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Animals (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827779


Non-typeable (NT) Staphylococcus aureus strains are associated with chronic bovine mastitis. This study investigates the impact of biofilm formation by clinical NT S. aureus on cytokine production and mammary tissue damage by using a mouse mastitis model. Mice infected with two different NT S. aureus strains with strong and weak biofilm forming potential demonstrated identical clinical symptoms (moderate), minimal inflammatory infiltrates, and tissue damage (level 1 histopathological changes) in the mammary glands. However, the S. aureus load in the mammary glands of mice and the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17 and IFN-γ) in serum were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in those infected with the strong biofilm forming NT S. aureus strain. The level of IL-6 in sera samples of these mice was extremely high (15,479.9 ± 532 Pg/mL). Furthermore, these mice died in 24h of post infection compared to 30 h in the weak biofilm forming NT S. aureus infected group. The study demonstrates no association between the strength of PIA (polysaccharide intercellular adhesion)-dependent biofilm production by clinical NT S. aureus and mammary gland pathology in a mouse mastitis model. However, the role of biofilm in the virulence of S. aureus advancing the time of mortality in mice warrants further investigation.

Prev Vet Med ; 196: 105477, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482152


Abattoir surveillance is an integral component of a bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication programme. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of bTB among culled adult dairy cows in Wuhan, China and to further assess two diagnostic procedures as an adjunct to the confirmation of M. bovis in animals with TB-like lesions. The study was conducted in an abattoir located in Wuhan, China over a period of 41 days from June to July 2019. A total of 171 culled adult dairy cows were sampled and inspected, and blood samples collected from 134 of these. The viscera and lymph nodes of the carcasses were visually inspected and palpated for TB-like lesions. A total of 28.1 % (48/171) of the carcasses had gross TB-like lesions. 89.6 % (43/48) of the animals with TB-like lesions were positive to a PCR procedure for bTB. The sensitivity and specificity for post-mortem examination for TB-like lesions using a Bayesian latent class analysis model was estimated to be 60.8 % and 86.6 %, respectively. A seroprevalence of 20.9 % (28/134) was recorded for antibody response to M. bovis antigens MPB70 and MPB83 based on an ELISA procedure. There was a low-moderate agreement between the ELISA and PCR results in the detection of bTB (Kappa = 0.46, 95 % CI: 0.24-0.67). The study confirms a high prevalence of bTB among culled adult dairy cows in the abattoir and highlights the need to implement surveillance for bTB based on post-mortem examination and ELISA and PCR methods in association with backward tracing of infected dairy herds.

Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose Bovina , Matadouros , Abate de Animais , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia
Pathogens ; 9(10)2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086687


The objective of this study was to estimate the fecal carriage of Salmonella spp. among culled adult dairy cows presented to an abattoir in Wuhan, China and to evaluate their antimicrobial resistance profiles. Rectal swabs from 138 culled cows were cultured. Laboratory analysis involved the identification of Salmonella, the susceptibility assessment and the presence of Extended Spectrum ß-lactamases and mcr genes in the isolates. An overall prevalence of Salmonella of 29.0% was recorded with 63.4% (26/41) and 2.4% (1/41) of the isolates identified as S. Typhimurium and S. Dublin, respectively. The occurrence of Salmonella was higher (odd ratios: 3.3) in culled cows originating from the northeast zone of China than cows originating from the central and north zones. Twenty multi-drug resistant strains (resistant to three or more antimicrobial agents) were detected (48.8%) and overall, a high resistance to ampicillin (36/41) and tetracycline (15/41) was observed. Extended Spectrum ß-lactamases phenotypes were found in 7/41 isolates, of which all contained the blaCTX-M resistance gene, and no mcr genes were found by polymerase chain reaction. The high prevalence of Salmonella fecal carriage and antimicrobial resistance may contribute to an increased risk of Salmonella transmission to food.

Animals (Basel) ; 9(7)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323983


Many working equids in developing countries experience poor health and welfare due to environmental and management factors. Collecting baseline data on these populations is essential to inform education projects to improve equid health and welfare. Gili Trawangan is an island in Indonesia that has no motor vehicles and a working pony population of approximately 200. This pilot study sought to determine baseline data on their health, welfare, and husbandry to inform future health and welfare strategies. A cross-sectional study was performed in May 2017 consisting of a pony cart driver questionnaire (n = 33) and a basic pony health examination (n = 38). The body condition scores of ponies were 3/5 (60.5%), 2/5 (31.6%), and 1/5 (7.9%), while 38% and 92% of ponies had lameness and foot pathology, respectively, and 31 ponies (86.1%) had at least one wound. Thirty percent of cart drivers stated they would work their ponies despite evidence of injury or illness. Limited education, poor access to veterinary services, and remoteness pose barriers to improving pony health and welfare. Our results indicate a need for, and can help inform, targeted education programmes to improve the lives of working ponies and protect livelihoods and tourism on Gili Trawangan.

Trop Anim Health Prod ; 42(8): 1643-7, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20526675


The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of Nairobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were inconclusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1% (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/mortalidade , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Desnutrição/veterinária , Transtornos Respiratórios/veterinária , Sepse/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Diagnóstico , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/mortalidade , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/mortalidade , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/mortalidade , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/mortalidade , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária