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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829995

RESUMO

Tumor-associated macrophages play a key role in promoting tumor progression by exerting an immunosuppressive phenotype associated with the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). It is well known that tumor-derived small extracellular vesicles (SEVs) affect the tumor microenvironment, influencing TAM behavior. The present study aimed to examine the effect of SEVs derived from colon cancer and multiple myeloma cells on macrophage functions. Non-polarized macrophages (M0) differentiated from THP-1 cells were co-cultured with SEVs derived from a colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line, SW480, and a multiple myeloma (MM) cell line, MM1.S. The expression of PD-L1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and other inflammatory cytokines as well as of the underlying molecular mechanisms were evaluated. Our results indicate that SEVs can significantly upregulate the expressions of PD-L1 and IL-6 at both the mRNA and protein levels and can activate the STAT3 signaling pathway. Furthermore, we identified the TLR4/NF-kB pathway as a convergent mechanism for SEV-mediated PD-L1 expression. Overall, these preliminary data suggest that SEVs contribute to the formation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681822

RESUMO

The early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still an investigative challenge. Saliva has been proposed as an ideal diagnostic medium for biomarker detection by mean of liquid biopsy technique. The aim of this pilot study was to apply proteomic and bioinformatic strategies to determine the potential use of saliva small extracellular vesicles (S/SEVs) as a potential tumor biomarker source. Among the twenty-three enrolled patients, 5 were free from diseases (OSCC_FREE), 6 were with OSCC without lymph node metastasis (OSCC_NLNM), and 12 were with OSCC and lymph node metastasis (OSCC_LNM). The S/SEVs from patients of each group were pooled and properly characterized before performing their quantitative proteome comparison based on the SWATH_MS (Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical Mass Spectra) method. The analysis resulted in quantitative information for 365 proteins differentially characterizing the S/SEVs of analyzed clinical conditions. Bioinformatic analysis of the proteomic data highlighted that each S/SEV group was associated with a specific cluster of enriched functional network terms. Our results highlighted that protein cargo of salivary small extracellular vesicles defines a functional signature, thus having potential value as novel predict biomarkers for OSCC.

3.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 32(11): 846-861, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481733

RESUMO

Lower bone resistance to load is due to the imbalance of bone homeostasis, where excessive bone resorption, compared with bone formation, determines a progressive osteopenia, leading to a high risk of fractures and consequent pain and functional limitations. Terpenoids, with their activities against bone resorption, have recently received increased attention from researchers. They are potentially more suitable for long-term use compared with traditional therapeutics. In this review of the literature of the past 5 years, we provide comprehensive information on terpenoids, with their anti-osteoporotic effects, highlighting molecular mechanisms that are often in epigenetic key and a possible pharmacological use in osteoporosis prevention and treatment.

4.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e14248, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enteric neurons undergo to functional changes during aging. We investigated the possible age-associated differences in enteric γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic transmission evaluating function and distribution of GABAergic receptors in human colon. METHODS: Mechanical responses to GABA and GABA receptor agonists on slow phasic contractions were examined in vitro as changes in isometric tension in colonic muscle strips from young (<65 years old) and aged patients (>65 years old). GABAergic receptor expression was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. KEY RESULTS: In both preparations GABA induced an excitatory effect, consisting in an increase in the basal tone, antagonized by the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline, and potentiated by phaclofen, GABAB receptor antagonist.Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and atropine-sensitive contractile responses to GABA and GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol, were more pronounced in old compared to young subjects. Baclofen, GABAB receptor agonist, induced a TTX-sensitive reduction of the amplitude of the spontaneous. Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor abolished the inhibitory responses in old preparations, but a residual responses persisted in young preparations, which in turn was abolished by suramin, purinergic receptor antagonist. α3-GABAA receptor subunit expression tends to change in an age-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: Our results reveal age-related differences in GABAergic transmission in human colon. At all the age tested GABA regulates muscular contractility modulating the activity of the intrinsic neurons. Activation of GABAA receptor, through acetylcholine release, induces contraction, which increases in amplitude with age. GABAB receptor activation leads to neural release of NO and purines, being a loss of purinergic-component in aged group.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439086

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality is mainly caused by patient refractoriness to common anti-cancer therapies and consequent metastasis formation. Besides, the notorious toxic side effects of chemotherapy are a concurrent obstacle to be tackled. Thus, new treatment approaches are needed to effectively improve patient outcomes. Compelling evidence demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for treatment failure and relapse. New natural treatment approaches showed capabilities to selectively target the CSC subpopulation by rendering them targetable by standard cytotoxic compounds. Herein we show the anti-cancer properties of the polymethoxyflavones and prenylflavonoids extracted from Citrus sinensis and Humulus lupulus, respectively. The natural biofunctional fractions, singularly and in combination, reduced the cell viability of CRC stem cells (CR-CSCs) and synergized with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOX) chemotherapy. These phenomena were accompanied by a reduced S and G2/M phase of the cell cycle and upregulation of cell death-related genes. Notably, both phytoextracts in combination with FOX thwarted stemness features in CR-CSCs as demonstrated by the impaired clonogenic potential and decreased Wnt pathway activation. Extracts lowered the expression of CD44v6 and affected the expansion of metastatic CR-CSCs in patients refractory to chemotherapy. Together, this study highlights the importance of polymethoxyflavones and prenylflavonoids as natural remedies to aid oncological therapies.

6.
Mitochondrion ; 60: 178-188, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454074

RESUMO

Altered insulin signaling and insulin resistance are considered the link between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and metabolic syndrome. Here, by using an in vitro and an in vivo model, we investigated the relationship between these disorders focusing on neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy. In vitro Aß insult induced the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss, and apoptosis while insulin addition ameliorated these dysfunctions. The same alterations were detected in a 16 weeks of age mouse model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. In addition, we detected an increase of fission related proteins and activation of mitophagy, proved by the rise of PINK1 and Parkin proteins. Nevertheless, in vitro, the increase of p62 and LC3 indicated an alteration in autophagy, while, in vivo decreased expression of p62 and increase of LC3 suggested removing of damaged mitochondria. Finally, in aged mice (28 and 48 weeks), the data indicated impairment of mitophagy and suggested the accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Taken together these outcomes indicate that alteration of the insulin pathway affects mitochondrial integrity, and effective mitophagy is age-dependent.

7.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 10(10): e12132, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429859

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mediators of intercellular communication under both healthy and pathological conditions, including the induction of pro-metastatic traits, but it is not yet known how and where functional cargoes of EVs are delivered to their targets in host cell compartments. We have described that after endocytosis, EVs reach Rab7+ late endosomes and a fraction of these enter the nucleoplasmic reticulum and transport EV biomaterials to the host cell nucleoplasm. Their entry therein and docking to outer nuclear membrane occur through a tripartite complex formed by the proteins VAP-A, ORP3 and Rab7 (VOR complex). Here, we report that the antifungal compound itraconazole (ICZ), but not its main metabolite hydroxy-ICZ or ketoconazole, disrupts the binding of Rab7 to ORP3-VAP-A complexes, leading to inhibition of EV-mediated pro-metastatic morphological changes including cell migration behaviour of colon cancer cells. With novel, smaller chemical drugs, inhibition of the VOR complex was maintained, although the ICZ moieties responsible for antifungal activity and interference with intracellular cholesterol distribution were removed. Knowing that cancer cells hijack their microenvironment and that EVs derived from them determine the pre-metastatic niche, small-sized inhibitors of nuclear transfer of EV cargo into host cells could find cancer therapeutic applications, particularly in combination with direct targeting of cancer cells.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065193

RESUMO

The scientific interest in the beneficial properties of natural substances has been recognized for decades, as well as the growing attention in extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by different organisms, in particular from animal cells. However, there is increasing interest in the isolation and biological and functional characterization of these lipoproteic structures in the plant kingdom. Similar to animal vesicles, these plant-derived extracellular vesicles (PDEVs) exhibit a complex content of small RNAs, proteins, lipids, and other metabolites. This sophisticated composition enables PDEVs to be therapeutically attractive. In this review, we report and discuss current knowledge on PDEVs in terms of isolation, characterization of their content, biological properties, and potential use as drug delivery systems. In conclusion, we outline controversial issues on which the scientific community shall focus the attention shortly.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Lipídeos/fisiologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo
9.
Metabolites ; 11(5)2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925596

RESUMO

Appropriate monitoring and control of modifiable risk factors, such as the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other types of dyslipidemia, have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Recently, various nutraceuticals with lipid-lowering effects have gained attention. In addition to the plant-derived bioactive compounds, recent studies suggested that plant cells are able to release small lipoproteic structures named extracellular vesicles (EVs). The interaction between EVs and mammalian cells could lead to beneficial effects through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The present study aimed to assess the safety of the new patented plant-based product citraVes™, containing extracellular vesicles (EVs) from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck juice, and to investigate its ability to modulate different CV risk factors in healthy subjects. A cohort of 20 healthy volunteers was recruited in a prospective open-label study. All participants received the supplement in a spray-dried formulation at a stable dose of 1000 mg/day for 3 months. Anthropometric and hematobiochemical parameters were analyzed at the baseline and after the follow-up period of 1 and 3 months. We observed that the supplement has an effect on two key factors of cardiometabolic risk in healthy subjects. A significant change in waist circumference was found in women after 4 (85.4 [79.9, 91.0] cm, p < 0.005) and 12 (85.0 [80.0, 90.0] cm, p < 0.0005) weeks, when compared to the baseline value (87.6 [81.7, 93.6] cm). No difference was found in men (baseline: 100.3 [95.4, 105.2] cm; 4 weeks: 102.0 [95.7, 108.3] cm; 12 weeks: 100.0 [95.3, 104.7] cm). The level of LDL-C was significantly lower at 12 weeks versus 4 weeks (p = 0.0064). Our study evaluated, for the first time, the effects of a natural product containing plant-derived EVs on modifiable risk factors in healthy volunteers. The results support the use of EV extracts to manage cardiometabolic risk factors successfully.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671114

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative bone disease that involved micro and macro-environment of joints. To date, there are no radical curative treatments for OA and novel therapies are mandatory. Recent evidence suggests the role of miRNAs in OA progression. In our previous studies, we demonstrated the role of miR-31-5p and miR-33a families in different bone regeneration signaling. Here, we investigated the role of miR-31-5p and miR-33a-5p in OA progression. A different expression of miR-31-5p and miR-33a-5p into osteoblasts and chondrocytes isolated from joint tissues of OA patients classified in based on different Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grading was highlighted; and through a bioinformatic approach the common miRNAs target Specificity proteins (Sp1) were identified. Sp1 regulates the expression of gap junction protein Connexin43 (Cx43), which in OA drives the modification of i) osteoblasts and chondrocytes genes expression, ii) joint inflammation cytokines releases and iii) cell functions. Concerning this, thanks to gain and loss of function studies, the possible role of Sp1 as a modulator of CX43 expression through miR-31-5p and miR-33a-5p action was also evaluated. Finally, we hypothesize that both miRNAs cooperate to modulate the expression of SP1 in osteoblasts and chondrocytes and interfering, consequently, with CX43 expression, and they might be further investigated as new possible biomarkers for OA.


Assuntos
Conexina 43/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteoartrite/patologia , Osteoblastos/patologia , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Células Cultivadas , Conexina 43/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/genética , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673376

RESUMO

Hypoxia, a characteristic of the tumour microenvironment, plays a crucial role in cancer progression and therapeutic response. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and HIF-3α), are the master regulators in response to low oxygen partial pressure, modulating hypoxic gene expression and signalling transduction pathways. HIFs' activation is sufficient to change the cell phenotype at multiple levels, by modulating several biological activities from metabolism to the cell cycle and providing the cell with new characteristics that make it more aggressive. In the past few decades, growing numbers of studies have revealed the importance of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) as molecular mediators in the establishment of hypoxic response, playing important roles in regulating hypoxic gene expression at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels. Here, we review recent findings on the different roles of hypoxia-induced ncRNAs in cancer focusing on the data that revealed their involvement in tumour growth.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/metabolismo , RNA Neoplásico/metabolismo , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , RNA Neoplásico/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética
12.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572275

RESUMO

Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) characterized by lysosomal accumulation of glycosphingolipids in a wide variety of cytotypes, including endothelial cells (ECs). FD patients experience a significantly reduced life expectancy compared to the general population; therefore, the association with a premature aging process would be plausible. To assess this hypothesis, miR-126-3p, a senescence-associated microRNA (SA-miRNAs), was considered as an aging biomarker. The levels of miR-126-3p contained in small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), with about 130 nm of diameter, were measured in FD patients and healthy subjects divided into age classes, in vitro, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) "young" and undergoing replicative senescence, through a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approach. We confirmed that, in vivo, circulating miR-126 levels physiologically increase with age. In vitro, miR-126 augments in HUVECs underwent replicative senescence. We observed that FD patients are characterized by higher miR-126-3p levels in sEVs, compared to age-matched healthy subjects. We also explored, in vitro, the effect on ECs of glycosphingolipids that are typically accumulated in FD patients. We observed that FD storage substances induced in HUVECs premature senescence and increased of miR-126-3p levels. This study reinforces the hypothesis that FD may aggravate the normal aging process.


Assuntos
Senilidade Prematura/genética , Doença de Fabry/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nanopartículas/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(7): 1189-1199, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We undertook this study to evaluate the activation and functional relevance of inflammasome pathways in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and rodent models and their relationship to dysbiosis. METHODS: An inflammasome pathway was evaluated in the gut and peripheral blood from 40 AS patients using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy, and was compared to that of 20 healthy controls and 10 patients with Crohn's disease. Bacteria was visualized using silver stain in human samples, and antibiotics were administered to HLA-B27-transgenic rats. The NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 was administered to SKG mice, and ileal and joint tissues were assessed by IHC analysis and real-time qRT-PCR. The role of inflammasome in modulating the interleukin-23 (IL-23)/IL-17 axis was studied ex vivo. RESULTS: Expression levels of Nlrp3, Nlrc4, and Aim2 were increased in the gut of HLA-B27-transgenic rats and reduced by antibiotic treatment (P < 0.05). In curdlan-treated SKG mice, NLRP3 blockade prevented ileitis and delayed arthritis onset (P < 0.05). Compared to healthy controls, AS patients demonstrated overexpression of NLRP3 (fold induction 2.33 versus 22.2; P < 0.001), NLRC4 (fold induction 1.90 versus 6.47; P < 0.001), AIM2 (fold induction 2.40 versus 20.8; P < 0.001), CASP1 (fold induction 2.53 versus 24.8; P < 0.001), IL1B (fold induction 1.07 versus 10.93; P < 0.001), and IL18 (fold induction 2.56 versus 15.67; P < 0.001) in the ileum, and caspase 1 activity was increased (P < 0.01). The score of adherent and invasive mucosa-associated bacteria was higher in AS (P < 0.01) and correlated with the expression of inflammasome components in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P < 0.001). NLRP3 expression was associated with disease activity (the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score using the C-reactive protein level) (r2 = 0.28, P < 0.01) and with IL23A expression (r2 = 0.34, P < 0.001). In vitro, inflammasome activation in AS monocytes was paralleled by increased serum levels of IL-1ß and IL-18. Induction of IL23A, IL17A, and IL22 was IL-1ß-dependent. CONCLUSION: Inflammasome activation occurs in rodent models of AS and in AS patients, is associated with dysbiosis, and is involved in triggering ileitis in SKG mice. Inflammasomes drive type III cytokine production with an IL-1ß-dependent mechanism in AS patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Íleo/imunologia , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Articulações/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/imunologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Caspase 1/imunologia , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Furanos/farmacologia , Antígeno HLA-B27/genética , Humanos , Ileíte/imunologia , Ileíte/metabolismo , Ileíte/patologia , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Íleo/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Indenos/farmacologia , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Interleucina-18/imunologia , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Articulações/efeitos dos fármacos , Articulações/metabolismo , Articulações/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Transgênicos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Espondilite Anquilosante/microbiologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Biomedicines ; 8(10)2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081183

RESUMO

Teeth extractions are often followed by alveolar bone reabsorption, although an adequate level of bone is required for reliable rehabilitations by dental implants. Leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) has been widely applied in regenerative procedures and with antibiotic and antioxidant agents could play an essential role in hard and soft tissue healing. In this work, a nanocomposite (Sponge-C-MTR) consisting of a hyaluronate-based sponge loaded with metronidazole (MTR) and nanostructured lipid carriers containing curcumin (CUR-NLC) was designed to be wrapped in the L-PRF™ membrane in the post-extraction sockets and characterized. CUR-NLCs, obtained by homogenization followed by high-frequency sonication of the lipid mixture, showed loading capacity (5% w/w), drug recovery (95% w/w), spherical shape with an average particle size of 112.0 nm, and Zeta potential of -24 mV. Sponge-C-MTR was obtained by entrapping CUR-NLC in a hydrophilic matrix by a freeze-drying process, and physico-chemical and cytocompatibility properties were evaluated. Moreover, the aptitude of CUR and MTR to the penetrate and/or permeate both L-PRF™ and porcine buccal tissue was assessed, highlighting MTR penetration and CUR accumulation promoted by the system. The results positively support the action of nanocomposite in dental tissues regeneration when applied together with the L-PRF™.

16.
Front Genet ; 11: 969, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014020

RESUMO

Two chaperonopathies have been linked to mutations in the human hsp60 (hHsp60; HSPD1) gene, but other existing variants might cause diseases, even if there is no comprehensive information about this possibility. To fill this vacuum, which might be at the basis of misdiagnoses or simply ignorance of chaperonopathies in patients who would benefit by proper identification of their ailments, we searched the sequenced human genomes available in public databases to determine the range of missense mutations in the single hsp60 gene. A total of 224 missense mutations were identified, including those already characterized. Detailed examination of these mutations was carried out to assess their possible impact on protein structure-function, considering: (a) the properties of individual amino acids; (b) the known functions of the amino acids in the human Hsp60 and/or in the highly similar bacterial ortholog GroEL; (c) the location of the mutant amino acids in the monomers and oligomers; and (d) structure-function relationships inferred from crystal structures. And we also applied a bioinformatics tool for predicting the impact of mutations on proteins. A portion of these genetic variants could have a deleterious impact on protein structure-function, but have not yet been associated with any pathology. Are these variants causing disease with mild clinical manifestations and are, therefore, being overlooked? Or are they causing overt disease, which is misdiagnosed? Our data indicate that more chaperonopathies might occur than is currently acknowledged and that awareness of chaperonopathies among medical personnel will increase their detection and improve patient management.

17.
Noncoding RNA ; 6(3)2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916806

RESUMO

Bone remodeling is uncoupled in the multiple myeloma (MM) bone marrow niche, resulting in enhanced osteoclastogenesis responsible of MM-related bone disease (MMBD). Several studies have disclosed the mechanisms underlying increased osteoclast formation and activity triggered by the various cellular components of the MM bone marrow microenvironment, leading to the identification of novel targets for therapeutic intervention. In this regard, recent attention has been given to non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules, that finely tune gene expression programs involved in bone homeostasis both in physiological and pathological settings. In this review, we will analyze major signaling pathways involved in MMBD pathophysiology, and report emerging evidence of their regulation by different classes of ncRNAs.

18.
Foods ; 9(9)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937843

RESUMO

Lemon essential oil (LEO) is a well-known flavoring agent with versatile biological activities. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized four citral-enriched fractions of winter LEO. We reported that in murine and human macrophages the pre-treatment with a mix of these fractions (Cfr-LEO) reduces the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 induced by LPS. In addition, Cfr-LEO counteracts LPS-induced oxidative stress, as shown by the increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio in comparison to cells treated with LPS alone. Overall, the results reported here encourage the application of EO fractions, enriched in citral, in the nutraceutical industry, not only for its organoleptic properties but also for its protective action against inflammation and oxidative stress.

19.
Noncoding RNA ; 6(3)2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764460

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from both tumor cells and the cells of the bone marrow microenvironment contribute to the pathobiology of multiple myeloma (MM). Recent studies on the mechanisms by which EVs exert their biological activity have indicated that the non-coding RNA (ncRNA) cargo is key in mediating their effect on MM development and progression. In this review, we will first discuss the role of EV-associated ncRNAs in different aspects of MM pathobiology, including proliferation, angiogenesis, bone disease development, and drug resistance. Finally, since ncRNAs carried by MM vesicles have also emerged as a promising tool for early diagnosis and therapy response prediction, we will report evidence of their potential use as clinical biomarkers.

20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759820

RESUMO

Bone disease severely affects the quality of life of over 70% of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, which daily experience pain, pathological fractures, mobility issues and an increased mortality. Recent data have highlighted the crucial role of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated unfolded protein response (UPR) in malignant transformation and tumor progression; therefore, targeting of UPR-related molecules may open novel therapeutic avenues. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and UPR pathways are constitutively activated in MM cells, which are characterized by an increased protein turnover as a consequence of high production of immunoglobulins and high rates of protein synthesis. A great deal of scientific data also evidenced that a mild activation of UPR pathway can regulate cellular differentiation. Our previous studies revealed that MM cell-derived small extracellular vesicle (MM-EV) modulated osteoclasts (OCs) function and induced OCs differentiation. Here, we investigated the role of the UPR pathway, and in particular of the IRE1α/XBP1 axis, in osteoclastogenesis induced by MM-EVs. By proteomic analysis, we identified UPR signaling molecules as novel MM-EV cargo, prompting us to evaluate the effects of the MM-EVs on osteoclastogenesis through UPR pathway. MM-EVs administration in a murine macrophage cell line rapidly induced activation of IRE1α by phosphorylation in S724; accordingly, Xbp1 mRNA splicing was increased and the transcription of NFATc1, a master transcription factor for OCs differentiation, was activated. Some of these results were also validated using both human primary OC cultures and MM-EVs from MM patients. Notably, a chemical inhibitor of IRE1α (GSK2850163) counteracted MM-EV-triggered OC differentiation, hampering the terminal stages of OCs differentiation and reducing bone resorption.

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