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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that alterations of dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, data from large-scale epidemiological studies using circulating FA measurements to objectively assess individual FA and FA categories are scarce. METHODS: To investigate the association between red blood cell (RBC) membrane FAs and risk of CRC in a case-control study nested within a large prospective cohort. After a median follow-up of 6.4 years, 1069 incident CRC cases were identified and matched to 1069 controls among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The FA composition of RBC phospholipids (in mol%) was analyzed by gas chromatography, and their association with risk of CRC was estimated by multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: After correction for multiple testing, subjects with higher concentrations of RBC stearic acid were at higher risk for CRC (OR=1.23; 95% CI=1.07-1.42, per 1 mol%). Conversely, CRC incidence decreased with increasing proportions of RBC n-3 PUFA, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (0.75; 0.62-0.92, per 1 mol%). The findings for the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: The positive association between pre-diagnostic RBC stearic acid and CRC reflects putative differences in FA intake and metabolism between cancer cases and matched controls which deserve further investigation. The inverse relationship between EPA and CRC is in line with the repeatedly reported protective effect of fish consumption on CRC risk. IMPACT: These findings add to the evidence on CRC prevention.

2.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2001141, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592132

RESUMO

SCOPE: Processed meat intake has been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, little is known about the type of processed meat more particularly responsible for these effects. This study aims to identify novel biomarkers for processed meat intake. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a controlled randomized cross-over dietary intervention study, 12 healthy volunteers consume different processed and non-processed meats for 3 consecutive days each. Metabolomics analyses are applied on post-intervention fasting blood and urine samples to identify discriminating molecular features of processed meat intake. Nine and five pepper alkaloid metabolites, including piperine, are identified as major discriminants of salami intake in urine and plasma, respectively. The associations with processed meat intake are tested for replication in a cross-sectional study (n = 418) embedded within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Three of the serum metabolites including piperine are associated with habitual intake of sausages and to a lesser extent of total processed meat. CONCLUSION: Pepper alkaloids are major discriminants of intake for sausages that contain high levels of pepper used as ingredient. Further work is needed to assess if pepper alkaloids in combination with other metabolites may serve as biomarkers of processed meat intake.

3.
Redox Biol ; : 101869, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541846

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to play a critical role in ageing and chronic disease development and could therefore represent important targets for developing dietary strategies for disease prevention. We aimed to systematically review the results from observational studies and intervention trials published in the last 5 years on the associations between dietary patterns and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. METHODS: A systematic search of the PubMed, MEDLINE and Web of Science (January 2015 to October 2020) was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Methodological quality of selected studies was evaluated based on the NUTRIGRADE and BIOCROSS assessment tools. RESULTS: In total, 29 studies among which 16 observational studies and 13 intervention studies were found eligible for review. Overall, results indicated an inverse association between plant-based diets - the Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet - and oxidative stress and proinflammatory biomarkers. In observational studies, inverse associations were further revealed for the vegetarian diet, the USDA Healthy Eating Index (HEI) - based diet and the paleolithic diet, whereas a positive association was seen for western and fast food diets. Quality assessment suggested that majority of dietary intervention studies (n = 12) were of low to moderate quality. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that the plant-based dietary patterns are associated with lowered levels of oxidative stress and inflammation and may provide valid means for chronic disease prevention. Future large-scale intervention trials using validated biomarkers are warranted to confirm these findings.

4.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition and lifestyle have been long established as risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Modifiable lifestyle behaviours bear potential to minimize long-term CRC risk; however, translation of lifestyle information into individualized CRC risk assessment has not been implemented. Lifestyle-based risk models may aid the identification of high-risk individuals, guide referral to screening and motivate behaviour change. We therefore developed and validated a lifestyle-based CRC risk prediction algorithm in an asymptomatic European population. METHODS: The model was based on data from 255,482 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study aged 19 to 70 years who were free of cancer at study baseline (1992-2000) and were followed up to 31 September 2010. The model was validated in a sample comprising 74,403 participants selected among five EPIC centres. Over a median follow-up time of 15 years, there were 3645 and 981 colorectal cancer cases in the derivation and validation samples, respectively. Variable selection algorithms in Cox proportional hazard regression and random survival forest (RSF) were used to identify the best predictors among plausible predictor variables. Measures of discrimination and calibration were calculated in derivation and validation samples. To facilitate model communication, a nomogram and a web-based application were developed. RESULTS: The final selection model included age, waist circumference, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, vegetables, dairy products, processed meat, and sugar and confectionary. The risk score demonstrated good discrimination overall and in sex-specific models. Harrell's C-index was 0.710 in the derivation cohort and 0.714 in the validation cohort. The model was well calibrated and showed strong agreement between predicted and observed risk. Random survival forest analysis suggested high model robustness. Beyond age, lifestyle data led to improved model performance overall (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.307 (95% CI 0.264-0.352)), and especially for young individuals below 45 years (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.364 (95% CI 0.084-0.575)). CONCLUSIONS: LiFeCRC score based on age and lifestyle data accurately identifies individuals at risk for incident colorectal cancer in European populations and could contribute to improved prevention through motivating lifestyle change at an individual level.

5.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256114

RESUMO

Nutritional interventions in morbidly obese individuals that effectively reverse a pro-inflammatory state and prevent obesity-associated medical complications are highly warranted. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of high (HP) or low (LP) protein diets on circulating immune-inflammatory biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), interleukin-10 (IL-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), chemerin, omentin, leptin, total adiponectin, high molecular weight adiponectin, and fetuin-A. With this aim, 18 people with morbid obesity were matched into two hypocaloric groups: HP (30E% protein, n = 8) and LP (10E% protein, n = 10) for three weeks. Biomarkers were measured pre and post intervention and linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate differences. Consuming HP or LP diets resulted in reduced CRP (HP: -2.2 ± 1.0 mg/L, LP: -2.3 ± 0.9 mg/L) and chemerin (HP: -17.9 ± 8.6 ng/mL, LP: -20.0 ± 7.4 ng/mL), with no statistically significant differences by diet arm. Participants following the LP diet showed a more pronounced decrease in leptin (-19.2 ± 6.0 ng/mL) and IL-6 (-0.4 ± 0.1 pg/mL) and an increase in total adiponectin (1.6 ± 0.6 µg/mL). Changes were also observed for the remaining biomarkers to a smaller degree by the HP than the LP hypocaloric diet, suggesting that a LP hypocaloric diet modulates a wider range of immune inflammatory biomarkers in morbidly obese individuals.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: Scores reflecting adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations (scale 1-5) were calculated from participant data on weight maintenance, physical activity, diet, and alcohol among a discovery set of 5,738 cancer-free EPIC participants with metabolomics data. Partial least squares regression was used to derive fatty acid and endogenous metabolite signatures of WCRF/AICR score in this group. In an independent set of 1,608 colorectal cancer cases and matched controls, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for colorectal cancer risk per unit increase in WCRF/AICR score and per the corresponding change in metabolic signatures using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher WCRF/AICR scores were characterized by metabolic signatures of elevated odd-chain fatty acids, serine, glycine and specific phosphatidylcholines. Signatures were more strongly inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (fatty acids: OR 0.51 per unit increase, 95% CI 0.29-0.90; endogenous metabolites: OR 0.62 per unit change, 95% CI 0.50-0.78) than the WCRF/AICR score (OR 0.93 per unit change, 95% CI 0.86-1.00) overall. Signature associations were stronger in male compared to female participants. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite profiles reflecting adherence to WCRF/AICR guidelines and additional lifestyle or biological risk factors were associated with colorectal cancer. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites representative of healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may identify strata of the population at higher risk of colorectal cancer.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overexpression of the receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) has been associated with chronic inflammation, which in turn has been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) competes with RAGE to bind its ligands, thus potentially preventing RAGE-induced inflammation. METHODS: To investigate whether sRAGE and related genetic variants are associated with colorectal cancer risk, we conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Plasma sRAGE concentrations were measured by ELISA in 1,361 colorectal cancer matched case-control sets. Twenty-four SNPs encoded in the genes associated with sRAGE concentrations were available for 1,985 colorectal cancer cases and 2,220 controls. Multivariable adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional and unconditional logistic regression for colorectal cancer risk and circulating sRAGE and SNPs, respectively. RESULTS: Higher sRAGE concentrations were inversely associated with colorectal cancer (ORQ5vs.Q1, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-1.00). Sex-specific analyses revealed that the observed inverse risk association was restricted to men (ORQ5vs.Q1, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.94), whereas no association was observed in women (ORQ5vs.Q1, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.68-1.48; P heterogeneity for sex = 0.006). Participants carrying minor allele of rs653765 (promoter region of ADAM10) had lower colorectal cancer risk (C vs. T, OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic sRAGE concentrations were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men, but not in women. An SNP located within ADAM10 gene, pertaining to RAGE shedding, was associated with colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: Further studies are needed to confirm our observed sex difference in the association and better explore the potential involvement of genetic variants of sRAGE in colorectal cancer development.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiposity increases endometrial cancer risk, possibly through inflammation, hyperinsulinemia, and increasing estrogens. We aimed to quantify the mediating effects of adiponectin (anti-inflammatory adipocytokine); IL6, IL1-receptor antagonist, TNF receptor 1 and 2, and C-reactive protein (inflammatory status biomarkers); C-peptide (hyperinsulinemia biomarker); and free estradiol and estrone (estrogen biomarkers) in the adiposity-endometrial cancer link in postmenopausal women. METHODS: We used data from a case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Eligible women did not have cancer, hysterectomy, and diabetes; did not use oral contraceptives or hormone therapy; and were postmenopausal at recruitment. Mediating pathways from adiposity to endometrial cancer were investigated by estimating natural indirect (NIE) and direct (NDE) effects using sequential mediation analysis. RESULTS: The study included 163 cases and 306 controls. The adjusted OR for endometrial cancer for body mass index (BMI) ≥30 versus ≥18.5-<25 kg/m2 was 2.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-5.02). The ORsNIE were 1.95 (1.01-3.74) through all biomarkers [72% proportion mediated (PM)] decomposed as: 1.35 (1.06-1.73) through pathways originating with adiponectin (33% PM); 1.13 (0.71-1.80) through inflammation beyond (the potential influence of) adiponectin (13% PM); 1.05 (0.88-1.24) through C-peptide beyond adiponectin and inflammation (5% PM); and 1.22 (0.89-1.67) through estrogens beyond preceding biomarkers (21% PM). The ORNDE not through biomarkers was 1.29 (0.54-3.09). Waist circumference gave similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced adiponectin and increased inflammatory biomarkers, C-peptide, and estrogens mediated approximately 70% of increased odds of endometrial cancer in women with obesity versus normal weight. IMPACT: If replicated, these results could have implications for identifying targets for intervention to reduce endometrial cancer risk in women with obesity.

9.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 229, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate whether alterations in circulating levels of bilirubin are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We decided a priori to perform analyses separately in men and women based on suggestive evidence that associations may differ by sex. METHODS: In a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), pre-diagnostic unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, the main component of total bilirubin) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples of 1386 CRC cases and their individually matched controls. Additionally, 115 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with circulating total bilirubin were instrumented in a 2-sample MR to test for a potential causal effect of bilirubin on CRC risk in 52,775 CRC cases and 45,940 matched controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT) study. RESULTS: The associations between circulating UCB levels and CRC risk differed by sex (Pheterogeneity = 0.008). Among men, higher levels of UCB were positively associated with CRC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.36; per 1-SD increment of log-UCB). In women, an inverse association was observed (OR = 0.86 (0.76-0.97)). In the MR analysis of the main UGT1A1 SNP (rs6431625), genetically predicted higher levels of total bilirubin were associated with a 7% increase in CRC risk in men (OR = 1.07 (1.02-1.12); P = 0.006; per 1-SD increment of total bilirubin), while there was no association in women (OR = 1.01 (0.96-1.06); P = 0.73). Raised bilirubin levels, predicted by instrumental variables excluding rs6431625, were suggestive of an inverse association with CRC in men, but not in women. These differences by sex did not reach formal statistical significance (Pheterogeneity ≥ 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Additional insight into the relationship between circulating bilirubin and CRC is needed in order to conclude on a potential causal role of bilirubin in CRC development.

10.
Hepatology ; 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a neglected disease with substantial geographical variability: Chile shows the highest incidence worldwide, while GBC is relatively rare in Europe. Here we investigate the causal effects of risk factors considered in current GBC prevention programmes as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a marker of chronic inflammation. APPROACH & RESULTS: We applied two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) using publicly available data and our own data from a retrospective Chilean and a prospective European study. Causality was assessed by inverse variance weighted (IVW), MR-Egger regression and weighted median estimates complemented with sensitivity analyses on potential heterogeneity and pleiotropy, two-step MR and mediation analysis. We found evidence for a causal effect of gallstone disease on GBC risk in Chileans (p = 9 × 10-5 ) and Europeans (p = 9 × 10-5 ). A genetically elevated body mass index (BMI) increased GBC risk in Chileans (p = 0.03), while higher CRP concentrations increased GBC risk in Europeans (p = 4.1 × 10-6 ). European results suggest causal effects of BMI on gallstone disease (p = 0.008); public Chilean data were not, however, available to enable assessment of the mediation effects among causal GBC risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Two risk factors considered in the current Chilean programme for GBC prevention are causally linked to GBC risk: gallstones and BMI. For Europeans, BMI showed a causal effect on gallstone risk, which was itself causally linked to GBC risk.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734650

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development entails changes in liver metabolism. Current knowledge on metabolic perturbations in HCC is derived mostly from case-control designs, with sparse information from prospective cohorts. Our objective was to apply comprehensive metabolite profiling to detect metabolites whose serum concentrations are associated with HCC development, using biological samples from within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (>520 000 participants), where we identified 129 HCC cases matched 1:1 to controls. We conducted high-resolution untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics on serum samples collected at recruitment prior to cancer diagnosis. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was applied controlling for dietary habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, body size, hepatitis infection and liver dysfunction. Corrections for multiple comparisons were applied. Of 9206 molecular features detected, 220 discriminated HCC cases from controls. Detailed feature annotation revealed 92 metabolites associated with HCC risk, of which 14 were unambiguously identified using pure reference standards. Positive HCC-risk associations were observed for N1-acetylspermidine, isatin, p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, tyrosine, sphingosine, l,l-cyclo(leucylprolyl), glycochenodeoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid and 7-methylguanine. Inverse risk associations were observed for retinol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, glycerophosphocholine, γ-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman and creatine. Discernible differences for these metabolites were observed between cases and controls up to 10 years prior to diagnosis. Our observations highlight the diversity of metabolic perturbations involved in HCC development and replicate previous observations (metabolism of bile acids, amino acids and phospholipids) made in Asian and Scandinavian populations. These findings emphasize the role of metabolic pathways associated with steroid metabolism and immunity and specific dietary and environmental exposures in HCC development.

12.
Metabol Open ; 6: 100034, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812932

RESUMO

Background: Galectin-1, haptoglobin, and nesfatin-1 have recently emerged as promising biomarkers implicated in immunometabolism. However, whether single blood measurements of these analytes could be suitable for large-scale human studies has not yet been evaluated. Methods: The concentrations of galectin-1, haptoglobin, and nesfatin-1 were measured over a 4-month period in 207 healthy adults with median age of 56.7 years. Biomarker intra-individual reproducibility was assessed based on calculation of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and examining Bland-Altman plots. Results: The overall ICCs were excellent for nesfatin-1 (ICC: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.86, 0.92), and good for galectin-1 and haptoglobin (ICCs: 0.70 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.77) and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.74), respectively). Bland-Altman plots supported a high level of agreement between repeated biomarker measurements. Conclusions: Assay measurements of galectin-1, haptoglobin, and nesfatin-1 showed good to excellent within-subject reproducibility over a 4-month period, indicating that they may serve as feasible and reliable biomarkers for assessing metabolic inflammation in population research.

13.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e034730, 2020 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513879

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nutrition transition has emerged as an important concept in health research used to describe shifts in dietary consumption and energy expenditure that coincide with economic, demographic and epidemiological changes at a population level. Better understanding of the shifts in dietary patterns across populations and their drivers could possibly hold the key to prevention of diet-related disease risk. An increasing number of studies have reported on nutrition transition in populations around the world, however, global evidence has not been summarised. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review is aimed to identify, explore and map the literature on nutrition transition with a specific focus on dietary changes in populations across the world. The review would allow better clarification around the concept of nutrition transition, classification of published studies and provide a framework for further research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The scoping review will be designed based on the methodology by Arksey and O'Malley, refined by Levac et al. and developed in conjunction with guidance on conducting systematic scoping reviews by Peters et al. The main research question addressed by the scoping review will be: 'What is the evidence on nutrition transition defined based on dietary changes reported in general adult population across the world?' Electronic databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect and Web of Science), grey literature sources and the reference lists of key studies will be searched to identify studies appropriate for inclusion in the review. Two reviewers will independently screen all abstracts and full-text studies for inclusion. Data will be abstracted into tables and logically organised according to items addressed in the specific research questions. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Dissemination of results will be sought through a peer-reviewed publication, conference presentations and stakeholder meetings. The data used are from publicly available secondary sources, so no ethical review would be required for this study.

14.
Curr Obes Rep ; 9(3): 219-230, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594318

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Omics-based technologies were suggested to provide an advanced understanding of obesity etiology and its metabolic consequences. This review highlights the recent developments in "omics"-based research aimed to identify obesity-related biomarkers. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances in obesity and metabolism research increasingly rely on new technologies to identify mechanisms in the development of obesity using various "omics" platforms. Genetic and epigenetic biomarkers that translate into changes in transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome could serve as targets for obesity prevention. Despite a number of promising candidate biomarkers, there is an increased demand for larger prospective cohort studies to validate findings and determine biomarker reproducibility before they can find applications in primary care and public health. "Omics" biomarkers have advanced our knowledge on the etiology of obesity and its links with chronic diseases. They bring substantial promise in identifying effective public health strategies that pave the way towards patient stratification and precision prevention.

15.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(6): 525-536, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253639

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There are no models for German women that predict absolute risk of invasive breast cancer (BC), i.e., the probability of developing BC over a prespecified time period, given a woman's age and characteristics, while accounting for competing risks. We thus validated two absolute BC risk models (BCRAT, BCRmod) developed for US women in German women. BCRAT uses a woman's medical, reproductive, and BC family history; BCRmod adds modifiable risk factors (body mass index, hormone replacement therapy and alcohol use). METHODS: We assessed model calibration by comparing observed BC numbers (O) to expected numbers (E) computed from BCRmod/BCRAT for German women enrolled in the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), and after updating the models with German BC incidence/competing mortality rates. We also compared 1-year BC risk predicted for all German women using the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) with overall German BC incidence. Discriminatory performance was quantified by the area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC). RESULTS: Among 22,098 EPIC-Germany women aged 40+ years, 745 BCs occurred (median follow-up: 11.9 years). Both models had good calibration for total follow-up, EBCRmod/O = 1.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.21), and EBCRAT/O = 0.99(0.87-1.11), and over 5 years. Compared to German BC incidence rates, both models somewhat overestimated 1-year risk for women aged 55+ and 70+ years. For total follow-up, AUCBCRmod = 0.61(0.58-0.63) and AUCBCRAT = 0.58(0.56-0.61), with similar values for 5-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: US BC risk models showed adequate calibration in German women. Discriminatory performance was comparable to that in US women. These models thus could be applied for risk prediction in German women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 597, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001714

RESUMO

Physical activity has been associated with lower risks of breast and colorectal cancer in epidemiological studies; however, it is unknown if these associations are causal or confounded. In two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses, using summary genetic data from the UK Biobank and GWA consortia, we found that a one standard deviation increment in average acceleration was associated with lower risks of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27 to 0.98, P-value = 0.04) and colorectal cancer (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.90, P-value = 0.01). We found similar magnitude inverse associations for estrogen positive (ER+ve) breast cancer and for colon cancer. Our results support a potentially causal relationship between higher physical activity levels and lower risks of breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Based on these data, the promotion of physical activity is probably an effective strategy in the primary prevention of these commonly diagnosed cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Exercício Físico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Acelerometria , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
17.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 65: 101643, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first large-scale genome-wide association study of gallbladder cancer (GBC) recently identified and validated three susceptibility variants in the ABCB1 and ABCB4 genes for individuals of Indian descent. We investigated whether these variants were also associated with GBC risk in Chileans, who show the highest incidence of GBC worldwide, and in Europeans with a low GBC incidence. METHODS: This population-based study analysed genotype data from retrospective Chilean case-control (255 cases, 2042 controls) and prospective European cohort (108 cases, 181 controls) samples consistently with the original publication. RESULTS: Our results confirmed the reported associations for Chileans with similar risk effects. Particularly strong associations (per-allele odds ratios close to 2) were observed for Chileans with high Native American (=Mapuche) ancestry. No associations were noticed for Europeans, but the statistical power was low. CONCLUSION: Taking full advantage of genetic and ethnic differences in GBC risk may improve the efficiency of current prevention programs.


Assuntos
Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Chile/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Br J Nutr ; 123(2): 198-208, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583990

RESUMO

Experimental studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols. However, results from epidemiological investigations have been inconsistent and especially studies using biomarkers for assessment of polyphenol intake have been scant. We aimed to characterise the association between plasma concentrations of thirty-five polyphenol compounds and low-grade systemic inflammation state as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). A cross-sectional data analysis was performed based on 315 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort with available measurements of plasma polyphenols and hsCRP. In logistic regression analysis, the OR and 95 % CI of elevated serum hsCRP (>3 mg/l) were calculated within quartiles and per standard deviation higher level of plasma polyphenol concentrations. In a multivariable-adjusted model, the sum of plasma concentrations of all polyphenols measured (per standard deviation) was associated with 29 (95 % CI 50, 1) % lower odds of elevated hsCRP. In the class of flavonoids, daidzein was inversely associated with elevated hsCRP (OR 0·66, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·96). Among phenolic acids, statistically significant associations were observed for 3,5-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR 0·58, 95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR 0·63, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·87), ferulic acid (OR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) and caffeic acid (OR 0·69, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·93). The odds of elevated hsCRP were significantly reduced for hydroxytyrosol (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·93). The present study showed that polyphenol biomarkers are associated with lower odds of elevated hsCRP. Whether diet rich in bioactive polyphenol compounds could be an effective strategy to prevent or modulate deleterious health effects of inflammation should be addressed by further well-powered longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Inflamação/sangue , Neoplasias/sangue , Avaliação Nutricional , Polifenóis/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Clin Nutr ; 39(3): 862-869, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pro-inflammatory biomarkers are well-established contributors to insulin resistance and represent valid targets for diabetes management and prevention. Yet, little is known whether nutrition could play a role in modulating various aspects of immune-inflammatory responses. Our aim is to assess the effect of isocaloric animal and plant protein dietary interventions on selected biomarkers representing various immune-inflammatory pathways. METHODS: We enrolled 37 participants with type 2 diabetes (age 64 ± 6 years, body mass index 30.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2, glycated hemoglobin 7.0 ± 0.6%) who underwent an either high-animal protein (AP) or high-plant protein (PP) diet (30 E% protein, 40 E% carbohydrates, 30 E% fat) for 6-weeks. Clinical examinations were performed at beginning and end of the study. Levels of pro-inflammatory adipokines [chemerin, progranulin], cytokines [tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1)], and proteins [calprotectin, lactoferrin and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15)] were determined in blood serum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Chemerin and progranulin concentrations decreased following AP and PP diets. TGF-ß1 increased in AP and decreased in PP, whereas calprotectin increased in PP and decreased in AP. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, suPAR, lactoferrin and GDF-15 could be seen in either of the protein diet arms. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that both AP and PP diets may effectively reduce the levels of the pro-inflammatory adipokines chemerin and progranulin. The effects on the additional immune-inflammatory biomarkers seem to be more complex. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NUMBER: NCT02402985 (ww.clinicaltrials.gov).

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