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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is one of the most common problems among people living with HIV, contributing to premature death and the development of comorbidities within this population. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the impacts of these often inter-related conditions appear in a series of fragmented and inconclusive studies. Thus, this review examines the pooled effects of undernutrition on mortality and morbidities among adults living with HIV in SSA. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted from PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Scopus databases. All observational studies reporting the effects of undernutrition on mortality and morbidity among adults living with HIV in SSA were included. Heterogeneity between the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Q-test and I2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's and Begg's tests at a 5% significance level. Finally, a random-effects meta-analysis model was employed to estimate the overall adjusted hazard ratio. RESULTS: Of 4309 identified studies, 53 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Of these, 40 studies were available for the meta-analysis. A meta-analysis of 23 cohort studies indicated that undernutrition significantly (AHR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.8, 2.4) increased the risk of mortality among adults living with HIV, while severely undernourished adults living with HIV were at higher risk of death (AHR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.9, 2.8) as compared to mildly undernourished adults living with HIV. Furthermore, the pooled estimates of ten cohort studies revealed that undernutrition significantly increased the risk of developing tuberculosis (AHR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.7) among adults living with HIV. CONCLUSION: This review found that undernutrition has significant effects on mortality and morbidity among adults living with HIV. As the degree of undernutrition became more severe, mortality rate also increased. Therefore, findings from this review may be used to update the nutritional guidelines used for the management of PLHIV by different stakeholders, especially in limited-resource settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Morbidade , Prevalência , Tuberculose/etiologia
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 902, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following delivery by caesarean section, surgical site infection is the most common infectious complication. Despite a large number of caesarean sections performed at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, there was no study documenting the incidence of surgical site infection after caesarean section. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the incidence of surgical site infection following caesarean section at Debre-Markos Referral Hospital in Amhara region, North-west Ethiopia. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 520 pregnant women who had a caesarean section between March 28, 2019 and August 31, 2019. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Data was entered using EpiData™ Entry Version 4.1 software and analyzed using R Version 3.6.1 software. A descriptive analysis was conducted using tables, interquartile ranges and median. The time to development of surgical site infection was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox regression model for bivariable and multivariable analyses was done. Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was reported to show the strength of association. RESULT: The mean age of the study cohort was 27.4 ± 4.8 years. The overall cumulative incidence of surgical site infection was 25.4% with an incidence of 11.7 (95% CI:9.8,13.9) per 1000 person/days. Not able to read and write (AHR = 1.30,95% CI:1.19,2.11), no antenatal care (AHR = 2.16, 95%CI:1.05,4.53), previous history of CS (AHR = 1.21, 95% CI:1.11,2.31), HIV positive (AHR = 1.39, 95% CI:1.21,2.57), emergency procedure (AHR = 1.13, 95% CI:1.11,2.43), vertical type of incision (AHR = 2.60, 95% CI:1.05,6.44), rupture of membrane (AHR = 1.50, 95% CI:1.31,1.64), multiple vaginal examination (AHR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.71, 3.20) were significant predictors of surgical site infection in this study. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that the incidence of surgical site infection following caesarean section was relatively high compared to previous studies. Not able to read and write, have no ante natal care, previous history of caesarean section, HIV, emergency surgery, vertical type of incision, rupture of membranes before caesarean section, and multiple vaginal examinations were significant predictors of surgical site infection in this study. Therefore, intervention programs should focus on and address the identified factors to minimize and prevent the infection rate after caesarean section.

3.
Trop Med Health ; 48: 78, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943978

RESUMO

Background: Despite the rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy services, 'loss to follow-up' is a significant public health concern globally. Loss to follow-up of individuals from ART has a countless negative impact on the treatment outcomes. There is, however, limited information about the incidence and predictors of loss to follow-up in our study area. Thus, this study aimed to determine the incidence rate and predictors of loss to follow-up among adult HIV patients on ART. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using 484 HIV patients between January 30, 2008, and January 26, 2018, at Debre Markos Referral Hospital. All eligible HIV patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this study. Data were entered into Epi-data Version 4.2 and analyzed using STATATM Version 14.0 software. The Nelson-Aalen cumulative hazard estimator was used to estimate the hazard rate of loss to follow-up, and the log-rank test was used to compare the survival curve between different categorical variables. Both bivariable and multivariable Cox-proportional hazard regression models were fitted to identify predictors of LTFU. Results: Among a cohort of 484 HIV patients at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, 84 (17.36%) were loss their ART follow-up. The overall incidence rate of loss to follow-up was 3.7 (95% CI 3.0, 5.0) per 100 adult-years. The total LTFU free time of the participants was 2294.8 person-years. In multivariable Cox-regression analysis, WHO stage IV (AHR 2.8; 95% CI 1.2, 6.2), having no cell phone (AHR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1, 3.4), and rural residence (AHR 0.6; 95% CI 0.37, 0.99) were significant predictors of loss to follow-up. Conclusion: The incidence of loss to ART follow-up in this study was low. Having no cell phone and WHO clinical stage IV were causative predictors, and rural residence was the only protective factor of loss to follow-up. Therefore, available intervention modalities should be strengthened to mitigate loss to follow-up by addressing the identified risk factors.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239013, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) significantly improves the survival status and quality of life among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children, loss to follow-up (LTFU) from HIV-care profoundly affecting the treatment outcomes of this vulnerable population. For better interventions, up-to-date information concerning LTFU among HIV-infected children on ART is vital. However, only a few studies have been conducted in Ethiopia to address this concern. Thus, this study aims to identify the predictors of LTFU among HIV-infected children receiving ART at Debre Markos Referral Hospital. METHODS: An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was done among 408 HIV-infected children receiving ART at Debre Markos Referral Hospital between 2005 and March 15, 2019. Data were abstracted from the medical records of HIV-infected children using a standardized data abstracted checklist. We used Epi-Data Version 3.1 for data entry and Stata Version 14 for statistical analysis. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to estimate the survival time. A generalized log-rank test was used to compare the survival curves of different categorical variables. Finally, both bi-variable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to identify the predictors of LTFU. RESULTS: Of 408 HIV-infected children included in the final analysis, 70 (17.1%) children were LTFU at the end of the study. The overall incidence rate of LTFU among HIV-infected children was found to be 4.5 (95%CI: 3.5-5.7) per 100-child years of observation. HIV-infected children living in rural areas (AHR: 3.2, 95%CI: 2.0-5.3), having fair or poor ART drug adherence (AHR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.4-3.7), children started ART through test and treat approach (AHR: 2.7, 95%CI: 1.4-5.5), and children started protease inhibiter (PI)-based ART regimens (AHR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.1-4.4) were at higher risk of LTFU. CONCLUSION: This study found that one in every six HIV-infected children lost form ART follow-up. HIV-infected children living in rural areas, having fair or poor ART drug adherence, started ART based on test and treat approach, and taking PI-based ART regimens were at higher risk of LTFU.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Perda de Seguimento , Adolescente , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1303, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been available for more than a decade in Ethiopia, information regarding mortality rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive children after antiretroviral therapy antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is very scarce. Thus, this study intends to determine the predictors of mortality among HIV-positive children receiving ART in Amhara Region. METHODS: A multicenter facility-based historical cohort study was conducted in 538 HIV-positive children on ART from January 2012 to February 2017. We employed a standardized data extraction tool, adapted from ART entry and follow-up forms. Descriptive analyses were summarized using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log rank test. Then, the Cox-proportional hazard regression model was employed to estimate the hazard of death up to five-years after ART initiation. Variables with p-values ≤0.25 in bivariable analysis were candidates to the multivariable analysis. Finally, variables with p-values < 0.05 were considered as significant variables. RESULTS: The cohort contributed a total follow-up time of 14,600 child-months, with an overall mortality rate of 3.2 (95% CI: 2.3, 4.3) per 100 child-years. This study also indicated that HIV-infected children presenting with opportunistic infections (OIs) (AHR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.04, 5.9), anemia (AHR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.7), severe immunodeficiency (AHR: 4.4, 95% CI: 1.7, 11.7), severe stunting (AHR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.4, 8.0), severe wasting (AHR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.3, 7.3), and advanced disease staging (III and IV) (AHR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.2, 7.1) were at higher risk of mortality. CONCLUSION: A higher rate of mortality was observed in our study as compared to previous Ethiopian studies. HIV-positive children presenting with anemia, OIs, severe immunodeficiency, advanced disease staging (III and IV), severe stunting, and severe wasting were at higher risk of mortality.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701985

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Malnutrition is a public health problem in under-five children in several parts of the world even after decades of the implementation of management protocols. An estimated 17 million children under the age of five years are living with severe acute malnutrition and the majorities are found in Asia and Africa, including Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to determine the recovery rate and its predictors among under-five children who were admitted to St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College from 2012 to 2019. METHODS: An institution based retrospective cohort study was employed at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College from May 20, 2019 to June 28, 2019. Data were collected by reviewing children's' medical records using a structured checklist. A total of 534 charts were selected using a simple random sampling method and 515 of them were used for the final analysis. Ep-info version 7 software was used for data entry and STATA Version 15 for analysis. The Kaplan Meier failure estimate with Log-rank test was used to determine the survival estimates. Bi-variable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model were fitted to identify predictors of mortality. Finally, variables with p-values less than 0.05 in the multivariable Cox regression were considered as independent predictors. The proportional hazards assumption was checked using the Schoenfeld residuals test and the final model fitness was checked using the Cox-Snail residual test. RESULT: In this study, a total of 515 subjects were followed for 8672 child-days and 79% of the subjects recovered from SAM with the median time of 17 days. The incidence density rate of recovery was 46 per 1000 child-days. Tuberculosis (AHR(Adjusted Hazard Ratio) 0.44 & 95% CI: 0.32, 0.62), pale conjunctiva (AHR,0.67 & 95% CI: 0.52, 0.88), IV fluid infusion (AHR, 0.71 & 95 CI: 0.51, 0.98), feeding F100 (AHR, 1.63 & 95% CI:1.04,2.54), Vitamin A supplementation (AHR, 1.3 & 95% CI:1.07, 1.59) and bottle feeding (AHR, 0.79 & 95CI%: 0.64-0.98) were the independent predictors of time to recovery from SAM. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the recovery rate was relatively higher than the Sphere standard and the national SAM management protocol. Co-morbidities and the treatments given were the main determinants of recovery of children. Co-morbidities must be managed as early as possible and the treatments given during the SAM management process need to be given with precaution.


Assuntos
Apoio Nutricional/estatística & dados numéricos , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/terapia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 777, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective means of public health interventions to prevent childhood deaths from infectious diseases. Although several fragmented studies have been conducted concerning full vaccination coverage among children aged 12-23 months in Ethiopia, the pooled estimate has not been determined so far. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of full vaccination coverage among children aged 12-23 months in Ethiopian. METHODS: To find potentially relevant studies, we systematically searched five major databases (i.e., PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Science Direct). This review included community based cross-sectional studies reported in English language; had good quality, and published from the 1st of January 2000 to the 20th of November 2019. Data were analyzed using Stata™ Version 14.1 software. The pooled estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were presented using forest plots. Higgins and Egger's tests were used to assess heterogeneity and publication bias, respectively. Primary estimates were pooled using a random effects meta-analysis model. RESULTS: Of the total of 851 identified articles 21 studies involving 12,094 children met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The included studies sample size ranged from 173 to 923. The lowest proportion of full vaccination coverage was reported from Afar Region [21% (95% CI: 18, 24%)], whereas the highest proportion of full vaccination coverage was reported from Amhara Region [73% (95% CI: 67, 79%)]. The overall prevalence of full vaccination coverage among children in Ethiopia was 60% (95% CI: 51, 69%). CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggested that six in every 10 children in Ethiopia were fully vaccinated. However, this finding is much lower than the World Health Organization recommended rate. Moreover, high regional variations in terms of full vaccination coverage across the country was observed. Therefore, a special attention should be given to improve the overall childhood vaccination coverage.


Assuntos
Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência
8.
BMC Nutr ; 6: 10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322404

RESUMO

Background: Malnutrition and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are interlaced in a vicious cycle and worsened in low and middle-income countries. In Ethiopia, even though individuals are dually affected by both malnutrition and HIV, there is no a nationwide study showing the proportion of malnutrition among HIV-positive adults. Consequently, this review addressed the pooled burden of undernutrition among HIV-positive adults in Ethiopia. Methods: We searched for potentially relevant studies through manual and electronic searches. An electronic search was carried out using the database of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google for gray literature and reference lists of previous studies. A standardized data extraction checklist was used to extract the data from each original study. STATA Version 13 statistical software was used for our analysis. Descriptive summaries were presented in tables, and the quantitative result was presented in a forest plot. Heterogeneity within the included studies was examined using the Cochrane Q test statistics and I 2 test. Finally, a random-effects meta-analysis model was computed to estimate the pooled proportion of undernutrition among HIV-positive adults. Results: After reviewing 418 studies, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Findings from 15 studies revealed that the pooled percentage of undernutrition among HIV-positive adults in Ethiopia was 26% (95% CI: 22, 30%). The highest percentage of undernutrition (46.8%) was reported from Jimma University specialized hospital, whereas the lowest proportion of undernutrition (12.3%) was reported from Dilla Hospital. The subgroup analyses of this study also indicated that the percentage of undernourishment among HIV-positive adults is slightly higher in the Northern and Central parts of Ethiopia (27.5%) as compared to the Southern parts of Ethiopia (25%). Conclusion: This study noted that undernutrition among HIV-positive adults in Ethiopia was quite common. This study also revealed that undernutrition is more common among HIV-positive adults with advanced disease stage, anemia, diarrhea, CD4 count less than 200 cells/mm3, and living in rural areas. Based on our findings, we suggested that all HIV-positive adults should be assessed for nutritional status at the time of ART commencement.

9.
Inj Prev ; 26(Supp 1): i96-i114, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries. METHODS: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). FINDINGS: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505). INTERPRETATION: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.

10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 149, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth preparedness and complication readiness are broadly endorsed by governments and international agencies to reduce maternal and neonatal health threats in low income countries. Maternal education is broadly positioned to positively affect the mother's and her children's health and nutrition in low income countries. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to estimate the effect of maternal education on birth preparedness and complication readiness. METHODS: This review was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. We conducted an electronic based search using data bases of PubMed /MEDLINE, Science direct and google scholar. STATA™ Version 14.1 was used to analyze the data, and forest plots were used to present the findings. I2 test statistics and Egger's test were used to assess heterogeneity and publication bias. Pooled prevalence and pooled odd ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed. Finally, Duval and Tweedie's nonparametric trim and fill analysis using random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to account for publication bias. RESULTS: In this meta-analysis, 20 studies involving 13,744 pregnant women meeting the inclusion criteria were included, of which 15 studies reported effects of maternal education on birth preparedness and complication readiness. Overall estimated level of birth preparedness and complication readiness was 25.2% (95% CI 20.0, 30.6%). This meta-analysis found that maternal education and level of birth preparedness and complication readiness were positively associated. Pregnant mothers whose level of education was primary and above were more likely to prepare for birth and obstetric emergencies (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.1) than non-educated mothers. CONCLUSION: In Ethiopia, the proportion of women prepared for birth and related complications remained low. Maternal education has a positive effect on the level of birth preparedness and complication readiness. Therefore, it is imperative to launch programs at national and regional levels to uplift women's educational status to enhance the likelihood of maternal health services utilization.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 309, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is increasingly become a serious global public health concern in developed and developing countries including Ethiopia. It imposes significant burden of care on the individual, health care professionals and health system. As the result, immense need of self-care behaviors in multiple domains like food choices, physical activity, foot care, and blood glucose monitoring is required. However, there is no national study on diabetic self-care practices in Ethiopia. This meta-analysis, therefore, aims to estimate the pooled level of self-care practice among individuals living with diabetes mellitus in Ethiopia. METHODS: The systematic review was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline. We systematically searched the databases: PubMed /MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Science Direct for studies conducted in Ethiopia about self-care practice of diabetes patients. We have included all cross-sectional studies, which were published until August 20th,2019. Data were analyzed using STATA™ version 14.1 software, and the pooled prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were presented using tables and forest plots. The presence of statistical heterogeneity within the included studies was evaluated using I-squared statistic. We used Higgins and Egger's test to identify evidence of publication bias. The random-effects meta-analysis model was employed to estimate the pooled proportion of good diabetic self-care practices. RESULTS: We included 35 studies (with 11,103 participants) in this meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of good diabetes self-care behavior among diabetic patients was 49% (95% CI:43, 56%). When categorized by the major domains of diabetes self-care, the pooled estimate of dietary practice was 50% (95% CI:42, 58%), for self- monitoring of blood glucose was 28% (95% CI:19, 37%), for recommended physical activity was 49% (95% CI:38, 59%), and for diabetic foot-care was 58% (95% CI: 41, 74%). CONCLUSION: More than half of diabetic patients in Ethiopia had poor diabetes self-care practice. High percentage of diabetic patients also had poor dietary practice, self- monitoring of blood glucose, physical activity, and diabetic foot care. Therefore, intervention programs should focus on improving the knowledge level of diabetic patients to improve the self-care practice of diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Humanos
12.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 72, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality remains a serious global public health problem, but Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), in particular, is largely affected. Current evidence on neonatal mortality is essential to inform programs and policies, yet there is a scarcity of information concerning neonatal mortality in our study area. Therefore, we conducted this prospective cohort study to determine the incidence and predictors of neonatal mortality at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: This institutionally-based prospective cohort study was undertaken among 513 neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Debre Markos Referral Hospital between December 1st, 2017 and May 30th, 2018. All newborns consecutively admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit during the study period were included. An interviewer administered a questionnaire with the respective mothers. Data were entered using Epi-data™ Version 3.1 and analyzed using STATA™ Version 14. The neonatal survival time was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, and the survival time between different categorical variables were compared using the log rank test. Both bi-variable and multivariable Cox-proportional hazard regression models were fitted to identify independent predictors of neonatal mortality. RESULTS: Among a cohort of 513 neonates at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, 109 (21.3%) died during the follow-up time. The overall neonatal mortality rate was 25.8 deaths per 1, 000 neonate-days (95% CI: 21.4, 31.1). In this study, most (83.5%) of the neonatal deaths occurred in the early phase of neonatal period (< 7 days post-partum). Using the multivariable Cox-regression analysis, being unemployed (AHR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.6), not attending ANC (AHR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.5), not initiating exclusive breastfeeding (AHR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.7), neonatal admission due to respiratory distress syndrome (AHR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3, 3.1), and first minute Apgar score classification of severe (AHR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.9) significantly increased the risk of neonatal mortality. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found a high rate of early neonatal mortality. Factors significantly linked with increased risk of neonatal mortality included: unemployed mothers, not attending ANC, not initiating exclusive breastfeeding, neonates admitted due to respiratory distress syndrome, and first minute Apgar score classified as severe.

13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 50, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opportunistic infections (OIs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For better treatments and interventions, current and up-to-date information concerning occurrence of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected children is crucial. However, studies regarding the incidence of common opportunistic infections in HIV-infected children in Ethiopia are very limited. Hence, this study aimed to determine the incidence of opportunistic infections among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Debre Markos Referral Hospital. METHODS: A facility-based retrospective cohort study was undertaken at Debre Markos Referral Hospital for the period of January 1, 2005 to March 31, 2019. A total of 408 HIV-infected children receiving ART were included. Data from HIV-infected children charts were extracted using a data extraction form adapted from ART entry and follow-up forms. Data were entered using Epi-data™ Version 3.1 and analyzed using Stata™ Version 14. The Kaplan Meier survival curve was used to estimate the opportunistic infections free survival time. Both bi-variable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to identify the predictors of opportunistic infections. RESULTS: This study included the records of 408 HIV-infected children-initiated ART between the periods of January 1, 2005 to March 31, 2019. The overall incidence rate of opportunistic infections during the follow-up time was 9.7 (95% CI: 8.13, 11.48) per 100 child-years of observation. Tuberculosis at 29.8% was the most commonly encountered OI at follow-up. Children presenting with advanced disease stage (III and IV) (AHR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7), having "fair" or "poor" ART adherence (AHR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.8, 3.8), not taking OI prophylaxis (AHR:1.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4), and CD4 count or % below the threshold (AHR:1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.6) were at a higher risk of developing opportunistic infections. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the incidence rate of opportunistic infections among HIV-infected children remained high. Concerning predictors, such as advanced disease stage (III and IV), CD4 count or % below the threshold, "fair" or "poor" ART adherence, and not taking past OI prophylaxis were found to be significantly associated with OIs.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Adolescente , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma de Kaposi/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1032, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia is a common problem in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infected patients, and is associated with decreased functional capacity and quality of life. Ethiopia is one of the countries which has expanded highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) over the past years. The effect of HAART on anemia among HIV remains inconsistent and inconclusive, particularly in children. This study thus aimed to synthesize the prevalence of anemia among HIV infected Ethiopian children and its association with HAART initiation. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Google scholar were used to identify 12 eligible studies reporting an association between anemia and HIV using a priori set criteria. PRISMA guideline was used to systematically review and meta-analysis these studies. Details of sample size, magnitude of effect sizes, including odds ratio (OR) and standard errors were extracted. Random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled estimates using STATA/SE version-14. I2 and meta-bias statistics assessed heterogeneity and publication bias of the included studies. Sub-group analyses, based on study designs, were also carried out. RESULTS: In Ethiopia, the overall prevalence of anemia in HIV infected children was 22.3% (95% CI: 18.5-26.0%). The OR of anemia-HIV/AIDS comorbidity was 0.4 (95% CI, 0.2-0.5) in HAART initiated children as compared to non-initiated counterparts. Meta-bias and funnel plot detected no publication bias. CONCLUSION: On aggregate, anemia is a common comorbidity in pediatric HIV patients. HAART was significantly associated with a reduced anemia-HIV/AIDS comorbidity. Prompt start of HAART might help decreasing the prevalence of anemia and its subsequent complications.


Assuntos
Anemia/induzido quimicamente , Anemia/epidemiologia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Comorbidade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Tamanho da Amostra
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1073, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the commonest infectious cause of blindness. It is prevalent in areas where personal and community hygiene is poor, and it mainly affects deprived and marginalized communities most importantly in Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma among children in Ethiopia. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis was employed to determine the prevalence of active trachoma and associated factors among children in Ethiopia. We searched databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. To estimate the prevalence, studies reporting the prevalence of active trachoma and its associated factors were included. Data were extracted using a standardized data extraction format prepared in Microsoft excel and the analysis was done using STATA 14 statistical software. To assess heterogeneity, the Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test were used. Since the included studies revealed considerable heterogeneity, a random effect meta- analysis model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of active trachoma. Moreover, the association between factors and active trachoma were examined. RESULTS: The result of 30 eligible studies showed that the overall prevalence of active trachoma among children in Ethiopia was 26.9% (95% CI: 22.7, 31.0%). In the subgroup analysis, while the highest prevalence was reported in SNNP (35.8%; 95% CI: 22.7, 48.8), the lowest prevalence was reported in Oromia region (20.2%; 95% CI: 12.2, 28.2). Absence of latrine: OR 6.0 (95% CI 2.0, 17.5), the unclean faces of children: OR 5.5 (95% CI 2.8, 10.9), and no reported use of soap for washing: OR 3.3 (95% CI 1.8, 6.0) have shown a positive association with active trachoma among children. CONCLUSION: From this review, it has been concluded that active trachoma among children is still a public health problem in different districts of Ethiopia. The prevalence of almost all studies are significantly higher than WHO target for elimination. Absence of latrine, unclean faces of children, no reported use of soap for washing are the important factors associated with active trachoma among children.


Assuntos
Tracoma/epidemiologia , Criança , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1566, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with human immunodeficiency virus. Almost one-third of deaths among people living with human immunodeficiency virus are attributed to tuberculosis. Despite this evidence, in Ethiopia, there is a scarcity of information regarding the incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among people living with HIV. Thus, this study assessed the incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among HIV-positive adults on antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: This study was a retrospective record review including 544 HIV-positive adults on antiretroviral therapy at Debre Markos Referral Hospital between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2017. The study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique. The data extraction format was adapted from antiretroviral intake and follow-up forms. Cox-proportional hazards regression model was fitted and Cox-Snell residual test was used to assess the goodness of fit. Tuberculosis free survival time was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Both the bi-variable and multivariable Cox-proportional hazard regression models were used to identify predictors of tuberculosis. RESULTS: In the final analysis, a total of 492 HIV-positive adults were included, of whom, 83 (16.9%) developed tuberculosis at the time of follow-up. This study found that the incidence of tuberculosis was 6.5 (95% CI: 5.2, 8.0) per 100-person-years (PY) of observation. Advanced World Health Organization clinical disease stage (III and IV) (AHR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.2), being ambulatory and bedridden (AHR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.1), baseline opportunistic infections (AHR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.7, 4.4), low hemoglobin level (AHR: 3.5, 95% CI: 2.1, 5.8), and not taking Isonized Preventive Therapy (AHR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.9, 7.6) were found to be the predictors of tuberculosis. CONCLUSION: The study found that there was a high rate of tuberculosis occurrence as compared to previous studies. Baseline opportunistic infections, being ambulatory and bedridden, advanced disease stage, low hemoglobin level, and not taking Isonized Preventive Therapy were found to be the predictors of tuberculosis. Therefore, early detection and treatment of opportunistic infections like tuberculosis should get a special attention.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 90, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, by the end of 2018, 37.9 million people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sub-Saharan Africa carries the highest burden with an estimated 71% of the global total. In Ethiopia, an estimated 715 404 people were living with HIV in 2015 and this increased to 722 248 in 2017. This study was to explore the trends and spatial distributions of HIV cases in Ethiopia. METHODS: In this study, we explored the spatial and temporal distribution of persons living with HIV in Ethiopia using data from 2005, 2011, and 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS). Geographic information system (Getis-Ord Gi* statistics) and spatial scan statistics (SaTScan) were used for exploratory and confirmatory spatial analyses respectively. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of HIV in Ethiopia unveiled inconsistent trends, with the majority of areas showing decreasing trends. Hot spot clusters exhibited in all the three surveys, which include areas where Amhara, Afar and Tigray regions share neighbourhoods. In 2005 regionally, Gambella, Addis Ababa, and Harari had the highest prevalence at 6.0, 4.7 and 3.5%, respectively. While in the 2016 survey the highest prevalence (4.8%) was observed in Gambella regional state followed by Addis Ababa (3.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of HIV infection in Ethiopia is not random in all the three EDHS surveys. High clusters of HIV cases were consistently observed in Addis Ababa and neighbouring areas of the Afar Tigray and Amhara regional states and central Oromia. This analysis revealed that there are still areas which need studying with respect to the epidemic of HIV. In this regard Addis Ababa, certain areas of Amhara regional state, large areas of Afar region and central Oromia require special attention.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222572, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarettes and their by-products (i.e., smoke; ash) are a complex, dynamic, and reactive mixture of around 5,000 chemicals. Cigarette smoking potentially harms nearly every organ of the human body, causes innumerable diseases, and impacts the health of smokers and those interacting with the smokers. Smoking brings greater health problems in the long-term like increased risk of stroke and brain damage. For students, peer pressure is one of the key factors contributing to cigarette smoking. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the impact of peer pressure on cigarette smoking among high school and university students in Ethiopia. METHODS: An extensive search of key databases including Cochrane Library, PubMed, Google Scholar, Hinari, Embase and Science Direct was conducted to identify and access articles published on the prevalence of cigarette smoking by high school and university students in Ethiopia. The search period for articles was conducted from 21st September, 2018 to 25th December 25, 2018. All necessary data were extracted using a standardized data extraction checklist. Quality and risk of bias of studies were assessed using standardized tools. Heterogeneity between the included studies was assessed using Cochrane Q-test statistic and I2 test. To estimate the pooled prevalence of cigarette smoking, a random effects model was fitted. The impact of peer pressure on cigarette smoking was determined and was reported in Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Meta-analysis was conducted using Stata software. RESULTS: From 175 searched articles, 19 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in this study. The pooled prevalence of cigarette smoking among Ethiopian high school and university students was 15.9% (95% CI: 12.21, 19.63). Slightly higher prevalence of cigarette smoking was noted among university students [17.35% (95% CI: 13.21, 21.49)] as compared to high school students [12.77% (95% CI: 6.72%, 18.82%)]. The current aggregated meta-analysis revealed that peer pressure had a significant influence on cigarette smoking (OR: 2.68 (95% CI: 2.37, 3.03). CONCLUSION: More than one sixth of the high school and university students in Ethiopia smoke cigarette. Students who had peer pressure from their friends were more likely to smoke cigarette. Therefore, school-based intervention programs are needed to reduce the high prevalence of cigarette smoking among students in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Infuência dos Pares , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades/ética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
19.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 156: 107838, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing public health concern globally, including Ethiopia. Although numerous studies have been published from different parts of Ethiopia, no attempt is made so far to estimate the burden of DM at the national level. This study aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of DM and its association with hypertension in Ethiopia. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in major databases. Two authors extracted the necessary data and analysis was conducted using STATA version 14. Heterogeneity across the studies was evaluated by Cochran's Q test and I2 statistics. RESULTS: Eighteen studies with a total of 45,284 participants were included in this review. The pooled prevalence of DM was 4.99% (95% CI: 3.86%, 6.11%). Hypertension was significantly associated with DM (OR: 8.32; 95% CI: 3.05, 22.71). CONCLUSION: The burden of DM in Ethiopia is considerable, and the association between diabetes and hypertension is significant. Based on the evidence, this review recommends establishing the coordinated national programs that counteract the increasing burden of DM in the country is very essential. In addition, Early hypertension screening should be done in diabetic patients to control co-morbidity and further complications.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
20.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 9(Suppl): S3-S8, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976494

RESUMO

Background: Road traffic injury (RTI) is one of the main reasons for trauma-related admission in Ethiopian hospitals. Nationally representative data is needed to develop and implement the public health emergency management strategy. Therefore, this study was aimed to estimate the national pooled prevalence of RTI among trauma patients in Ethiopia. Methods: PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psycEXTRA, and Google Scholar databases were searched. Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using the I2 statistics. Publication bias was checked by using funnel plot and Egger's regression test. The DerSimonian and Laird's random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence. Subgroup analysis was conducted by age and region. The trend of RTI estimated as well. Results: The pooled prevalence of RTI among trauma patients in Ethiopia was 31.5% (95% CI: 25.4%, 37.7%). Regional subgroup analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of RTI was 58.3% in the region of southern, nation, nationalities, and peoples (SNNPR) and 33.3% in Addis Ababa. Subgroup analysis based on patients age showed that the pooled prevalence of RTI was 51.7% in adults, 14.2% in children, and 32.6% in all age group. The time-trend analysis has shown an increasing burden of RTI in Ethiopian hospitals. Conclusion: The burden of RTI among trauma patients was high. Therefore, strengthening road safety management throughout the country is needed to reduce RTI.

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