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1.
J Phys Chem A ; 125(36): 7891-7899, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464135

RESUMO

First-principles density functional theory calculations on neutral and singly negatively and positively charged iron clusters Fen and iron nitride clusters FenN and FenN2 (n = 1-10) in the range of 1 ≤ n ≤ 10 revealed that there is a strong competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states especially in the FenN20,±1 cluster series. This phenomenon was related to superexchange via a bridging N atom between two iron atoms in the FenN20,±1 cluster series and to a double superexchange effect via a Fe atom shared by two N atoms in the FenN20,±1 series. A thorough examination of the structure-energy-spin state relationships in these clusters is conducted, leading to new insights and confirmation of available experimental results on structural parameters and dissociation energetics. The bond energies of both nitrogen atoms in the FenN2 series are approximately the same. They weakly depend on the charge of the host cluster and fluctuate around 5.5 eV when moving along the series. The energy of N2 desorption is relatively small; it varies by about 1.0 eV and depends on the charge of the cluster. The experimental finding that N2 dissociates on the Fen+ clusters beginning with n = 4 was supported by the results of our computations. Our computed values of the Fen+-N bonding energies agree with the experimental data within the experimental uncertainty bars. It was found that the attachment of one or two N atoms does not seriously affect the polarizability, electron affinity, or ionization energy of the host iron clusters independent of the charge.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(18): 4362-4367, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938752

RESUMO

Regardless of the impressive photovoltaic performances demonstrated for lead halide perovskite solar cells, their practical implementation is severely impeded by the low device stability. Complex lead halides are sensitive to both light and heat, which are unavoidable under realistic solar cell operational conditions. Suppressing these intrinsic degradation pathways requires a thorough understanding of their mechanistic aspects. Herein, we explored the temperature effects in the light-induced decomposition of MAPbI3 and PbI2 thin films under anoxic conditions. The analysis of the aging kinetics revealed that MAPbI3 photolysis and PbI2 photolysis have quite high effective activation energies of ∼85 and ∼106 kJ mol-1, respectively, so decreasing the temperature from 55 to 30 °C can extend the perovskite lifetime by factors of >10-100. These findings suggest that controlling the temperature of the perovskite solar panels might allow the long operational lifetimes (>20 years) required for the practical implementation of this promising technology.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(3): 2166-2178, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438692

RESUMO

The coalescence of two Fe8N as well as the structure of the Fe16N2 cluster were studied using density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation and a basis set of triple-zeta quality. It was found that the coalescence may proceed without an energy barrier and that the geometrical structures of the resulting clusters depend strongly on the mutual orientations of the initial moieties. The dissociation of N2 is energetically favorable on Fe16, and the nitrogen atoms share the same Fe atom in the lowest energy state of the Fe16N2 species. The attachment of two nitrogen atoms leads to a decrease in the total spin magnetic moment of the ground-state Fe16 host by 6 µB due to the peculiarities of chemical bonding in the magnetic clusters. In order to gain insight into the dependence of properties on charge and to estimate the bonding energies of both N atoms, we performed optimizations of Fe16N and the singly charged ions of both Fe16N2 and Fe16N. It was found that the electronic properties of the Fe16N2 cluster, such as electron affinity and ionization energy, do not appreciably depend on the attachment of nitrogen atoms but that the average binding energy per atom changes significantly. The lowering in total energy due to the attachment of two N atoms was found to be nearly independent of charge. The IR and Raman spectra were simulated for Fe16N2 and its ions, and it was found that the positions of the most intense peaks in the IR spectra strongly depend on charge and therefore present fingerprints of the charged states. The chemical bonding in the ground-state Fe16N20,±1 species was described in terms of the localized molecular orbitals.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(4): 5184-5194, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474932

RESUMO

All-inorganic lead halide perovskites, for example, CsPbI3, are becoming more attractive for applications as light absorbers in perovskite solar cells because of higher thermal and photochemical stability as compared to their hybrid analogues. However, a specific drawback of the CsPbI3 absorber consists of the rapid phase transition from black to yellow nonphotoactive phase at low temperatures (e.g., <100 °C), which is accelerated under exposure to light. Herein, an experimental screening of an unprecedently large series (>30) of metal cations in a wide range of concentration has allowed us to establish a set of Pb2+ substitutes, facilitating the crystallization of the photoactive black CsPbI3 phase at low temperatures. Importantly, the appropriate Pb2+ substitution with Ca2+, Sr2+, Ce3+, Nd3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy2+, Er3+, Yb2+, Lu3+, and Pt2+ cations has led to a spectacular enhancement of the film stability under realistic solar cell operation conditions (∼1 sun equivalent light exposure, 50 °C). Optoelectronic, structural, and morphological effects of partial Pb2+ substitution were investigated, providing a deeper insight into the processes underlying the stabilization of the CsPbI3 films. Several CsPb1-xMxI∼3 systems were evaluated as absorber materials in perovskite solar cells, demonstrating encouraging light power conversion efficiency of 11.4% in preliminary experiments. The obtained results feature the potential of designing efficient and stable all-inorganic perovskite solar cells using novel absorber materials rationally designed via compositional engineering.

5.
Dalton Trans ; 49(44): 15592-15596, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140783

RESUMO

Herein, we report the synthesis and magnetic properties of the Co(ii) coordination compound with the 1,1'-bis(1-((pyrid-2-ylmethylene)hydrazono)ethyl)ferrocene (L) ligand, having the general formula [CoLCl2]. The static magnetic data analysis supported by the CASSCF/NEVPT2 calculations revealed the presence of the triaxial magnetic anisotropy with Dexp = +35.2 cm-1 and large rhombicity (E/D = 0.31) in this complex (Dcalc = +34.5 cm-1, E/Dcalc = 0.30). The dynamic magnetic data confirm that the complex shows a slow field-induced (HDC = 1000 Oe) magnetic relaxation behaviour.

6.
Dalton Trans ; 49(36): 12674-12685, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959848

RESUMO

Interaction and transformation of the mononuclear cationic dinitrosyl iron complex [Fe(SC(NH2)2)2(NO)2]+ (complex 1) upon binding with bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been explored using kinetic measurements, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, and computational molecular modeling. BSA was found to bind up to five molecules of complex 1 per one protein molecule; as a result, the rate of NO release by complex 1 into solution decreases by a factor of 10. The binding constant of complex 1 with BSA measured by the quenching of intrinsic fluorescence of BSA is 5 × 105 М-1. Molecular docking calculations at pH = 7 have determined five-six low-energy binding sites for complex 1 at subunits I and II of BSA. The most stable protein-ligand complexes are located at the protein pockets near Cys34. The spectroscopic measurements and docking calculations have shown that the decomposition product of complex 1, the Fe(NO)2+ fragment, can form an adduct Fe(Cys34)(His39)(NO)2 (complex 2) with the coordination bonds of Fe with atoms S of Cys34 and ND of His39. The structure of complex 2 was supported by the density functional calculations of the absorption spectrum. Decomposition of complex 2 leads to nitrosylation of BSA at atom S of Cys34. Complexes 1 (bound with BSA), 2 and the nitrosylated BSA can serve as NO depot in plasma.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Complexos de Coordenação/metabolismo , Ferro/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Tioureia/química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Bovinos , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular
7.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 16: 1820-1829, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765797

RESUMO

2-Benzo[b]thienyl fulgides and fulgimides containing bulky diphenylmethylene substituents were synthesized in the form of their ring-opened E- or Z-isomers. In contrast to the majority of known fulgides/fulgimides, that form colored ring-closed structures under UV irradiation, the obtained compounds undergo an irreversible transformation leading to decoloration of their solutions. This rearrangement with the formation of the dihydronaphthalene core appeared to be by 2-3 orders of magnitude more efficient than for the known diphenylmethylene(aryl(hetaryl))fulgides. The molecular structures of E- and Z-isomers and of products of the photoinduced rearrangement completed by 1,5-H shift reaction, 3a,4-dihydronaphtho[2,3-c]furans(pyrroles) C, were established based on the data of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(16): 6772-6778, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689804

RESUMO

Hybrid perovskite solar cells attract a great deal of attention due to the feasibility of their low-cost production and their demonstration of impressive power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 25%. However, the insufficient intrinsic stability of lead halides under light soaking and thermal stress impedes practical implementation of this technology. Herein, we show that the photothermal aging of a widely used perovskite light absorber such as MAPbI3 can be suppressed significantly by using polyvinylcarbazole (PVC) as a stabilizing agent. By applying a few complementary methods, we reveal that the PVC additive leads to passivation of defects in the absorber material. Introducing an optimal content of PVC into MAPbI3 delivers a PCE of 18.7% in combination with a significantly improved solar cell operational lifetime: devices retained ∼70% of the initial efficiency after light soaking for 1500 h, whereas the control samples without PVC degraded almost completely under the same conditions.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(14): 5563-5568, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564599

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that charge transport interlayers with low gas permeability can increase the operational lifetime of perovskite solar cells serving as a barrier for migration of volatile decomposition products from the photoactive layer. Herein we present a hybrid hole transport layer (HTL) comprised of p-type polytriarylamine (PTAA) polymer and vanadium(V) oxide (VOx). Devices with PTAA/VOx top HTL reach up to 20% efficiency and demonstrate negligible degradation after 4500 h of light soaking, whereas reference cells using PTAA/MoOx as HTL lose ∼50% of their initial efficiency under the same aging conditions. It was shown that the main origin of the enhanced device stability lies in the higher tolerance of VOx toward MAPbI3 compared to the MoOx interlayer, which tends to facilitate perovskite decomposition. Our results demonstrate that the application of PTAA/VOx hybrid HTL enables long-term operational stability of perovskite solar cells, thus bringing them closer to commercial applications.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(29): 32987-32993, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583660

RESUMO

Photoswitchable organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with embedded photochromic materials are considered as a promising platform for development of organic optical memory devices. Unfortunately, the operational mechanism of these devices and guidelines for selection of light-sensitive materials are still poorly explored. In the present work, a series of photochromic dihetarylethenes with a cyclopentenone bridge moiety were investigated as a dielectric/semiconductor interlayer in the structure of photoswitchable OFETs. It was shown that the electrical performance and stability of the devices can be tuned by variation of the substituents in the structure of the photochromic material. In particular, it was found that dihetarylethenes with donor substituents demonstrated the best light-induced switching effects (wider memory windows and higher switching coefficients) in the devices. The operation mechanism of the light-triggered memory devices was proposed based on the differential in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy data and regression analysis of the threshold voltage-programming time experimental dependencies. The established relationships will facilitate further rational design of new photochromic materials, thus paving a way to fast and durable organic optical memories and memory transistors (memristors).

11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(7): 2630-2636, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178515

RESUMO

In this work, we report a comparative study of the gamma ray stability of perovskite solar cells based on a series of perovskite absorbers including MAPbI3 (MA = methylammonium), MAPbBr3, Cs0.15FA0.85PbI3 (FA = formamidinim), Cs0.1MA0.15FA0.75PbI3, CsPbI3, and CsPbBr3. We reveal that the composition of the perovskite material strongly affects the radiation stability of the solar cells. In particular, solar cells based on the MAPbI3 were found to be the most resistant to gamma rays since this perovskite undergoes rapid self-healing due to the special gas-phase chemistry analyzed with ab initio calculations. The fact that the solar cells based on MAPbI3 can withstand a 1000 kRad gamma ray dose without any noticeable degradation of the photovoltaic properties is particularly exciting and shifts the paradigm of research in this field toward designing more dynamic rather than intrinsically robust (e.g., inorganic) materials.

12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 230: 118041, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955116

RESUMO

Photochromic molecules which can absorb and emit light within the "biological window" (650-1450 nm) are of great interest for using in various important biomedical applications such as bio-imaging, photopharmacology, targeted drug delivery, etc. Here we present three new indoline spiropyrans containing conjugated cationic fragments and halogen substituents in the 2H-chromene moiety which were synthesized by a simple one-pot method. The molecular structure of the obtained compounds was confirmed by FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy (including 2D methods), HRMS, elemental and single crystal X-ray analysis. Photochemical studies revealed the photochromic activity of spiropyrans at room temperature which caused photoswitchable fluorescence in the near-IR region after UV-irradiation. While the spirocyclic forms of compounds demonstrated absorption bands in the UV-Vis spectra with maxima in the visible region at about 445 nm and were not fluorescent, the photogenerated merocyanine isomers absorbed in the near-IR range at 708-738 nm and emitted at 768-791 nm. It was found that compound 1a with fluorine substituent possesses the most red-shifted absorption and emission bands of merocyanine form among all the known photochromic spiropyrans with maxima at 738 and 791 nm correspondingly. TD DFT calculations have shown that the longest wavelength absorption maxima of the merocyanine forms correspond to S0-S1 transitions of the isomers with at least one trans-trans-trans-configured vinylindolium fragment which brings them closer to cyanine-like structure and causes an appearance of the absorption and emission bands in the near-IR region.

13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(1): 333-339, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838849

RESUMO

We report the first systematic assessment of intrinsic photothermal stability of a large panel of complex lead halides APbX3 incorporating different univalent cations (A = CH3NH3+, [NH2CHNH2]+, Cs+) and halogen anions (X = Br, I) using a series of analytical techniques such as UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, EDX analysis, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy, ESR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. We show that heat stress and light soaking induce a severe degradation of perovskite films even in the absence of oxygen and moisture. The stability of complex lead halides increases in the order MAPbBr3 < MAPbI3 < FAPbI3 < FAPbBr3 < CsPbI3 < CsPbBr3, thus featuring all-inorganic perovskites as the most promising absorbers for stable perovskite solar cells. An important correlation was found between the stability of the complex lead halides and the volatility of univalent cation halides incorporated in their structure. The established relationship provides useful guidelines for designing new complex metal halides with immensely improved stability.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(1): 221-228, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814411

RESUMO

Herein, we reveal for the first time a comprehensive mechanism of poorly investigated electrochemical decomposition of CH3NH3PbI3 using a set of microscopy techniques (optical, AFM, PL) and ToF-SIMS. We demonstrate that applied electric bias induces the oxidation of I- to I2, which remains trapped in the film in the form of polyiodides, and hence, the process can be conceivably reversed by reduction. On the contrary, reduction of organic methylammonium cation produces volatile products, which leave the film and thus make the degradation irreversible. Our results lead to a paradigm change when considering design principles for improving the stability of complex lead halide materials as those featuring organic cations rather than halide anions as the most electric field-sensitive components. Suppressing the electrochemical degradation of complex lead halides represents a crucial challenge, which should be addressed in order to bring the operational stability of perovskite photovoltaics to commercially interesting benchmarks.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 58(24): 16434-16444, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749359

RESUMO

Accurate determination of the spin Hamiltonian parameters in transition-metal complexes with large zero-field splitting (ZFS) is an actual challenge in studying magnetic and spectroscopic properties of high-spin transition metal complexes. Recent critical papers have convincingly shown that previous determinations of these parameters, based only on the magnetic data, have low accuracy and reliability. A combination of X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometry seems to be a more convincing and accurate approach. However, even in this case, the accuracy of the determination of the spin Hamiltonian parameters is strongly limited. In this work, we propose a purely spectroscopic approach, in which three complementary EPR spectroscopic techniques are used to unambiguously with high accuracy determine the spin Hamiltonian parameters for transition-metal complexes with S = 3/2. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated by analyzing the new quasi-octahedral high-spin Co(II) complex [Co(hfac)2(bpy)] (I). Along with the conventional X-band EPR spectroscopy, we also use such advanced techniques as multi-high-frequency EPR spectroscopy (MHF-EPR) and frequency-domain Fourier-transform THz-EPR (FD-FT THz-EPR). We demonstrate that the experimental data derived from the X-band and MHF-EPR EPR spectra allow determination of the g tensor (gx = 2.388, gy = 2.417, gz = 2.221) and the ZFS rhombicity parameter E/D = 0.158. The axial ZFS parameter D = 37.1 cm-1 is measured for I with the aid of FD-FT THZ-EPR spectroscopy, which is able to detect the high-energy EPR transition between the two Kramers doublets. CASSCF/NEVPT2 quantum-chemical calculations of magnetic parameters and magnetic direct current (dc) measurements are performed as well as testing options, and the results obtained in these ways are in good agreement with those derived using the proposed spectroscopic approach.

16.
Dalton Trans ; 48(20): 6960-6970, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041973

RESUMO

A coordination compound with the composition [CoLCl2]·H2O (L = bis-condensation product of diacetyl and 2-hydrazinyl-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine) was synthesized, in which the Co(ii) ion was hexacoordinated. Under applied DC fields, this compound exhibited single-ion magnet behavior. Two relaxation processes were observed when increasing the applied magnetic field from 1000 to 3200 Oe. The first relaxation (high-frequency) was observed both at 1000 Oe and 3200 Oe, while the second relaxation was only registered under a field of 3200 Oe at low frequencies (<1 Hz) and low temperatures (<5 K). Modeling of the magnetic DC properties using the Griffith Hamiltonian accompanied by quantum chemical calculations revealed easy-axis-type magnetic anisotropy with weak rhombic contributions.

17.
J Phys Chem A ; 122(45): 8931-8937, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359039

RESUMO

Previously unknown the steric heavy atom effect on magnetic anisotropy parameters of triplet phenyl nitrenes is reported. The heavy bromine atom effect is revealed by W-band EPR and theoretical investigations of triplet 2,4,6-tribromophenyl nitrenes bearing different substituents in positions 3 and 5 of the phenyl ring (1a, H/H; 1b, CN/CN; 1c, N3/F; 1d, N3/N3; 1e, Cl/Cl; 1f, Br/Br). The zero-field splitting parameters of nitrenes 1a ( D = 0.9930 cm-1, E = 0.0261 cm-1), 1c ( D = 1.244 cm-1, E = 0.030 cm-1), and 1d ( D = 1.369 cm-1, E = 0.093 cm-1), generated by the photolysis of the corresponding azides in frozen methylcyclohexane solution at 5 K, were determined from the W-band EPR spectra. To clarify the origin of considerable differences in the experimental D values of nitrenes 1a, 1c, and 1d, extensive DFT and CASSCF calculations of these nitrenes as well as of model nitrenes 1b, 1e, and 1f were performed. The calculations show that all nitrenes have nearly the same magnitudes of the spin-spin interactions ( DSS ∼ 1 cm-1), but drastically differ in the spin-orbit coupling parameter (from DSOC = 0.087 cm-1 for 1a to DSOC = 0.765 cm-1 for 1f). Comprehensive analysis of various computational data showed that the magnitude of DSOC of nitrenes 1a-f is the function of the N···Br distance between the nitrene nitrogen and the neighboring bromine atoms. The more bulky substituents are located in positions 3 and 5 of nitrenes 1a-1f, the smaller the N--Br distance and the larger DSOC. These features indicate that the heavy atom effect on magnetic anisotropy of triplet phenyl nitrenes originates from the through-space rather than through-bond electronic interactions between the bromine atoms and the nitrene unit.

18.
Dalton Trans ; 46(23): 7540-7548, 2017 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573307

RESUMO

We report a combined experimental characterization and theoretical modeling of the hexa-coordinated high-spin Co(ii) complex cis-[Co(hfac)2(H2O)2] (I). The magnetic static field (DC) data and EPR spectra (measurements were carried out on the powder samples of diluted samples cis-[Co0.02Zn0.98 (hfac)2(H2O)2]) were analyzed with the aid of the parametric Griffith Hamiltonian for the high-spin Co(ii) supported by the ab initio calculations of the crystal field (CF) parameters, g-factors and superexchange parameters between H-bonded Co(ii) ions in the neighboring molecules in a 1D network. This analysis suggests the presence of the easy axis of magnetic anisotropy and also shows the existence of a significant rhombic component. The detected frequency dependent (AC) susceptibility signal shows that complex I exhibits slow paramagnetic relaxation in the applied DC field belonging thus to the class of non-uniaxial field induced single ion magnets with a negative axial component of anisotropy. It is demonstrated that the main contributions to the relaxation come from the direct one-phonon process dominating at low temperatures, while the contribution of the two-phonon Raman process becomes important with increasing temperature.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(49): 33732-33740, 2016 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960432

RESUMO

Although the theoretical capacitance of MnO2 is 1370 F g-1 based on the Mn3+/Mn4+ redox couple, most of the reported capacitances in literature are far below the theoretical value even when the material goes to nanoscale. To understand this discrepancy, in this work, the electrochemical behavior and charge storage mechanism of K+-inserted α-MnO2 (or KxMnO2) nanorod arrays in broad potential windows are investigated. It is found that electrochemical behavior of KxMnO2 is highly dependent on the potential window. During cyclic voltammetry cycling in a broad potential window, K+ ions can be replaced by Na+ ions, which determines the pseudocapacitance of the electrode. The K+ or Na+ ions cannot be fully extracted when the upper cutoff potential is less than 1 V vs Ag/AgCl, which retards the release of full capacitance. As the cyclic voltammetry potential window is extended to 0-1.2 V, enhanced specific capacitance can be obtained with the emerging of new redox peaks. In contrast, the K+-free α-MnO2 nanorod arrays show no redox peaks in the same potential window together with much lower specific capacitance. This work provides new insights on understanding the charge storage mechanism of MnO2 and new strategy to further improve the specific capacitance of MnO2-based electrodes.

20.
Inorg Chem ; 55(19): 9696-9706, 2016 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27632142

RESUMO

In this article we report the synthesis and structure of the new Co(II) complex Et4N[CoII(hfac)3] (I) (hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonate) exhibiting single-ion magnet (SIM) behavior. The performed analysis of the magnetic characteristics based on the complementary experimental techniques such as static and dynamic magnetic measurements, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in conjunction with the theoretical modeling (parametric Hamiltonian and ab initio calculations) demonstrates that the SIM properties of I arise from the nonuniaxial magnetic anisotropy with strong positive axial and significant rhombic contributions.

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