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1.
Waste Manag ; 126: 423-432, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836393

RESUMO

Solid recovered fuel (SRF) ash consists of element oxides, which are valuable materials for cement manufacturers. When SRF is co-processed in the cement industry, its mineral content is incorporated into the clinker. Therefore, from a technical perspective, SRF ash is recycled. However, since recycling processes for materials that may be present in SRF exist, and since recycling goals are defined for different waste types, understanding the origin of these ash constituents and the contribution of different materials to the Recycling-index (R-index, i.e., the material-recyclable share of SRF) is important. In this work, the origins of Al, Ca, Fe, Si, Ti, Mg, Na, K, S, and P were first reviewed. Subsequently, ten SRF samples were sorted, and the ash content and composition of the sorting fractions (e.g., <10 mm, plastics, paper&cardboard) determined. Additionally, selected samples of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), liquid packaging board (LPB), wood, and paper&cardboard (P&C) extracted from SRF were investigated. The results demonstrated that the materials that contributed most of the valuable oxides and ash content, and thereby to the R-index of SRF, are mixed or composite fractions, for example, the fine fraction, composites, and the sorting residues. Except for the composite LPB, no other material recovery options exist for most of these fractions. For this reason, the recycling of mixed and soiled materials or residues in the cement industry may be considered a complementary option to existing recycling processes.

2.
Waste Manag ; 103: 87-112, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881527

RESUMO

Antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, nickel and their compounds are commonly used in the industrial production of various goods. At the end of the product life cycle, these elements enter the waste system as constituents of the products. Mixed municipal and commercial wastes are landfilled, biologically treated, incinerated, and/or processed in mechanical treatment plants to yield solid recovered fuel (SRF). In all these cases, inorganic contaminants that are present in the input waste material play a significant role. In mechanical waste treatment, materials containing high concentrations of these elements (contaminant carriers) can be selectively removed (e.g. by infrared sorters) to improve the output quality, but prior knowledge about the contaminant carriers is required. This paper reviews several waste-related publications in order to identify carriers of Sb, As, Cd, Cl, Cr, Co, Pb, Hg, and Ni in mixed municipal and commercial waste. Identified contaminant carriers are listed alongside ranges for expected concentrations. Furthermore, the data are combined with information on industrial applications and contaminant concentrations in products in order to discuss the reasons for the presence of the respective elements in the carriers. Generally, besides inerts or metals, identified contaminant carriers often include plastics, composite materials, leather products, textiles, rubber, electronic waste, and batteries. Moreover, it is evaluated how individual contaminant carriers are reflected by chemical waste analyses. While the findings of the paper can be applied to different waste treatment options, the discussion focuses on SRF, which is the main output of mechanical treatment plants.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Cádmio , Cloro , Chumbo , Resíduos Sólidos
4.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 102(14): 517-8, 1977 Apr 08.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-856566

RESUMO

Preliminary results of visualising lymphocytes by freeze-fracture are presented. It is a simple yet informative method. Because of the rapid cell manipulation without fixation (freezing of the cells with a temperature gradient of 1000 degrees C/s artefacts are highly unlikely, The method makes it possible to view the interior of the cell.


Assuntos
Técnica de Fratura por Congelamento , Linfócitos , Humanos , Métodos
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