste numa revisão teórica com o objetivo de enquadrar historicamente o modo como as falsas memórias têm sido estudadas. Embora a maior parte dos estudos sobre falsas memórias tenha sido realizada a partir da última década do século XX, os primeiros datam do final do século XIX. Assim, e com o objetivo de assinalar os grandes marcos históricos na investigação das falsas memórias, começam por apresentar-se os estudos pioneiros realizados ainda no século XIX, bem como as pesquisas realizadas sobre o efeito das perguntas nos relatos de crianças e adultos. Posteriormente, apresentam-se as primeiras pesquisas realizadas com o objetivo específico de estudar o efeito de perguntas sugestivas no aparecimento de falsas memórias, seguidas dos estudos que recorreram a uma abordagem naturalista tendo-se tornado decisivos para a compreensão deste fenômeno. Já na segunda metade do século XX, ganha peso uma abordagem mais cognitivista no estudo deste fenômeno, e surgem os paradigmas da desinformação e DRM, que serão também discutidos. Ao longo do texto, reflete-se também sobre os mecanismos que foram considerados como estando na base do aparecimento das falsas memórias, bem como sobre as implicações científicas e sociais deste fenómeno.


Resumen Este trabajo consiste en una revisión teórica con el objetivo de encuadrar históricamente la forma en que las falsas memorias han sido estudiadas. Aunque la mayoría de los estudios sobre falsas memorias se han realizado a partir de la última década del siglo XX, los primeros datan del final del siglo XIX. Con el objetivo de señalar los grandes hitos históricos en la investigación de las falsas memorias, comienzan por presentarse los estudios pioneros realizados aún en el siglo XIX, así como las investigaciones realizadas sobre el efecto de las preguntas en los informes de niños y adultos. Posteriormente, se presentan las investigaciones realizadas con el objetivo específico de estudiar el efecto de preguntas sugestivas en las falsas memorias, seguidas de los estudios que recurrieron a un abordaje naturalista y se tornaran decisivos para la comprensión de este fenómeno. En la segunda mitad del siglo XX, gana peso un enfoque más cognitivista en el estudio de este fenómeno y surgen los paradigmas de la desinformación y DRM. Durante el texto, se refleja también sobre los mecanismos que se consideraron como la base de la aparición de las falsas memorias, así como sobre las implicaciones científicas y sociales de este fenómeno.


Abstract This work consists of a theoretical review with the aim of historically framing the way false memories have been studied. Although most of the studies on false memories have been developed since the last decade of the 20th century, the earliest is dated from the late 19th century. With the aim of pointing out the great historical milestones in the research of false memories, the pioneering studies carried out in the 19th century, as well as the researches on the effect of the questions on the reports of children and adults, are presented. Subsequently, we present the first researches carried out with the specific objective of studying the effect of suggestive questions on the production of false memories, followed by those who used a naturalistic approach and become decisive for the understanding of this phenomenon. In the second half of the 20th century, a more cognitive approach takes place, and the paradigms of misinformation and DRM arise, which will also be discussed. Throughout the manuscript, it is also reflected on the mechanisms that were considered to be the basis of the production of the false memories, as well as on the scientific and social implications of this phenomenon.

20.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 71(7): 1626-1636, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28856962

RESUMO

Past research has shown that the perceptual characteristics of studied items (e.g., font size) lead to a metamemory illusion, and that delayed judgements of learning (JOLs) are better predictors of memory performance than immediate JOLs. Here, we tested whether delayed JOLs could reduce or eliminate the effect of perceptual characteristics on JOLs and restudy decisions. We adopted a meta-analytic approach and analysed the results of 28 experiments in which participants' studied items were presented in either large or small font. JOLs and, sometimes, restudy decisions were collected either immediately or after a delay. Finally, participants completed a memory test. The results of the meta-analyses confirmed the effect of the font size on JOLs and restudy decisions. The delayed procedures reliably reduced the effect of perceptual characteristics on JOLs, but the effect was still significant after a delay. For restudy decisions, delayed procedures only reduced numerically the effect. Surprisingly, the meta-analysis also showed a very subtle memory advantage for items presented in large font over small font, although no individual study showed a significant difference and the overall effect size was small. One plausible explanation is that after a delay, information about font size is not available for some items, causing a reduction in the effect. Moreover, our results suggest that the dissociation between memory and metamemory reported previously may not be dissociation at all, but a mistmatched effect of font size on memory and metamemory.


Assuntos
Ilusões/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Humanos
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