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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583660

RESUMO

Photoswitchable organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with embedded photochromic materials are considered as a promising platform for development of organic optical memory devices. Unfortunately, the operational mechanism of these devices and guidelines for selection of light-sensitive materials are still poorly explored. In the present work, a series of photochromic dihetarylethenes with cyclopentenone bridge moiety were investigated as a dielectric/semiconductor interlayer in the structure of photoswitchable OFETs. It was shown that the electrical performance and stability of the devices can be tuned by variation of the substituents in the structure of photochromic material. In particular, it was found that dihetarylethenes with donor substituents demonstrate the best light-induced switching effects (wider memory windows and higher switching coefficients) in the devices. The operation mechanism of the light-triggered memory devices was proposed based on the differential in situ Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy data and regression analysis of the threshold voltage - programming time experimental dependences. The established relationships will facilitate further rational design of new photochromic materials thus paving a way to fast and durable organic optical memories and memory transistors (memristors).

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564599

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that charge transport interlayers with low gas permeability can increase operational lifetime of perovskite solar cells serving as a barrier for migration of volatile decomposition products from the photoactive layer. Herein we present a hybrid hole-transport layer (HTL) comprised of p-type polytriarylamine (PTAA) polymer and vanadium (V) oxide (VOx). Devices with PTAA/VOx top HTL reach up to 20% efficiency and demonstrate negligible degradation after 4500 h of light soaking, whereas reference cells using PTAA/MoOx as HTL lose ~50% of their initial efficiency under the same aging conditions. It was shown, that the main origin of the enhanced device stability lies in the higher tolerance of VOx towards MAPbI3 compared to the MoOx interlayer, which tends to facilitate perovskite decomposition. Our results demonstrate that the application of PTAA/VOx hybrid HTL enables long-term operational stability of perovskite solar cells thus bringing them closer to commercial applications.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(7): 2630-2636, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178515

RESUMO

In this work, we report a comparative study of the gamma ray stability of perovskite solar cells based on a series of perovskite absorbers including MAPbI3 (MA = methylammonium), MAPbBr3, Cs0.15FA0.85PbI3 (FA = formamidinim), Cs0.1MA0.15FA0.75PbI3, CsPbI3, and CsPbBr3. We reveal that the composition of the perovskite material strongly affects the radiation stability of the solar cells. In particular, solar cells based on the MAPbI3 were found to be the most resistant to gamma rays since this perovskite undergoes rapid self-healing due to the special gas-phase chemistry analyzed with ab initio calculations. The fact that the solar cells based on MAPbI3 can withstand a 1000 kRad gamma ray dose without any noticeable degradation of the photovoltaic properties is particularly exciting and shifts the paradigm of research in this field toward designing more dynamic rather than intrinsically robust (e.g., inorganic) materials.

4.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 230: 118041, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955116

RESUMO

Photochromic molecules which can absorb and emit light within the "biological window" (650-1450 nm) are of great interest for using in various important biomedical applications such as bio-imaging, photopharmacology, targeted drug delivery, etc. Here we present three new indoline spiropyrans containing conjugated cationic fragments and halogen substituents in the 2H-chromene moiety which were synthesized by a simple one-pot method. The molecular structure of the obtained compounds was confirmed by FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy (including 2D methods), HRMS, elemental and single crystal X-ray analysis. Photochemical studies revealed the photochromic activity of spiropyrans at room temperature which caused photoswitchable fluorescence in the near-IR region after UV-irradiation. While the spirocyclic forms of compounds demonstrated absorption bands in the UV-Vis spectra with maxima in the visible region at about 445 nm and were not fluorescent, the photogenerated merocyanine isomers absorbed in the near-IR range at 708-738 nm and emitted at 768-791 nm. It was found that compound 1a with fluorine substituent possesses the most red-shifted absorption and emission bands of merocyanine form among all the known photochromic spiropyrans with maxima at 738 and 791 nm correspondingly. TD DFT calculations have shown that the longest wavelength absorption maxima of the merocyanine forms correspond to S0-S1 transitions of the isomers with at least one trans-trans-trans-configured vinylindolium fragment which brings them closer to cyanine-like structure and causes an appearance of the absorption and emission bands in the near-IR region.

5.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(1): 333-339, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838849

RESUMO

We report the first systematic assessment of intrinsic photothermal stability of a large panel of complex lead halides APbX3 incorporating different univalent cations (A = CH3NH3+, [NH2CHNH2]+, Cs+) and halogen anions (X = Br, I) using a series of analytical techniques such as UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, EDX analysis, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy, ESR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. We show that heat stress and light soaking induce a severe degradation of perovskite films even in the absence of oxygen and moisture. The stability of complex lead halides increases in the order MAPbBr3 < MAPbI3 < FAPbI3 < FAPbBr3 < CsPbI3 < CsPbBr3, thus featuring all-inorganic perovskites as the most promising absorbers for stable perovskite solar cells. An important correlation was found between the stability of the complex lead halides and the volatility of univalent cation halides incorporated in their structure. The established relationship provides useful guidelines for designing new complex metal halides with immensely improved stability.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(1): 221-228, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814411

RESUMO

Herein, we reveal for the first time a comprehensive mechanism of poorly investigated electrochemical decomposition of CH3NH3PbI3 using a set of microscopy techniques (optical, AFM, PL) and ToF-SIMS. We demonstrate that applied electric bias induces the oxidation of I- to I2, which remains trapped in the film in the form of polyiodides, and hence, the process can be conceivably reversed by reduction. On the contrary, reduction of organic methylammonium cation produces volatile products, which leave the film and thus make the degradation irreversible. Our results lead to a paradigm change when considering design principles for improving the stability of complex lead halide materials as those featuring organic cations rather than halide anions as the most electric field-sensitive components. Suppressing the electrochemical degradation of complex lead halides represents a crucial challenge, which should be addressed in order to bring the operational stability of perovskite photovoltaics to commercially interesting benchmarks.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 58(24): 16434-16444, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749359

RESUMO

Accurate determination of the spin Hamiltonian parameters in transition-metal complexes with large zero-field splitting (ZFS) is an actual challenge in studying magnetic and spectroscopic properties of high-spin transition metal complexes. Recent critical papers have convincingly shown that previous determinations of these parameters, based only on the magnetic data, have low accuracy and reliability. A combination of X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometry seems to be a more convincing and accurate approach. However, even in this case, the accuracy of the determination of the spin Hamiltonian parameters is strongly limited. In this work, we propose a purely spectroscopic approach, in which three complementary EPR spectroscopic techniques are used to unambiguously with high accuracy determine the spin Hamiltonian parameters for transition-metal complexes with S = 3/2. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated by analyzing the new quasi-octahedral high-spin Co(II) complex [Co(hfac)2(bpy)] (I). Along with the conventional X-band EPR spectroscopy, we also use such advanced techniques as multi-high-frequency EPR spectroscopy (MHF-EPR) and frequency-domain Fourier-transform THz-EPR (FD-FT THz-EPR). We demonstrate that the experimental data derived from the X-band and MHF-EPR EPR spectra allow determination of the g tensor (gx = 2.388, gy = 2.417, gz = 2.221) and the ZFS rhombicity parameter E/D = 0.158. The axial ZFS parameter D = 37.1 cm-1 is measured for I with the aid of FD-FT THZ-EPR spectroscopy, which is able to detect the high-energy EPR transition between the two Kramers doublets. CASSCF/NEVPT2 quantum-chemical calculations of magnetic parameters and magnetic direct current (dc) measurements are performed as well as testing options, and the results obtained in these ways are in good agreement with those derived using the proposed spectroscopic approach.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 48(20): 6960-6970, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041973

RESUMO

A coordination compound with the composition [CoLCl2]·H2O (L = bis-condensation product of diacetyl and 2-hydrazinyl-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine) was synthesized, in which the Co(ii) ion was hexacoordinated. Under applied DC fields, this compound exhibited single-ion magnet behavior. Two relaxation processes were observed when increasing the applied magnetic field from 1000 to 3200 Oe. The first relaxation (high-frequency) was observed both at 1000 Oe and 3200 Oe, while the second relaxation was only registered under a field of 3200 Oe at low frequencies (<1 Hz) and low temperatures (<5 K). Modeling of the magnetic DC properties using the Griffith Hamiltonian accompanied by quantum chemical calculations revealed easy-axis-type magnetic anisotropy with weak rhombic contributions.

9.
J Phys Chem A ; 122(45): 8931-8937, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359039

RESUMO

Previously unknown the steric heavy atom effect on magnetic anisotropy parameters of triplet phenyl nitrenes is reported. The heavy bromine atom effect is revealed by W-band EPR and theoretical investigations of triplet 2,4,6-tribromophenyl nitrenes bearing different substituents in positions 3 and 5 of the phenyl ring (1a, H/H; 1b, CN/CN; 1c, N3/F; 1d, N3/N3; 1e, Cl/Cl; 1f, Br/Br). The zero-field splitting parameters of nitrenes 1a ( D = 0.9930 cm-1, E = 0.0261 cm-1), 1c ( D = 1.244 cm-1, E = 0.030 cm-1), and 1d ( D = 1.369 cm-1, E = 0.093 cm-1), generated by the photolysis of the corresponding azides in frozen methylcyclohexane solution at 5 K, were determined from the W-band EPR spectra. To clarify the origin of considerable differences in the experimental D values of nitrenes 1a, 1c, and 1d, extensive DFT and CASSCF calculations of these nitrenes as well as of model nitrenes 1b, 1e, and 1f were performed. The calculations show that all nitrenes have nearly the same magnitudes of the spin-spin interactions ( DSS ∼ 1 cm-1), but drastically differ in the spin-orbit coupling parameter (from DSOC = 0.087 cm-1 for 1a to DSOC = 0.765 cm-1 for 1f). Comprehensive analysis of various computational data showed that the magnitude of DSOC of nitrenes 1a-f is the function of the N···Br distance between the nitrene nitrogen and the neighboring bromine atoms. The more bulky substituents are located in positions 3 and 5 of nitrenes 1a-1f, the smaller the N--Br distance and the larger DSOC. These features indicate that the heavy atom effect on magnetic anisotropy of triplet phenyl nitrenes originates from the through-space rather than through-bond electronic interactions between the bromine atoms and the nitrene unit.

10.
Dalton Trans ; 46(23): 7540-7548, 2017 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573307

RESUMO

We report a combined experimental characterization and theoretical modeling of the hexa-coordinated high-spin Co(ii) complex cis-[Co(hfac)2(H2O)2] (I). The magnetic static field (DC) data and EPR spectra (measurements were carried out on the powder samples of diluted samples cis-[Co0.02Zn0.98 (hfac)2(H2O)2]) were analyzed with the aid of the parametric Griffith Hamiltonian for the high-spin Co(ii) supported by the ab initio calculations of the crystal field (CF) parameters, g-factors and superexchange parameters between H-bonded Co(ii) ions in the neighboring molecules in a 1D network. This analysis suggests the presence of the easy axis of magnetic anisotropy and also shows the existence of a significant rhombic component. The detected frequency dependent (AC) susceptibility signal shows that complex I exhibits slow paramagnetic relaxation in the applied DC field belonging thus to the class of non-uniaxial field induced single ion magnets with a negative axial component of anisotropy. It is demonstrated that the main contributions to the relaxation come from the direct one-phonon process dominating at low temperatures, while the contribution of the two-phonon Raman process becomes important with increasing temperature.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(49): 33732-33740, 2016 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960432

RESUMO

Although the theoretical capacitance of MnO2 is 1370 F g-1 based on the Mn3+/Mn4+ redox couple, most of the reported capacitances in literature are far below the theoretical value even when the material goes to nanoscale. To understand this discrepancy, in this work, the electrochemical behavior and charge storage mechanism of K+-inserted α-MnO2 (or KxMnO2) nanorod arrays in broad potential windows are investigated. It is found that electrochemical behavior of KxMnO2 is highly dependent on the potential window. During cyclic voltammetry cycling in a broad potential window, K+ ions can be replaced by Na+ ions, which determines the pseudocapacitance of the electrode. The K+ or Na+ ions cannot be fully extracted when the upper cutoff potential is less than 1 V vs Ag/AgCl, which retards the release of full capacitance. As the cyclic voltammetry potential window is extended to 0-1.2 V, enhanced specific capacitance can be obtained with the emerging of new redox peaks. In contrast, the K+-free α-MnO2 nanorod arrays show no redox peaks in the same potential window together with much lower specific capacitance. This work provides new insights on understanding the charge storage mechanism of MnO2 and new strategy to further improve the specific capacitance of MnO2-based electrodes.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 55(19): 9696-9706, 2016 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27632142

RESUMO

In this article we report the synthesis and structure of the new Co(II) complex Et4N[CoII(hfac)3] (I) (hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonate) exhibiting single-ion magnet (SIM) behavior. The performed analysis of the magnetic characteristics based on the complementary experimental techniques such as static and dynamic magnetic measurements, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in conjunction with the theoretical modeling (parametric Hamiltonian and ab initio calculations) demonstrates that the SIM properties of I arise from the nonuniaxial magnetic anisotropy with strong positive axial and significant rhombic contributions.

13.
Inorg Chem ; 55(7): 3566-75, 2016 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26974224

RESUMO

In view of a wide perspective of 3d-4f complexes in single-molecule magnetism, here we propose an explanation of the magnetic behavior of the two thiacalix[4]arene tetranuclear heterometallic complexes Mn(II)2Gd(III)2 and Co(II)2Eu(III)2. The energy pattern of the Mn(II)2Gd(III)2 complex evaluated in the framework of the isotropic exchange model exhibits a rotational band of the low-lying spin excitations within which the Landé intervals are affected by the biquadratic spin-spin interactions. The nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the χT product observed for the Mn(II)2Gd(III)2 complex is attributed to the competitive influence of the ferromagnetic Mn-Gd and antiferromagnetic Mn-Mn exchange interactions, the latter being stronger (J(Mn, Mn) = -1.6 cm(-1), Js(Mn, Gd) = 0.8 cm(-1), g = 1.97). The model for the Co(II)2Eu(III)2 complex includes uniaxial anisotropy of the seven-coordinate Co(II) ions and an isotropic exchange interaction in the Co(II)2 pair, while the Eu(III) ions are diamagnetic in their ground states. Best-fit analysis of χT versus T showed that the anisotropic contribution (arising from a large zero-field splitting in Co(II) ions) dominates (weak-exchange limit) in the Co(II)2Eu(III)2 complex (D = 20.5 cm(-1), J = -0.4 cm(-1), gCo = 2.22). This complex is concluded to exhibit an easy plane of magnetization (arising from the Co(II) pair). It is shown that the low-lying part of the spectrum can be described by a highly anisotropic effective spin-(1)/2 Hamiltonian that is deduced for the Co(II)2 pair in the weak-exchange limit.

14.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 11: 2179-88, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26664640

RESUMO

A series of derivatives of 2-hetaryl-1,3-tropolone (ß-tropolone) was prepared by the acid-catalyzed reaction of 2-methylbenzoxazoles, 2-methylbenzothiazoles and 2,3,3-trimethylindoline with 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-1,2-benzoquinone. The molecular structures of the three representative compounds were determined by X-ray crystallography. In crystal and (as shown by the DFT PBE0/6-311+G** calculations) in solution, 2-hetaryl-4,5,6,7-tetrachloro- and 2-hetaryl-5,6,7-trichloro-1,3-tropolones exist in the NH-tautomeric form with a strong resonance-assisted intramolecular N-H···O hydrogen bond. The mechanism of the formation of 1,3-tropolones in the reaction of methylene-active five-membered heterocycles with o-chloranil in acetic acid solution has been studied using density functional theory (DFT) methods. The reaction of 2-(2-benzoxa(thia)zolyl)-5,6,7-trichloro(4,5,6,7-tetrachloro)-1,3-tropolones with alcohols leads to the contraction of the seven-membered tropone ring with the formation of 2-(2-benzoxa(thia)zolyl)-6-alkoxycarbonylphenols. The molecular structure of 2-(2-ethoxycarbonyl-6-hydroxy-3,4,5-trichlorophenyl)benzoxazole has been determined by X-ray diffraction. 2-(2-Benzoxa(thia)zolyl)-6-alkoxycarbonylphenols display intense green fluorescence with anomalous Stokes shifts caused by the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) effects.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(28): 6130-2, 2015 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25748821

RESUMO

Optical memory elements based on photoswitchable organic field-effect transistors have been designed by using an interfacial layer of photochromic spirooxazine molecules sandwiched between semiconductor and dielectric layers. Optical and electrical programming of the designed devices leads to multiple discrete states demonstrating drastically different electrical characteristics (VTH, IDS) and advanced stability.

16.
Nitric Oxide ; 16(1): 82-93, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16979919

RESUMO

Parameters of the EPR signals of monomeric dinitrosyl-iron complexes with 1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (DNIC-MT), obtained by treating MT+ferrous iron in DMSO solution with gaseous NO, have been compared with those of the crystalline monomeric DNIC-MT with tetrahedral structure. Dissolved DNIC-MT were characterized by the isotropic EPR signal centered at g=2.03 with half-width of 0.7 mT and quintet hyperfine structure when recorded at ambient temperature or the anisotropic EPR signal with g( perpendicular)=2.045, g( parallel)=2.014 from frozen solution at 77 kappa, Cyrillic. DNIC-MT in crystalline state showed the structure-less symmetrical singlet EPR signal centered at g=2.03 and half-width of 1.7 mT at both room and liquid nitrogen temperature. The Lorentz shape of this signal indicates the strong exchange interaction between these complexes in the DNIC-MT crystal. Being dissolved in DMSO the crystalline sample of DNIC-MT demonstrated the EPR signal typical for DNIC-MT, obtained by treating MT+ferrous iron in DMSO solution with gaseous NO. Low spin (S=1/2) d(9) electron configuration of DNIC-MT with tetrahedral structure (formula [(MT-S(.))(2)Fe(-1)(NO(+))(2)](+)) was suggested to be responsible for the signal of DNIC-MT in crystalline state. Dissolving of the crystals of DNIC-MT may result in the change of their spatial and electronic structure, namely, tetrahedral structure of the complexes characterized by low spin d(9) electronic configuration transforms into a plane-square structure with d(7) electronic configuration and low spin S=1/2 state (formula [(MT- S(-))(2)Fe(+)(NO(+))(2)](+)). The latter was suggested to be characteristic of other DNICs with various thiol-containing ligands in the solutions. The proposed mechanism of these DNICs formation from ferrous iron, thiol and NO shows that the process could be accompanied by the ionization of NO molecules to NO(+) and NO(-) ions in the complexes. Detailed analysis of the shape of the EPR signals of these complexes provided additional information about the exchange interaction typical for DNIC-MT in crystals.


Assuntos
Ferro/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Ligantes
17.
Nitric Oxide ; 16(2): 286-93, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17088088

RESUMO

The formation of protein-bound dinitrosyl-iron complexes (DNIC) in blood plasma and packed red cell fraction has been demonstrated by the EPR method in the experiments on rabbits which were i/v injected with the low-molecular DNIC with thiosulphate. This formation was ensured by transfer of Fe(+)(NO(+))(2) moieties from low-molecular DNIC onto serum albumin or hemoglobin molecules. Protein-bound DNICs appeared immediately after low-molecular DNIC injection followed with gradually decreasing their amounts. The complexes could be detected by EPR technique during more than two days. The addition of water-soluble NO scavenger, the iron complex with N-methyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate (MGD) resulted in decomposition of a part of protein-bound DNICs and in effective excretion of secondary products (mainly mononitrosyl-iron complexes with MGD) from the blood flow.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Ferro/sangue , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/sangue , Animais , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Feminino , Ferro/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Coelhos
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