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1.
Brain ; 142(11): 3382-3397, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637422

RESUMO

CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ET), encoded by PCYT2, is the rate-limiting enzyme for phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway. Phosphatidylethanolamine is one of the most abundant membrane lipids and is particularly enriched in the brain. We identified five individuals with biallelic PCYT2 variants clinically characterized by global developmental delay with regression, spastic para- or tetraparesis, epilepsy and progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Using patient fibroblasts we demonstrated that these variants are hypomorphic, result in altered but residual ET protein levels and concomitant reduced enzyme activity without affecting mRNA levels. The significantly better survival of hypomorphic CRISPR-Cas9 generated pcyt2 zebrafish knockout compared to a complete knockout, in conjunction with previously described data on the Pcyt2 mouse model, indicates that complete loss of ET function may be incompatible with life in vertebrates. Lipidomic analysis revealed profound lipid abnormalities in patient fibroblasts impacting both neutral etherlipid and etherphospholipid metabolism. Plasma lipidomics studies also identified changes in etherlipids that have the potential to be used as biomarkers for ET deficiency. In conclusion, our data establish PCYT2 as a disease gene for a new complex hereditary spastic paraplegia and confirm that etherlipid homeostasis is important for the development and function of the brain.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653659

RESUMO

Uniparental isodisomy (UPiD) is a rare genetic event that occurs when two identical copies of a single chromosome are inherited from one parent. Here we report a patient with a severe, multisystem metabolic disorder who inherited two copies of chromosome 12 from her father. He was a heterozygous carrier of a variant in the muscle-specific enzyme 6-phosphofructokinase (PFKM) gene, and of a truncating variant in the pseudouridine synthase 1 (PUS1) gene (both on chromosome 12), resulting in a homozygous state of these mutations in his daughter. The PFKM gene functions in glycolysis and is linked to Tarui syndrome. The PUS1 gene functions in mitochondrial tRNA processing and is linked to myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA). Analysis of human dermal fibroblasts, which do not express PFKM, revealed a loss of PUS1 mRNA and PUS1 protein only in the patient cells compared to healthy controls. The patient cells also revealed a reduction of the mitochondrial-encoded protein MTCO1 while levels of the nuclear-encoded SDHA remained unchanged, suggesting a specific impairment of mitochondrial translation. Further destabilization of these cells is suggested by the altered levels of BAX, BCL-2, and TP53 proteins, alterations that become augmented upon exposure of the cells to DNA damage. The results illustrate the efficacy of UPiD events to reveal rare pathogenic variants in human disease, and demonstrate how these events can lead to cellular destabilization.

3.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Leptin receptor (LepR) deficiency is an autosomal-recessive endocrine disorder causing early-onset severe obesity, hyperphagia and pituitary hormone deficiencies. As effective pharmacological treatment has recently been developed, diagnosing LepR deficiency is urgent. However, recognition is challenging and prevalence is unknown. We aim to elucidate the clinical spectrum and to estimate prevalence of LepR deficiency in Europe. DESIGN: Comprehensive epidemiologic analysis and systematic literature review. METHODS: We curated a list of LEPR variants described in patients and elaborately evaluated their phenotypes. Subsequently, we extracted allele frequencies from the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD), consisting of sequencing data of 77,165 European individuals. We then calculated the number of individuals with biallelic disease-causing LEPR variants. RESULTS: Worldwide, 86 patients with LepR deficiency are published. We add two new patients, bringing the total of published patients to 88, of which 21 are European. All patients had early-onset obesity; 96% had hyperphagia; 34% had one or more pituitary hormone deficiencies. Our calculation results in 998 predicted patients in Europe, corresponding to a prevalence of 1.34 per 1 million people (95% CI 0.95-1.72). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that LepR deficiency is more prevalent in Europe (n=998 predicted patients) than currently known (n=21 patients), suggesting that LepR deficiency is underdiagnosed. An important cause for this could be lack of access to genetic testing. Another possible explanation is insufficient recognition, as only one-third of patients has pituitary hormone deficiencies. With novel highly effective treatment emerging, diagnosing LepR deficiency is more important than ever.

4.
Genet Med ; 21(8): 1808-1820, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635621

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a developmental disorder caused by dysregulation of the imprinted gene cluster of chromosome 11p15.5 and often associated with loss of methylation (LOM) of the imprinting center 2 (IC2) located in KCNQ1 intron 10. To unravel the etiological mechanisms underlying these epimutations, we searched for genetic variants associated with IC2 LOM. METHODS: We looked for cases showing the clinical features of both BWS and long QT syndrome (LQTS), which is often associated with KCNQ1 variants. Pathogenic variants were identified by genomic analysis and targeted sequencing. Functional experiments were performed to link these pathogenic variants to the imprinting defect. RESULTS: We found three rare cases in which complete IC2 LOM is associated with maternal transmission of KCNQ1 variants, two of which were demonstrated to affect KCNQ1 transcription upstream of IC2. As a consequence of KCNQ1 haploinsufficiency, these variants also cause LQTS on both maternal and paternal transmission. CONCLUSION: These results are consistent with the hypothesis that, similar to what has been demonstrated in mouse, lack of transcription across IC2 results in failure of methylation establishment in the female germline and BWS later in development, and also suggest a new link between LQTS and BWS that is important for genetic counseling.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 752-768, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388402

RESUMO

The nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors play an important role in normal development of multiple organs. Three NFI family members are highly expressed in the brain, and deletions or sequence variants in two of these, NFIA and NFIX, have been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and brain malformations. NFIB, however, has not previously been implicated in human disease. Here, we present a cohort of 18 individuals with mild ID and behavioral issues who are haploinsufficient for NFIB. Ten individuals harbored overlapping microdeletions of the chromosomal 9p23-p22.2 region, ranging in size from 225 kb to 4.3 Mb. Five additional subjects had point sequence variations creating a premature termination codon, and three subjects harbored single-nucleotide variations resulting in an inactive protein as determined using an in vitro reporter assay. All individuals presented with additional variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including muscular hypotonia, motor and speech delay, attention deficit disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and behavioral abnormalities. While structural brain anomalies, including dysgenesis of corpus callosum, were variable, individuals most frequently presented with macrocephaly. To determine whether macrocephaly could be a functional consequence of NFIB disruption, we analyzed a cortex-specific Nfib conditional knockout mouse model, which is postnatally viable. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging and histology, we demonstrate that Nfib conditional knockout mice have enlargement of the cerebral cortex but preservation of overall brain structure and interhemispheric connectivity. Based on our findings, we propose that haploinsufficiency of NFIB causes ID with macrocephaly.

6.
JIMD Rep ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349988

RESUMO

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the pyrimidine degradation pathway and can lead to intellectual disability, motor retardation, and seizures. Genetic variations in DPYD have also emerged as predictive risk factors for severe toxicity in cancer patients treated with fluoropyrimidines. We recently observed a child born to non-consanguineous parents, who demonstrated seizures, cognitive impairment, language delay, and MRI abnormalities and was found to have marked thymine-uraciluria. No residual DPD activity could be detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Molecular analysis showed that the child was homozygous for the very rare c.257C > T (p.Pro86Leu) variant in DPYD. Functional analysis of the recombinantly expressed DPD mutant showed that the DPD mutant carrying the p.Pro86Leu did not possess any residual DPD activity. Carrier testing in parents revealed that the father was heterozygous for the variant but unexpectedly the mother did not carry the variant. Microsatellite repeat testing with markers covering chromosome 1 showed that the DPD deficiency in the child is due to paternal uniparental isodisomy. Our report thus extends the genetic spectrum underlying DPYD deficiency.

7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(12): 1752-1758, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089828

RESUMO

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder with a prenatal onset. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified variants in the gene Coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (COASY) gene, an enzyme essential in CoA synthesis, in four individuals from two families with PCH, prenatal onset microcephaly, and arthrogryposis. In family 1, compound heterozygous variants were identified in COASY: c.[1549_1550delAG]; [1486-3 C>G]. In family 2, all three affected siblings were homozygous for the c.1486-3 C>G variant. In both families, the variants segregated with the phenotype. RNA analysis showed that the c.1486-3 C>G variant leads to skipping of exon 7 with partial retention of intron 7, disturbing the reading frame and resulting in a premature stop codon (p.(Ala496Ilefs*20)). No CoA synthase protein was detected in patient cells by immunoblot analysis and CoA synthase activity was virtually absent. Partial CoA synthase defects were previously described as a cause of COASY Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration (CoPAN), a type of Neurodegeneration and Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA). Here we demonstrate that near complete loss of function variants in COASY are associated with lethal PCH and arthrogryposis.

8.
J Med Genet ; 55(10): 693-700, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Four genetic causes of isolated congenital central hypothyroidism (CeH) have been identified, but many cases remain unexplained. We hypothesised the existence of other genetic causes of CeH with a Mendelian inheritance pattern. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing in two families with unexplained isolated CeH and subsequently Sanger sequenced unrelated idiopathic CeH cases. We performed clinical and biochemical characterisation of the probands and carriers identified by family screening. We investigated IRS4 mRNA expression in human hypothalamus and pituitary tissue, and measured serum thyroid hormones and Trh and Tshb mRNA expression in hypothalamus and pituitary tissue of Irs4 knockout mice. RESULTS: We found mutations in the insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS4) gene in two pairs of brothers with CeH (one nonsense, one frameshift). Sequencing of IRS4 in 12 unrelated CeH cases negative for variants in known genes yielded three frameshift mutations (two novel) in three patients and one male sibling. All male carriers (n=8) had CeH with plasma free thyroxine concentrations below the reference interval. MRI of the hypothalamus and pituitary showed no structural abnormalities (n=12). 24-hour thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion profiles in two adult male patients showed decreased basal, pulsatile and total TSH secretion. IRS4 mRNA was expressed in human hypothalamic nuclei, including the paraventricular nucleus, and in the pituitary gland. Female knockout mice showed decreased pituitary Tshb mRNA levels but had unchanged serum thyroid hormone concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in IRS4 are associated with isolated CeH in male carriers. As IRS4 is involved in leptin signalling, the phenotype may be related to disrupted leptin signalling.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1195-1203, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861108

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for the discovery of genes related to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report the identification of a distinct syndrome due to de novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) in 38 unrelated individuals and two affected mothers, using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies, matchmaker databases, and international collaborations. Affected individuals had a consistent phenotype, characterized by mild-borderline neurodevelopmental delay (86%), behavioral disorders (68%), severe gastro-intestinal problems (63%), and facial dysmorphism including blepharophimosis (82%), telecanthus (74%), prominent nasal bridge (68%), broad nasal tip (66%), thin vermilion of the upper lip (62%), and upslanting palpebral fissures (55%). Analysis of cell lines from three affected individuals showed that mutations act through a loss-of-function mechanism in at least two case subjects. Genotype-phenotype analysis and comparison of computationally modeled faces showed that phenotypes of these and other individuals with loss-of-function variants significantly overlapped with phenotypes of individuals with other variant types (missense and C-terminal truncating). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of TLK2 is the most likely underlying disease mechanism, leading to a consistent neurodevelopmental phenotype. This work illustrates the power of international data sharing, by the identification of 40 individuals from 26 different centers in 7 different countries, allowing the identification, clinical delineation, and genotype-phenotype evaluation of a distinct NDD caused by mutations in TLK2.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(5): 1166-1174, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681106

RESUMO

Biallelic variants in FAT4 are associated with the two disorders, Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) (n = 11) and Hennekam syndrome (HS) (n= 40). Both conditions are characterized by a typical facial gestalt and mild to moderate intellectual disability, but differ in the occurrence of neonatal hypotonia and feeding problems, hearing loss, tracheal anomalies, and osteopenia in VMS, and lymphedema in HS. VMS can be caused by autosomal recessive variants in DCHS1 as well, and HS can also be caused by autosomal recessive variants in CCBE1 and ADAMTS3. Here we report two siblings with VMS and one girl with HS, all with FAT4 variants, and provide an overview of the clinical findings in all patients reported with FAT4 variants. Our comparison of the complete phenotypes of patients with VMS and HS indicates a resemblance of several signs, but differences in several other main signs and symptoms, each of marked importance for affected individuals.

12.
Genes Dev ; 32(5-6): 373-388, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555651

RESUMO

It has been well established that histone and DNA modifications are critical to maintaining the equilibrium between pluripotency and differentiation during early embryogenesis. Mutations in key regulators of DNA methylation have shown that the balance between gene regulation and function is critical during neural development in early years of life. However, there have been no identified cases linking epigenetic regulators to aberrant human development and fetal demise. Here, we demonstrate that a homozygous inactivating mutation in the histone deacetylase SIRT6 results in severe congenital anomalies and perinatal lethality in four affected fetuses. In vitro, the amino acid change at Asp63 to a histidine results in virtually complete loss of H3K9 deacetylase and demyristoylase functions. Functionally, SIRT6 D63H mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) fail to repress pluripotent gene expression, direct targets of SIRT6, and exhibit an even more severe phenotype than Sirt6-deficient ESCs when differentiated into embryoid bodies (EBs). When terminally differentiated toward cardiomyocyte lineage, D63H mutant mESCs maintain expression of pluripotent genes and fail to form functional cardiomyocyte foci. Last, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from D63H homozygous fetuses fail to differentiate into EBs, functional cardiomyocytes, and neural progenitor cells due to a failure to repress pluripotent genes. Altogether, our study described a germline mutation in SIRT6 as a cause for fetal demise, defining SIRT6 as a key factor in human development and identifying the first mutation in a chromatin factor behind a human syndrome of perinatal lethality.


Assuntos
Mutação/genética , Sirtuínas/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Corpos Embrioides , Células-Tronco Embrionárias , Morte Fetal , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(2): 309-320, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29394990

RESUMO

Exome sequencing has markedly enhanced the discovery of genes implicated in Mendelian disorders, particularly for individuals in whom a known clinical entity could not be assigned. This has led to the recognition that phenotypic heterogeneity resulting from allelic mutations occurs more commonly than previously appreciated. Here, we report that missense variants in CDC42, a gene encoding a small GTPase functioning as an intracellular signaling node, underlie a clinically heterogeneous group of phenotypes characterized by variable growth dysregulation, facial dysmorphism, and neurodevelopmental, immunological, and hematological anomalies, including a phenotype resembling Noonan syndrome, a developmental disorder caused by dysregulated RAS signaling. In silico, in vitro, and in vivo analyses demonstrate that mutations variably perturb CDC42 function by altering the switch between the active and inactive states of the GTPase and/or affecting CDC42 interaction with effectors, and differentially disturb cellular and developmental processes. These findings reveal the remarkably variable impact that dominantly acting CDC42 mutations have on cell function and development, creating challenges in syndrome definition, and exemplify the importance of functional profiling for syndrome recognition and delineation.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(3): 917-925, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29342293

RESUMO

Context: Small for gestational age (SGA) can be the result of fetal growth restriction, which is associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality. Mechanisms that control prenatal growth are poorly understood. Objective: The aim of the current study was to gain more insight into prenatal growth failure and determine an effective diagnostic approach in SGA newborns. We hypothesized that one or more copy number variations (CNVs) and disturbed methylation and sequence variants may be present in genes associated with fetal growth. Design: A prospective cohort study of subjects with a low birth weight for gestational age. Setting: The study was conducted at an academic pediatric research institute. Patients: A total of 21 SGA newborns with a mean birth weight below the first centile and a control cohort of 24 appropriate-for-gestational-age newborns were studied. Interventions: Array comparative genomic hybridization, genome-wide methylation studies, and exome sequencing were performed. Main Outcome Measures: The numbers of CNVs, methylation disturbances, and sequence variants. Results: The genetic analyses demonstrated three CNVs, one systematically disturbed methylation pattern, and one sequence variant explaining SGA. Additional methylation disturbances and sequence variants were present in 20 patients. In 19 patients, multiple abnormalities were found. Conclusion: Our results confirm the influence of a large number of mechanisms explaining dysregulation of fetal growth. We concluded that CNVs, methylation disturbances, and sequence variants all contribute to prenatal growth failure. These genetic workups can be an effective diagnostic approach in SGA newborns.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(2): 415-428, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165578

RESUMO

Context: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) consists of a small/absent anterior pituitary lobe, an interrupted/absent pituitary stalk, and an ectopic posterior pituitary lobe. Mendelian forms of PSIS are detected infrequently (<5%), and a polygenic etiology has been suggested. GLI2 variants have been reported at a relatively high frequency in PSIS. Objective: To provide further evidence for a non-Mendelian, polygenic etiology of PSIS. Methods: Exome sequencing (trio approach) in 20 patients with isolated PSIS. In addition to searching for (potentially) pathogenic de novo and biallelic variants, a targeted search was performed in a panel of genes associated with midline brain development (223 genes). For GLI2 variants, both (potentially) pathogenic and relatively rare variants (<5% in the general population) were studied. The frequency of GLI2 variants was compared with that of a reference population. Results: We found four additional candidate genes for isolated PSIS (DCHS1, ROBO2, CCDC88C, and KIF14) and one for syndromic PSIS (KAT6A). Eleven GLI2 variants were present in six patients. A higher frequency of a combination of two GLI2 variants (M1352V + D1520N) was found in the study group compared with a reference population (10% vs 0.68%). (Potentially) pathogenic variants were identified in genes associated with midline brain anomalies, including holoprosencephaly, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and absent corpus callosum and in genes involved in ciliopathies. Conclusion: Combinations of variants in genes associated with midline brain anomalies are frequently present in PSIS and sustain the hypothesis of a polygenic cause of PSIS.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Herança Multifatorial , Doenças da Hipófise/genética , Hipófise/anormalidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Doenças da Hipófise/congênito , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
16.
Hum Mutat ; 38(11): 1542-1554, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741757

RESUMO

The closely related paralogues FOXP2 and FOXP1 encode transcription factors with shared functions in the development of many tissues, including the brain. However, while mutations in FOXP2 lead to a speech/language disorder characterized by childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), the clinical profile of FOXP1 variants includes a broader neurodevelopmental phenotype with global developmental delay, intellectual disability, and speech/language impairment. Using clinical whole-exome sequencing, we report an identical de novo missense FOXP1 variant identified in three unrelated patients. The variant, p.R514H, is located in the forkhead-box DNA-binding domain and is equivalent to the well-studied p.R553H FOXP2 variant that cosegregates with CAS in a large UK family. We present here for the first time a direct comparison of the molecular and clinical consequences of the same mutation affecting the equivalent residue in FOXP1 and FOXP2. Detailed functional characterization of the two variants in cell model systems revealed very similar molecular consequences, including aberrant subcellular localization, disruption of transcription factor activity, and deleterious effects on protein interactions. Nonetheless, clinical manifestations were broader and more severe in the three cases carrying the p.R514H FOXP1 variant than in individuals with the p.R553H variant related to CAS, highlighting divergent roles of FOXP2 and FOXP1 in neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/química , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(5): 1383-1389, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28371265

RESUMO

Oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1; OMIM# 311200) is an X-linked dominant ciliopathy caused by mutations in the OFD1 gene. This condition is characterized by facial anomalies and abnormalities of oral tissues, digits, brain, and kidneys. Almost all affected patients are female, as OFD1 is presumed to be lethal in males, mostly in the first or second trimester of pregnancy. Live born males with OFD1 are a rare occurrence, with only five reported patients to date. In four patients the presence of a congenital heart defect (CHD) was observed. Here, we report an affected male fetus with a hemizygous de novo mutation in OFD1 (c.2101C>T; p.(Gln701*)). Ultrasound examination demonstrated severe hydrocephalus, a hypoplastic cerebellum and a hypoplastic left ventricle of the heart. The pregnancy was terminated at 16 weeks of gestation because of poor prognosis. Post-mortem examination of the fetus confirmed severe hypoplasia of the left ventricle of the heart. We emphasize that CHDs should be included in the phenotypic spectrum of OFD1 in males. This justifies molecular analysis of OFD1 when CHD is encountered prenatally in combination with one or more phenotypic features previously described in the OFD1 gene alteration spectrum. The underlying pathogenesis of CHD in OFD1 (and other ciliopathies) probably involves dysfunction of the primary cilia regarding coordination of left-right signalling during early heart development. Whether these CHDs wholly or partly result from defective left right signalling, in which different types of cilia are known to play a critical role, remains a topic of research.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/genética , Proteínas/genética , Feto Abortado , Autopsia , Feminino , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/complicações , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/fisiopatologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(13): 2541-2550, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28449065

RESUMO

Perrault syndrome (PS) is a rare recessive disorder characterized by ovarian dysgenesis and sensorineural deafness. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and previously mutations have been described in different genes, mostly related to mitochondrial proteostasis. We diagnosed three unrelated females with PS and set out to identify the underlying genetic cause using exome sequencing. We excluded mutations in the known PS genes, but identified a single homozygous mutation in the ERAL1 gene (c.707A > T; p.Asn236Ile). Since ERAL1 protein binds to the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and is involved in the assembly of the small mitochondrial ribosomal subunit, the identified variant represented a likely candidate. In silico analysis of a 3D model for ERAL1 suggested that the mutated residue hinders protein-substrate interactions, potentially affecting its function. On a molecular basis, PS skin fibroblasts had reduced ERAL1 protein levels. Complexome profiling of the cells showed an overall decrease in the levels of assembled small ribosomal subunit, indicating that the ERAL1 variant affects mitochondrial ribosome assembly. Moreover, levels of the 12S rRNA were reduced in the patients, and were rescued by lentiviral expression of wild type ERAL1. At the physiological level, mitochondrial respiration was markedly decreased in PS fibroblasts, confirming disturbed mitochondrial function. Finally, knockdown of the C. elegans ERAL1 homologue E02H1.2 almost completely blocked egg production in worms, mimicking the compromised fertility in PS-affected women. Our cross-species data in patient cells and worms support the hypothesis that mutations in ERAL1 can cause PS and are associated with changes in mitochondrial metabolism.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XX/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XX/metabolismo , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/metabolismo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
Front Pediatr ; 5: 37, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28289675

RESUMO

We describe here the case of a boy who presented with pulmonary infections, feeding difficulties due to velopharyngeal insufficiency and gastroesophageal reflux, myopathy, and hypotonia soon after birth. Later, he was also found to have an elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E and mild eczema and was diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease. Further immunological screening at the age of 7 years showed low B and NK cell numbers but normal CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and notably, normal numbers of CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. Serum IgG, IgA, and IgM were low to normal, but he had a deficient response to a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and thus a humoral immunodeficiency. To our surprise, whole exome sequencing revealed a mutation in forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), encoding an essential transcription factor for the development and function of Treg cells. This classical mutation is associated with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome. Further in vitro studies indeed showed defective function of Treg cells despite normal FOXP3 protein expression and nuclear localization. The boy underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 11 years of age and despite the temporary development of diabetes while on prednisone is now doing much better, IgE levels have declined, and his fatigue has improved. This case illustrates that a classical pathogenic mutation in FOXP3 can lead to a clinical phenotype where the diagnosis of IPEX syndrome was never considered because of the lack of diabetes and the presence of only mild eczema, in addition to the normal Treg cell numbers and FOXP3 expression.

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