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1.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(8): 546-550, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532276

RESUMO

Background: The Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS) is a multidimensional rating scale designed for the fast, easy and reliable assessment of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs) induced by antipsychotics. Aim: The aim of this study was to validate the level of inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the Norwegian translation of this scale. Methods: A total of 125 video clips showing a variety of or no signs of EPSs were used in the present study. The participants recorded were Japanese psychiatric patients receiving first- and/or second-generation antipsychotics. A total of 103 patients (47 males and 56 females), diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 68) or mood disorders (n = 35) appeared in the video clips. Their mean age was 48.7 ± 16.3 years (range 18-80) at the time of video recording. Inter-rater agreement was assessed with five raters and test-retest reliability with three. Results: Inter-rater reliability analyses showed interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranging from 0.74 to 0.93 for each individual item. Test-retest reliability analysed independently for each rater ranged from 0.71 to 0.96. Conclusions: Inter-rater and test-retest agreement exhibited satisfactory ICC levels above 0.70. The Norwegian version of the DIEPSS is a reliable instrument for the assessment of drug-induced EPSs.

2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 190, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major depressive disorder that occurs after childbirth. Objective diagnostic and predictive methods for PPD are important for early detection and appropriate intervention. DNA methylation has been recognized as a potential biomarker for major depressive disorder. In this study, we used methylation analysis and peripheral blood to search for biomarkers that could to lead to the development a predictive method for PPD. METHODS: Study participants included 36 pregnant women (18 cases and 18 controls determined after childbirth). Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were obtained by analysis with an Infinium Human Methylation 450BeadChip. The association of DNA methylation status at each DNA methylation site with PPD was assessed using linear regression analysis. We also conducted functional enrichment analysis of PPD using The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery 6.8 to explore enriched functional-related gene groups for PPD. RESULTS: In the analysis with postpartum depressed state as an independent variable, the difference in methylation frequency between the postpartum non-depressed group and the postpartum depressed group was small, and sites with genome-wide significant differences were not confirmed. After analysis by The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery 6.8, we revealed four gene ontology terms, including axon guidance, related to postpartum depression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may help with the development of an objective predictive method for PPD.

3.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 81(2): 183-192, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239586

RESUMO

In a world of increasing academic mobility, most universities seek to give their students opportunities to experience education in different countries, which is especially true for senior research students. The Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine started a joint degree program (JDP) for PhD students with the University of Adelaide, Faculty of Health Science (Australia) in 2015 and with Lund University Faculty of Medicine (Sweden) in 2017. Furthermore, we have started a new JDP with the University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine (Germany) in 2018. This article reports the issues specific to counterpart medical schools, including student's recruitment, the curriculum, and the general differences between each schools. JDPs are not only important for educational collaboration, but also as a strategy to encourage international research collaboration, which is a core criterion to a university's world-ranking reputation. Acquiring knowledge about educational strategies that are implemented in different foreign medical schools represents a unique opportunity to improve our own curriculum.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 146, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053702

RESUMO

The original Article required a few updates; one co-author name, which was given as Hiroki Kiumura, has been updated to Hiroki Kimura. Furthermore, supplementary information has been updated, and grant numbers have been added. These updates have been made to both the PDF and HTML versions of this Article.

5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 126, 2019 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011151

RESUMO

Although a number of studies have identified several convincing candidate genes or molecules, the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) has not been completely elucidated. Therapeutic optimization based on pathophysiology should be performed as early as possible to improve functional outcomes and prognosis; to detect useful biomarkers for SCZ, which reflect pathophysiology and can be utilized for timely diagnosis and effective therapy. To explore biomarkers for SCZ, we employed fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) (1st sample set: 30 SCZ and 30 CON). Differentially expressed proteins were sequenced by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and identified proteins were confirmed by western blotting (WB) (1st and 2nd sample set: 60 SCZ and 60 CON). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify an optimal combination of biomarkers to create a prediction model for SCZ. Twenty protein spots were differentially expressed between SCZ and CON in 2D-DIGE analysis and 22 unique proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. Differential expression of eight of 22 proteins was confirmed by WB. Among the eight candidate proteins (HSPA4L, MX1, GLRX3, UROD, MAPRE1, TBCB, IGHM, and GART), we successfully constructed logistic regression models comprised of 4- and 6-markers with good discriminative ability between SCZ and CON. In both WB and gene expression analysis of LCL, MX1 showed reproducibly significant associations. Moreover, Mx1 and its related proinflamatory genes (Mx2, Il1b, and Tnf) were also up-regulated in poly I:C-treated mice. Differentially expressed proteins might be associated with molecular pathophysiology of SCZ, including dysregulation of immunological reactions and potentially provide diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.

6.
Res Dev Disabil ; 89: 51-58, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New classification system Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed.(DSM - 5) includes sensory problems as one of the symptoms in diagnostic profile of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Researching the effects of sensory integration treatment may improve new approaches to the individuals with ASD. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of Snoezelen, multisensory environment on the severity of ASD and stereotyped/repetitive behaviours in adolescents and adults using CARS scale. METHOD: The study involved 40 subjects with ASD associated with intellectual difficulties of both sexes, aged 15-35. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: a control one (without treatment) and an experimental one (with treatment). The assessments were rated by CARS (Childhood Autism Rating Scale) before and after the three-month treatment. RESULTS: In the experimental group, there was a statistically significant difference of the total CARS score before and after the treatment (p < 0.0005). Comparing the results of both experimental and control groups, a statistically significant difference was found on total CARS score (p < 0.0005). Conslusion: The results in the present study indicate that the continual sessions in Snoezelen room had effects on reducing severity of ASD and repetitive and stereotyped behaviours on CARS scale.

7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17659, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518774

RESUMO

Early detection of perinatal depression is an urgent issue. Our study aimed to examine the construct validity and factor structure of the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) from a prospective cohort study from pregnancy to postpartum. A total of 1075 women completed all items of the EPDS at four time points: early pregnancy, late pregnancy, 5 days postpartum and 1 month postpartum. The participants were randomly divided into two sample sets. The first sample set (n = 304) was used for exploratory factor analysis, and the second sample set (n = 771) was used for confirmatory factor analysis. As a result, the Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the EPDS items were 0.762, 0.740, 0.765 and 0.772 at the four time points. From the confirmatory factor analysis of the EPDS in a sample set of Japanese women from pregnancy to postpartum, the following three factors were detected: depression (items 7, 9), anxiety (items 4, 5) and anhedonia (items 1, 2). In conclusion, the EPDS is a useful rating scale, and its factor structure is consistently stable during the whole peripartum period.

8.
Schizophr Bull ; 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285260

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified >100 susceptibility loci for schizophrenia (SCZ) and demonstrated that SCZ is a polygenic disorder determined by numerous genetic variants but with small effect size. We conducted a GWAS in the Japanese (JPN) population (a) to detect novel SCZ-susceptibility genes and (b) to examine the shared genetic risk of SCZ across (East Asian [EAS] and European [EUR]) populations and/or that of trans-diseases (SCZ, bipolar disorder [BD], and major depressive disorder [MDD]) within EAS and between EAS and EUR (trans-diseases/populations). Among the discovery GWAS subjects (JPN-SCZ GWAS: 1940 SCZ cases and 7408 controls) and replication dataset (4071 SCZ cases and 54479 controls), both comprising JPN populations, 3 novel susceptibility loci for SCZ were identified: SPHKAP (Pbest = 4.1 × 10-10), SLC38A3 (Pbest = 5.7 × 10-10), and CABP1-ACADS (Pbest = 9.8 × 10-9). Subsequent meta-analysis between our samples and those of the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC; EUR samples) and another study detected 12 additional susceptibility loci. Polygenic risk score (PRS) prediction revealed a shared genetic risk of SCZ across populations (Pbest = 4.0 × 10-11) and between SCZ and BD in the JPN population (P ~ 10-40); however, a lower variance-explained was noted between JPN-SCZ GWAS and PGC-BD or MDD within/across populations. Genetic correlation analysis supported the PRS results; the genetic correlation between JPN-SCZ and PGC-SCZ was ρ = 0.58, whereas a similar/lower correlation was observed between the trans-diseases (JPN-SCZ vs JPN-BD/EAS-MDD, rg = 0.56/0.29) or trans-diseases/populations (JPN-SCZ vs PGC-BD/MDD, ρ = 0.38/0.12). In conclusion, (a) Fifteen novel loci are possible susceptibility genes for SCZ and (b) SCZ "risk" effect is shared with other psychiatric disorders even across populations.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 10(10)2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261620

RESUMO

Oncolytic viral therapy has been accepted as a standard immunotherapy since talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC, Imlygic®) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) for melanoma treatment in 2015. Various oncolytic viruses (OVs), such as HF10 (Canerpaturev-C-REV) and CVA21 (CAVATAK), are now actively being developed in phase II as monotherapies, or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors against melanoma. Moreover, in glioma, several OVs have clearly demonstrated both safety and a promising efficacy in the phase I clinical trials. Additionally, the safety of several OVs, such as pelareorep (Reolysin®), proved their safety and efficacy in combination with paclitaxel in breast cancer patients, but the outcomes of OVs as monotherapy against breast cancer have not provided a clear therapeutic strategy for OVs. The clinical trials of OVs against pancreatic cancer have not yet demonstrated efficacy as either monotherapy or as part of combination therapy. However, there are several oncolytic viruses that have successfully proved their efficacy in different preclinical models. In this review, we mainly focused on the oncolytic viruses that transitioned into clinical trials against melanoma, glioma, pancreatic, and breast cancers. Hence, we described the current status and future prospects of OVs clinical trials against melanoma, glioma, pancreatic, and breast cancers.

10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 105: 71-77, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have reported associations between bonding failure, depression, social support among mothers, and perceived rearing, the causal relationships remain unclear. METHODS: A total of 855 women (mean age, 32.4 ±â€¯4.4 years) completed the Mother-Infant Bonding Questionnaire (MIBQ), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Japanese version of the Social Support Questionnaire, and the Parental Bonding Instrument in early pregnancy before week 25 (T1) and at 1 month after delivery (T2). We created a path model to clarify the causal relationships between perinatal bonding failure, depression, social support, and perceived rearing during pregnancy and at 1 month after delivery. The model was tested using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: Our recursive model showed acceptable fit (chi-squared statistic/degree of freedom = 2.1, comparative fit index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.04). It was revealed that: (1) at T1, higher overprotection significantly predicted MIBQ scores; (2) at T1, poorer social support significantly predicted both MIBQ and EPDS scores; and (3) at T1, both MIBQ and EPDS scores significantly predicted respective scores at T2. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that bonding failure in the postpartum period was significantly influenced by mothers' own perceived rearing and social support during pregnancy. In addition, depression in the postpartum period was strongly influenced by social support during pregnancy. These findings suggest that psychosocial interventions that focus on both mothers' recollections of their own upbringing and social support during pregnancy are effective for preventing bonding failure and depression in the postpartum period.

11.
Cell Rep ; 24(11): 2838-2856, 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208311

RESUMO

Compelling evidence in Caucasian populations suggests a role for copy-number variations (CNVs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). We analyzed 1,108 ASD cases, 2,458 SCZ cases, and 2,095 controls in a Japanese population and confirmed an increased burden of rare exonic CNVs in both disorders. Clinically significant (or pathogenic) CNVs, including those at 29 loci common to both disorders, were found in about 8% of ASD and SCZ cases, which was significantly higher than in controls. Phenotypic analysis revealed an association between clinically significant CNVs and intellectual disability. Gene set analysis showed significant overlap of biological pathways in both disorders including oxidative stress response, lipid metabolism/modification, and genomic integrity. Finally, based on bioinformatics analysis, we identified multiple disease-relevant genes in eight well-known ASD/SCZ-associated CNV loci (e.g., 22q11.2, 3q29). Our findings suggest an etiological overlap of ASD and SCZ and provide biological insights into these disorders.

12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13046, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158644

RESUMO

Reelin protein (RELN), an extracellular matrix protein, plays multiple roles that range from embryonic neuronal migration to spine formation in the adult brain. Results from genetic studies have suggested that RELN is associated with the risk of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SCZ). We previously identified a novel exonic deletion of RELN in a patient with SCZ. High-resolution copy number variation analysis revealed that this deletion included exons 52 to 58, which truncated the RELN in a similar manner to the Reln Orleans mutation (Relnrl-Orl). We examined the clinical features of this patient and confirmed a decreased serum level of RELN. To elucidate the pathophysiological role of the exonic deletion of RELN in SCZ, we conducted behavioral and neurochemical analyses using heterozygous Relnrl-Orl/+ mice. These mice exhibited abnormalities in anxiety, social behavior, and motor learning; the deficits in motor learning were ameliorated by antipsychotics. Methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and dopamine release were significantly reduced in the Relnrl-Orl/+ mice. In addition, the levels of GABAergic markers were decreased in the brain of these mice. Taken together, our results suggest that the exonic deletion of RELN plays a pathological role, implicating functional changes in the dopaminergic and GABAergic systems, in the pathophysiology of SCZ.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11624, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072799

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the situation of postpartum depression and maternal bonding in Nagoya, a city distant from the epicenter of the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011. Among the participants at 1 month after childbirth between March 11, 2010 and March 10, 2013 (n = 188), 152 fully responded to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Mother-Infant Bonding Questionnaire (MIBQ). They were divided into pre-quake (n = 58), and 0-6, 6-12, 12-18, and 18-24 months after the earthquake groups (n = 20, 26, 29, and 19, respectively). The rate of mothers who scored above the cutoff point for the EPDS increased from 12.1% in the pre-quake to 35.0% in the 0-6 months group (p = 0.022). The EPDS total and anxiety subscale scores (mean ± standard error) were also significantly different between the pre-quake and 0-6 months after the earthquake groups (4.45 ± 0.50 vs. 7.95 ± 1.47, p = 0.024; 2.16 ± 0.26 vs. 3.65 ± 0.57, p = 0.021, respectively). The EPDS total and anxiety scores were the highest for the 0-6 months group, followed by the 6-12, 12-18, 18-24 months groups (p = 0.019, p = 0.022). MIBQ scores did not differ between the pre-quake and 0-6 months groups. Depressive symptoms, mainly explained by anxiety, increased after the earthquake with no changes in maternal bonding.

14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 129, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30022058

RESUMO

Reelin is a protein encoded by the RELN gene that controls neuronal migration in the developing brain. Human genetic studies suggest that rare RELN variants confer susceptibility to mental disorders such as schizophrenia. However, it remains unknown what effects rare RELN variants have on human neuronal cells. To this end, the analysis of human neuronal dynamics at the single-cell level is necessary. In this study, we generated human-induced pluripotent stem cells carrying a rare RELN variant (RELN-del) using targeted genome editing; cells were further differentiated into highly homogeneous dopaminergic neurons. Our results indicated that RELN-del triggered an impaired reelin signal and decreased the expression levels of genes relevant for cell movement in human neurons. Single-cell trajectory analysis revealed that control neurons possessed directional migration even in vitro, while RELN-del neurons demonstrated a wandering type of migration. We further confirmed these phenotypes in neurons derived from a patient carrying the congenital RELN-del. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the biological significance of a rare RELN variant in human neurons based on individual neuron dynamics. Collectively, our approach should be useful for studying reelin function and evaluating mental disorder susceptibility, focusing on individual human neuronal migration.

15.
J Neurochem ; 147(3): 395-408, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025158

RESUMO

Myelinated axons segregate the axonal membrane into four defined regions: the node of Ranvier, paranode, juxtaparanode, and internode. The paranodal junction consists of specific component proteins, such as neurofascin155 (NF155) on the glial side, and Caspr and Contactin on the axonal side. Although paranodal junctions are thought to play crucial roles in rapid saltatory conduction and nodal assembly, the role of their interaction with neurons is not fully understood. In a previous study, conditional NF155 knockout in oligodendrocytes led to disorganization of the paranodal junctions. To examine if disruption of paranodal junctions affects neuronal gene expression, we prepared total RNA from the retina of NF155 conditional knockout, and performed expression analysis. We found that the expression level of 433 genes changed in response to paranodal junction ablation. Interestingly, expression of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) was significantly reduced in NF155 conditional knockout mice, but not in cerebroside sulfotransferase knockout (CST-KO) mice, whose paranodes are not originally formed during development. Copy number variations have an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). We observed rare duplications of AQP3 in SCZ patients, suggesting a correlation between abnormal AQP3 expression and SCZ. To determine if AQP3 over-expression in NF155 conditional knockout mice influences neuronal function, we performed adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated over-expression of AQP3 in the motor cortex of mice and found a significant increase in caspase 3-dependent neuronal apoptosis in AQP3-transduced cells. This study may provide new insights into therapeutic approaches for SCZ by regulating AQP3 expression, which is associated with paranodal disruption.

16.
Psychiatr Genet ; 28(5): 90-93, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975244

RESUMO

Enhanced carbonyl stress has been observed in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia. Glyoxalase I, which is encoded by GLO1, is an enzyme that protects against carbonyl stress. In this study, we focused on the association between rare genetic variants of GLO1 and schizophrenia. First, we identified one heterozygous frameshift variant, p.P122fs, in 370 Japanese schizophrenia cases with allele frequencies of up to 1% by exon-targeted mutation screening of GLO1. We then performed an association analysis on 1282 cases and 1764 controls with this variant. The variant was found in three cases and eight controls. There was no statistically significant association between p.P122fs in GLO1 and schizophrenia (P=0.25). This frameshift variant in GLO1 might occur at near-polymorphic frequencies in the Japanese population, although further investigations using larger samples and biological analyses are needed to exclude the possibility of a low-penetrance genetic risk associated with this variant.

17.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 72(6): 399-408, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29485228

RESUMO

AIM: Although the effects of psychotropics on driving ability have received much attention, little research is available on driving performance of stable outpatients with depression undergoing real-world treatment. This observational study investigated driving performance, cognitive functions, and depressive symptomatology of partly remitted outpatients with depression under daily-practice psychopharmacologic treatment. METHODS: Seventy stable outpatients with depression and 67 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Patients' prescriptions were not controlled in order to capture the real-world treatment environment. Participants underwent three driving tasks - road-tracking, car-following, and harsh-braking - using a driving simulator, and three cognitive tasks - Continuous Performance Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Trail-Making Test. The Symptom Assessment Scale - Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale, and Stanford Sleepiness Scale were also completed. RESULTS: Although many patients received various pharmacologic treatments, there were no significant differences in the three driving tasks between outpatients with depression and healthy controls. Difficulty of maintaining set in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test was significantly increased in patients with depression. Results on the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale were significantly associated with road-tracking and car-following performance, in contrast to results on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. CONCLUSION: We conclude that partly remitted depressive patients under steady-state pharmacologic treatment do not differ from healthy controls with respect to driving performance, which seems to be more affected by psychosocial functioning than by pharmacologic agents. This, however, should be investigated systematically in an off/on study.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ajustamento Social , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Indução de Remissão , Adulto Jovem
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 12, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317596

RESUMO

In schizophrenia (SCZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the dysregulation of glutamate transmission through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) has been implicated as a potential etiological mechanism. Previous studies have accumulated evidence supporting NMDAR-encoding genes' role in etiology of SCZ and ASD. We performed a screening study for exonic regions of GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2C, GRIN2D, GRIN3A, and GRIN3B, which encode NMDAR subunits, in 562 participates (370 SCZ and 192 ASD). Forty rare variants were identified including 38 missense, 1 frameshift mutation in GRIN2C and 1 splice site mutation in GRIN2D. We conducted in silico analysis for all variants and detected seven missense variants with deleterious prediction. De novo analysis was conducted if pedigree samples were available. The splice site mutation in GRIN2D is predicted to result in intron retention by minigene assay. Furthermore, the frameshift mutation in GRIN2C and splice site mutation in GRIN2D were genotyped in an independent sample set comprising 1877 SCZ cases, 382 ASD cases, and 2040 controls. Both of them were revealed to be singleton. Our study gives evidence in support of the view that ultra-rare variants with loss of function (frameshift, nonsense or splice site) in NMDARs genes may contribute to possible risk of SCZ.

19.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 125(2): 211-222, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275445

RESUMO

The authors present a narrative review from the diagnostic and nosologic viewpoints of mood disorders (bipolar and depressive ones) by revisiting the revision from the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision to DSM-5, including the following: the separation of the bipolar and depressive sections; the addition of increased energy and continuation of symptoms to the hypo/manic criteria; the elimination of mixed episodes; the creation of new categories and specifiers ("other specified bipolar and related disorder", "disruptive mood dysregulation disorder", "with anxious distress", "with mixed features", "with peripartum onset"); the categorization of hypo/manic episodes during antidepressant treatment into bipolar disorder; the elimination of the "bereavement exclusion"; the ambiguous separation between bipolar I and II; the insufficient distinction between "other specified bipolar and related disorders" and major depressive disorder; the differentiation regarding borderline personality disorder; agitation; premenstrual dysphoric disorder; and society and psychiatry. Through this analysis, we point out both the achievements and limitations of DSM-5. In addition, to examine the future direction of psychiatry, we introduce our cohort study regarding maternal depression and an outline of the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria project in the US. Finally, we advocate the importance of elucidating etiopathogeneses by starting from or going beyond the DSM operational diagnostic system, which has shown great efficacy.

20.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol ; 21(5): 405-409, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126171

RESUMO

Background: Adenosine kinase (ADK) is supposed to be a schizophrenia susceptibility gene based on the findings that ADK is an enzyme that catalyzes transfer of the gamma-phosphate from ATP to adenosine, which interacts with dopamine and glutamate neurotransmitters. However, no reports of schizophrenia cases with loss of function variants in the ADK region have been published. In our previous study investigating copy number variants in schizophrenia, we detected a copy number variant in the ADK region in 1 of 1699 schizophrenia patients. Methods: We validated the ADK deletion by determining the breakpoint. Then, we compared the relative expression of ADK in 32 schizophrenia patients, including a schizophrenia patient with deletion of ADK, with 29 healthy controls using lymphoblastoid cell lines. Furthermore, we evaluated the clinical phenotypes of the schizophrenia with ADK deletion. Result: We validated the copy number variants with Sanger sequencing and predicted that this copy number variant results in loss of function of ADK. Furthermore, expression analysis of mRNA from peripheral blood in this schizophrenia patient with the ADK deletion showed an extremely low level of ADK. Here we describe a case report of a patient with ADK deletion with phenotypes (schizophrenia, parkinsonism, epilepsy) that are predicted when ADK function is disrupted. Conclusion: Considering that the patient had a low ADK mRNA level and showed a phenotype that may be related to ADK deficiency, the copy number variants in the region of ADK may be strongly related to the phenotypes described here, such as schizophrenia, Parkinsonism, and epilepsy.

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