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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. METHODS: Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. RESULTS: Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. CONCLUSION: Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sericinas/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sericinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1039734

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. Methods Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. Results Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. Conclusion Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar os efeitos da sericina extraída de casulos de Bombyx mori na morfofisiologia de camundongos com obesidade induzida por dieta hiperlipídica. Métodos Camundongos machos C57Bl6, com 9 semanas de idade, foram distribuídos em Grupos Controle e Obeso, que receberam ração padrão para roedores ou dieta hiperlipídica por 10 semanas, respectivamente. Posteriormente, os animais foram redistribuídos em quatro grupos, com sete animais cada: Controle, Controle-Sericina, Obeso e Obeso-Sericina. Os animais permaneceram recebendo ração padrão ou hiperlipídica por 4 semanas, período no qual a sericina foi administrada oralmente na dose de 1.000mg/kg de massa corporal aos Grupos Controle-Sericina e Obeso-Sericina. Parâmetros fisiológicos, como ganho de peso, consumo alimentar, peso das fezes em análise de lipídios fecais, motilidade intestinal e tolerância à glicose foram monitorados. Ao término do experimento, o plasma foi coletado para dosagens bioquímicas e fragmentos de tecido adiposo branco; fígado e jejuno foram processados para análises histológicas, e amostras hepáticas foram usadas para determinação lipídica. Resultados Camundongos obesos apresentaram ganho de peso e acúmulo de gordura significativamente maior que os controles, aumento do colesterol total e glicemia. Houve hipertrofia dos adipócitos retroperitoneais e periepididimais, instalação de esteatose e aumento do colesterol e triglicerídeos hepáticos, bem como alteração morfométrica da parede jejunal. Conclusão O tratamento com sericina não reverteu todas as alterações fisiológicas promovidas pela obesidade, mas restaurou a morfometria jejunal e aumentou a quantidade de lipídios eliminados nas fezes dos camundongos obesos, apresentando-se como potencial tratamento para a obesidade.

3.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity is predominant in women of reproductive age. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric procedure that is performed in obese women for weight loss and metabolic improvement. However, some studies suggest that this procedure negatively affects offspring. Herein, using Western diet (WD)-obese female rats, we investigated the effects of maternal RYGB on postnatal body development, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion and action in their adult male F1 offspring. METHODS: Female Wistar rats consumed a Western diet (WD) for 18 weeks, before being submitted to RYGB (WD-RYGB) or SHAM (WD-SHAM) operations. After 5 weeks, WD-RYGB and WD-SHAM females were mated with control male breeders, and the F1 offspring were identified as: WD-RYGB-F1 and WD-SHAM-F1. RESULTS: The male F1 offspring of WD-RYGB dams exhibited decreased BW, but enhanced total nasoanal length gain. At 120 days of age, WD-RYGB-F1 rats displayed normal fasting glycemia and glucose tolerance but demonstrated reduced insulinemia and higher glucose disappearance after insulin stimulus. In addition, these rodents presented insulin resistance in the gastrocnemius muscle and retroperitoneal fat, as judged by lower Akt phosphorylation after insulin administration, but an increase in this protein in the liver. Finally, the islets from WD-RYGB-F1 rats secreted less insulin in response to glucose and displayed increased ß-cell area and mass. CONCLUSIONS: RYGB in WD dams negatively affected their F1 offspring, leading to catch-up growth, insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and white fat, and ß-cell dysfunction. Therefore, our data are the first to demonstrate that the RYGB in female rats may aggravate the metabolic imprinting induced by maternal WD consumption, in their male F1 descendants. However, since we only used male F1 rats, further studies are necessary to demonstrate if such effect may also occur in female F1 offspring from dams that underwent RYGB operation.

4.
Arch. med. deporte ; 34(181): 267-273, sept.-oct. 2017. graf, tab, illus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-170316

RESUMO

Until the moment, no study explored conjunctively the physical activity relation, using the inflammatory biomarkers, with the periodontitis. This way, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the muscular tissue behavior of rats submitted to physical exercise in aquatic environment with experimental disease. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided in 4 groups: 1) control and sedentary (CS); 2) control and active (CA); 3) with the periodontal disease and sedentary (PDS); with the periodontal disease and active (PDA). On the group that the periodontitis was induced, it was for ligature and the groups with active swimming activity have practiced it for 4 weeks. At the end of 30 days the animals were euthanized and a portion of the gingival tissue and the soleus muscle were removed and underwent analysis by ELISA and morphological and morphometrical analysis of the muscle. Data drawn from the analysis was analyzed through ANOVA and Tukey. Results have shown that there is a higher expression of TNF-α in the gingival tissue and on the muscular tissue of the rats that underwent the induced periodontitis independently of the physical activity (PDS and PDA), as a meaningful decrease on the conjunctive tissue on the groups with induced periodontitis, that have or have not undergone active swimming activity which could suggest a predisposition to muscular injury or difficulty of muscular recovering on these groups. Therefore, it was possible to highlight a correlation between the periodontal disease and the muscle morphological changes, and, moreover, the physical swimming activity promoting an acceleration of the regeneration of the muscle tissue


Hasta este momento, ningún estudio ha explorado conjuntamente la relación de la actividad física con la periodontitis utilizando biomarcadores de inflamación. Siendo así, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el comportamiento del tejido muscular de ratas con periodontitis experimental al realizar ejercicio físico en medio acuático. Veinticuatro ratas Wistar machos fueron divididas en cuatro grupos: 1) control y sedentario (CS); 2) control y ejercicio (CA); 3) con enfermedad periodontal y sedentario (PDS); 4) con enfermedad periodontal y ejercicio (PDA). En los grupos con periodontitis, la enfermedad periodontal fue inducida por ligadura y los grupos con ejercicio realizaron natación durante cuatro semanas. A los treinta días, los animales fueron sacrificados y una parte del tejido de las encías y del músculo soleo se resecaron y utilizaron para análisis con ELISA y para análisis morfológicos y morfométricos. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados y evaluados a través de los tests ANOVA y TUKEY. Los datos mostraron una mayor expresión de TNF-α tanto en el tejido de las encías como en el tejido muscular de los ratones sometidos a periodontitis inducida independiente del ejercicio físico (PDS y PDA). Se percibió también una disminución significativa en el tejido conjuntivo en los grupos con periodontitis inducida sometidos o no al ejercicio de natación, lo que podría sugerir una predisposición a lesión muscular o una dificultad en la reparación de las lesiones musculares de esos grupos. Por lo tanto, fue posible destacar una correlación entre la enfermedad periodontal y los cambios morfológicos musculares y, además, que la actividad física de natación favoreció una aceleración de la regeneración del tejido muscular


Assuntos
Ratos , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Natação/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Regeneração/fisiologia
5.
Life Sci ; 188: 68-75, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866102

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypothalamic obesity is a severe condition without any effective therapy. Bariatric operations appear as an alternative treatment, but the effects of this procedure are controversial. We, herein, investigated the effects of duodeno-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery upon the lipid profile and expression of genes and proteins, involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, in hypothalamic obese (HyO) rats. METHODS: During the first 5days of life, male newborn Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of monosodium glutamate [4g/kg body weight, HyO group] or saline (control, CTL group). At 90days of life, HyO rats were randomly submitted to DJB (HyO DJB) or Sham-operations (HyO Sham group). Six months after DJB, adiposity, hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism were verified. KEY FINDINGS: HyO Sham rats were obese, hyperinsulinemic, insulin resistant and dyslipidemic. These rats had higher liver contents of trygliceride (TG) and presented disorganization of the hepatocyte structures, in association with higher hepatic contents of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 mRNAs and protein. DJB surgery normalized insulinemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in HyO rats. TG content in the liver and the hepatic microscopic structures were also normalized in HyO DJB rats, while the expressions of ACC and FASN proteins were decreased in the liver of these rodents. SIGNIFICANCE: The DJB-induced amelioration in hepatic steatosis manifested as a late effect in HyO rats, and was partly associated with a downregulation in hepatic de novo lipogenesis processes, indicating that DJB protects against liver steatosis in hypothalamic obesity.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/cirurgia , Derivação Gástrica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Masculino , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Glutamato de Sódio , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
6.
Curr Genomics ; 17(2): 112-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27226767

RESUMO

Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. It is caused by the temperature-dependent dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The P. brasiliensis cell wall is a dynamic outer structure, composed of a network of glycoproteins and polysaccharides, such as chitin, glucan and N-glycosylated proteins. These glycoproteins can interact with the host to affect infection rates, and are known to perform other functions. We inhibited N-linked glycosylation using tunicamycin (TM), and then evaluated the expression of P. brasiliensis genes related to cell wall remodeling. Our results suggest that cell wall synthesis related genes, such as ß-1,3-glucanosyltransferase (PbGEL3), 1,3-ß-D-glucan synthase (PbFKS1), and α-1,4-amylase (PbAMY), as well as cell wall degrading related genes, such as N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (PbNAG1), α-1,3-glucanase (PbAGN), and ß-1,3-glucanase (PbBGN1 and PbBGN2), have their expression increased by the N-glycosylation inhibition, as detected by qRT-PCR. The observed increases in gene expression levels reveal possible compensatory mechanisms for diminished enzyme activity due to the lack of glycosylation caused by TM.

7.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0144507, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26659253

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite found worldwide that is able to chronically infect almost all vertebrate species, especially birds and mammalians. Chitinases are essential to various biological processes, and some pathogens rely on chitinases for successful parasitization. Here, we purified and characterized a chitinase from T. gondii. The enzyme, provisionally named Tg_chitinase, has a molecular mass of 13.7 kDa and exhibits a Km of 0.34 mM and a Vmax of 2.64. The optimal environmental conditions for enzymatic function were at pH 4.0 and 50 °C. Tg_chitinase was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of highly virulent T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites, mainly at the apical extremity. Tg_chitinase induced macrophage activation as manifested by the production of high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, a pathogenic hallmark of T. gondii infection. In conclusion, to our knowledge, we describe for the first time a chitinase of T. gondii tachyzoites and provide evidence that this enzyme might influence the pathogenesis of T. gondii infection.


Assuntos
Quitinases/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Quitinases/genética , Quitinases/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citoplasma/enzimologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Cinética , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneais/parasitologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia Confocal , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura Ambiente , Toxoplasma/enzimologia , Toxoplasma/fisiologia
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 8(12): e3317, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25474158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paracoccin (PCN) is an N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin from the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Recombinant PCN (rPCN) induces a T helper (Th) 1 immune response when prophylactically administered to BALB/c mice, protecting them against subsequent challenge with P. brasiliensis. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of rPCN in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and the mechanism accounting for its beneficial action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four distinct regimens of rPCN administration were assayed to identify which was the most protective, relative to vehicle administration. In all rPCN-treated mice, pulmonary granulomas were less numerous and more compact. Moreover, fewer colony-forming units were recovered from the lungs of rPCN-treated mice. Although all therapeutic regimens of rPCN were protective, maximal efficacy was obtained with two subcutaneous injections of 0.5 µg rPCN at 3 and 10 days after infection. The rPCN treatment was also associated with higher pulmonary levels of IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, nitric oxide (NO), and IL-10, without IL-4 augmentation. Encouraged by the pulmonary cytokine profile of treated mice and by the fact that in vitro rPCN-stimulated macrophages released high levels of IL-12, we investigated the interaction of rPCN with Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Using a reporter assay in transfected HEK293T cells, we verified that rPCN activated TLR2 and TLR4. The activation occurred independently of TLR2 heterodimerization with TLR1 or TLR6 and did not require the presence of the CD14 or CD36 co-receptors. The interaction between rPCN and TLR2 depended on carbohydrate recognition because it was affected by mutation of the receptor's N-glycosylation sites. The fourth TLR2 N-glycan was especially critical for the rPCN-TLR2 interaction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our results, we propose that PCN acts as a TLR agonist. PCN binds to N-glycans on TLRs, triggers regulated Th1 immunity, and exerts a therapeutic effect against P. brasiliensis infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Lectinas/administração & dosagem , Paracoccidioidomicose/prevenção & controle , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas Fúngicas/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lectinas/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Paracoccidioidomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Paracoccidioidomicose/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia
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