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1.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010408, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546869

RESUMO

Background: Lack of menstrual knowledge, poor access to sanitary products and a non-facilitating school environment can make it difficult for girls to attend school. In India, interventions have been developed to reduce the burden of menstruation for school girls by government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). We sought to identify challenges related to menstruation, and facilitators of menstrual management in schools in three states in India. Methods: Surveys were conducted among menstruating school girls in class 8-10 (above 12 years of age) of 43 government schools selected through stratified random sampling in three Indian states (Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu) in 2015. For comparison, ten model schools supported by NGOs or UNICEF with a focussed menstrual hygiene education program were selected purposely in the same states to represent the better-case scenario. We examined awareness about menarche, items used for menstruation, and facilitators on girls' experience of menstruation in regular schools and compared with model schools. Factors associated with school absence during menstruation were explored using multivariate analysis. Findings: More girls (mean age 14.1 years) were informed about menstruation before menarche in model schools (56%, n = 492) than in regular schools (36%, n = 2072, P < 0.001). Girls reported menstruation affected school attendance (6% vs 11% in model vs regular schools respectively, P = 0.003) and concentration (40% vs 45%, P = 0.1) and was associated with pain (31% vs 38%, P = 0.004) and fear of stain or smell (11% vs 16%, P = 0.002). About 45% of girls reported using disposable pads in both model and regular schools, but only 55% and 29% of pad-users reported good disposal facilities, respectively (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, reported absenteeism during menstruation was significantly lower in Tamil Nadu (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.24, 0.14-0.40) and Maharashtra (APR 0.56, CI = 0.40-0.77) compared to Chhattisgarh, and halved in model compared to regular schools (APR 0.50, CI = 0.34-0.73). Pain medication in school (APR 0.71, CI = 0.51-0.97) and use of disposable pads (APR 0.57, CI = 0.42-0.77) were associated with lower absenteeism and inadequate sanitary facilities with higher absenteeism during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene education, accessible sanitary products, pain relief, and adequate sanitary facilities at school would improve the schooling-experience of adolescent girls in India.


Assuntos
Higiene , Menstruação , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/provisão & distribução , Setor Público , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087298

RESUMO

Many females lack access to water, privacy and basic sanitation-felt acutely when menstruating. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions in schools, such as access to latrines, water, and soap, are essential for the comfort, equity, and dignity of menstruating girls. Our study was nested within a cluster randomized controlled pilot feasibility study where nurses provided menstrual items to schoolgirls. We observed the WASH conditions of 30 schools from June 2012⁻October 2013 to see if there were any changes in conditions, to compare differences between study arms and to examine agreement between observed and teacher-reported conditions. Data came from study staff observed, and school head teacher reported, WASH conditions. We developed scores for the condition of school facilities to report any changes in conditions and compare outcomes across study arms. Results demonstrated that soap availability for students increased significantly between baseline and follow-up while there was a significant decrease in the number of "acceptable" latrines. During the study follow-up period, individual WASH indicators supporting menstruating girls, such as locks on latrine doors or water availability in latrines did not significantly improve. Advances in WASH conditions for all students, and menstrual hygiene facilities for schoolgirls, needs further support, a defined budget, and regular monitoring of WASH facilities to maintain standards.


Assuntos
Higiene , Menstruação/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Sabões/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Estudos Longitudinais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Reprod Health ; 14(1): 174, 2017 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29216895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In low-middle income countries and other areas of poverty, menstrual hygiene management (MHM) can be problematic for women and girls. Issues include lack of knowledge about menstruation and MHM, and stigma around menstruation, also access to affordable and absorbent materials; privacy to change; adequate washing, cleaning and drying facilities; as well as appropriate and accessible disposal facilities. In order to effect change and tackle these issues, particularly in patriarchal societies, males may need to become advocates for MHM alongside women. However, little is known about their knowledge and attitudes towards menstruation, which may need addressing before they can assist in acting as advocates for change. The present study was undertaken to explore knowledge and attitudes about menstruation among adolescent boys across India, in order to gauge their potential to support their 'sisters'. METHODS: The study was undertaken across three states in India, chosen a priori to represent the cultural and socio-economic diversity. Qualitative data using focus group discussions with 85 boys aged 13-17 years, from 8 schools, was gathered. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The results were organised into three main themes, reflecting the key research questions: boys' knowledge of menstruation, source of knowledge, and attitudes towards menstruation and menstruating girls. Knowledge comprised three aspects; biological function which were generally poorly understood; cultural rites which were recognized by all; and girls' behaviour and demeanour, which were noted to be withdrawn. Some boys learnt about puberty and menstruation as part of the curriculum but had concerns this was not in-depth, or was missed out altogether. Most gathered knowledge from informal sources, from overhearing conversations or observing cultural rituals. Few boys openly displayed a negative attitude, although a minority voiced the idea that menstruation is a 'disease'. Boys were mostly sympathetic to their menstruating sisters and wanted to support them. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide some optimism that males can become advocates in moving forward the MHM agenda. The reasons for this are twofold: boys were keen for knowledge about menstruation, searching information out despite societal norms being for them to remain ignorant, they were also largely sympathetic to their menstruating sisters and fellow classmates and understanding of the issues surrounding the need for good MHM.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homens/psicologia , Menstruação/psicologia , Adolescente , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 220(6): 928-949, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28602619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sanitation aims to sequester human feces and prevent exposure to fecal pathogens. More than 2.4 billion people worldwide lack access to improved sanitation facilities and almost one billion practice open defecation. We undertook systematic reviews and meta-analyses to compile the most recent evidence on the impact of sanitation on diarrhea, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, trachoma, schistosomiasis, and nutritional status assessed using anthropometry. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We updated previously published reviews by following their search strategy and eligibility criteria. We searched from the previous review's end date to December 31, 2015. We conducted meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect using random-effects models and conducted subgroup analyses to assess impact of different levels of sanitation services and to explore sources of heterogeneity. We assessed risk of bias and quality of the evidence from intervention studies using the Liverpool Quality Appraisal Tool (LQAT) and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, respectively. A total of 171 studies met the review's inclusion criteria, including 64 studies not included in the previous reviews. Overall, the evidence suggests that sanitation is protective against diarrhea, active trachoma, some STH infections, schistosomiasis, and height-for-age, with no protective effect for other anthropometric outcomes. The evidence was generally of poor quality, heterogeneity was high, and GRADE scores ranged from very low to high. CONCLUSIONS: This review confirms positive impacts of sanitation on aspects of health. Evidence gaps remain and point to the need for research that rigorously describes sanitation implementation and type of sanitation interventions.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Saneamento , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Humanos
5.
BMJ Open ; 7(4): e015429, 2017 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28473520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Examine the safety of menstrual cups against sanitary pads and usual practice in Kenyan schoolgirls. DESIGN: Observational studies nested in a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study. SETTING: 30 primary schools in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural western Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Menstruating primary schoolgirls aged 14-16 years participating in a menstrual feasibility study. INTERVENTIONS: Insertable menstrual cup, monthly sanitary pads or 'usual practice' (controls). OUTCOME MEASURES: Staphylococcus aureus vaginal colonization, Escherichia coli growth on sampled used cups, toxic shock syndrome or other adverse health outcomes. RESULTS: Among 604 eligible girls tested, no adverse event or TSS was detected over a median 10.9 months follow-up. S. aureusprevalence was 10.8%, with no significant difference over intervention time or between groups. Of 65 S.aureus positives at first test, 49 girls were retested and 10 (20.4%) remained positive. Of these, two (20%) sample isolates tested positive for toxic shock syndrome toxin-1; both girls were provided pads and were clinically healthy. Seven per cent of cups required replacements for loss, damage, dropping in a latrine or a poor fit. Of 30 used cups processed for E. coli growth, 13 (37.1%, 95% CI 21.1% to 53.1%) had growth. E. coli growth was greatest in newer compared with established users (53%vs22.2%, p=0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Among this feasibility sample, no evidence emerged to indicate menstrual cups are hazardous or cause health harms among rural Kenyan schoolgirls, but large-scale trials and post-marketing surveillance should continue to evaluate cup safety.


Assuntos
Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/microbiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Adolescente , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Quênia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , População Rural , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia
6.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 220(2 Pt B): 329-340, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27825597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An estimated 2.4 billion people still lack access to improved sanitation and 946 million still practice open defecation. The World Health Organization (WHO) commissioned this review to assess the impact of sanitation on coverage and use, as part of its effort to develop a set of guidelines on sanitation and health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically reviewed the literature and used meta-analysis to quantitatively characterize how different sanitation interventions impact latrine coverage and use. We also assessed both qualitative and quantitative studies to understand how different structural and design characteristics of sanitation are associated with individual latrine use. A total of 64 studies met our eligibility criteria. Of 27 intervention studies that reported on household latrine coverage and provided a point estimate with confidence interval, the average increase in coverage was 14% (95% CI: 10%, 19%). The intervention types with the largest absolute increases in coverage included the Indian government's "Total Sanitation Campaign" (27%; 95% CI: 14%, 39%), latrine subsidy/provision interventions (16%; 95% CI: 8%, 24%), latrine subsidy/provision interventions that also incorporated education components (17%; 95% CI: -5%, 38%), sewerage interventions (14%; 95% CI: 1%, 28%), sanitation education interventions (14%; 95% CI: 3%, 26%), and community-led total sanitation interventions (12%; 95% CI: -2%, 27%). Of 10 intervention studies that reported on household latrine use, the average increase was 13% (95% CI: 4%, 21%). The sanitation interventions and contexts in which they were implemented varied, leading to high heterogeneity across studies. We found 24 studies that examined the association between structural and design characteristics of sanitation facilities and facility use. These studies reported that better maintenance, accessibility, privacy, facility type, cleanliness, newer latrines, and better hygiene access were all frequently associated with higher use, whereas poorer sanitation conditions were associated with lower use. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that most sanitation interventions only had a modest impact on increasing latrine coverage and use. A further understanding of how different sanitation characteristics and sanitation interventions impact coverage and use is essential in order to more effectively attain sanitation access for all, eliminate open defecation, and ultimately improve health.


Assuntos
Saneamento/métodos , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia
7.
BMJ Open ; 6(11): e013229, 2016 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27881530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. DESIGN: 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. SETTING: 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. PARTICIPANTS: Primary schoolgirls 14-16 years, experienced 3 menses, no precluding disability, and resident in the study area. INTERVENTIONS: 1 insertable menstrual cup, or monthly sanitary pads, against 'usual practice' control. All participants received puberty education preintervention, and hand wash soap during intervention. Schools received hand wash soap. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary: school attrition (drop-out, absence); secondary: sexually transmitted infection (STI) (Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea), reproductive tract infection (RTI) (bacterial vaginosis, Candida albicans); safety: toxic shock syndrome, vaginal Staphylococcus aureus. RESULTS: Of 751 girls enrolled 644 were followed-up for a median of 10.9 months. Cups or pads did not reduce school dropout risk (control=8.0%, cups=11.2%, pads=10.2%). Self-reported absence was rarely reported and not assessable. Prevalence of STIs in the end-of-study survey among controls was 7.7% versus 4.2% in the cups arm (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.48, 0.24 to 0.96, p=0.039), 4.5% with pads (aPR=0.62; 0.37 to 1.03, p=0.063), and 4.3% with cups and pads pooled (aPR=0.54, 0.34 to 0.87, p=0.012). RTI prevalence was 21.5%, 28.5% and 26.9% among cup, pad and control arms, 71% of which were bacterial vaginosis, with a prevalence of 14.6%, 19.8% and 20.5%, per arm, respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was less prevalent in the cups (12.9%) compared with pads (20.3%, aPR=0.65, 0.44 to 0.97, p=0.034) and control (19.2%, aPR=0.67, 0.43 to 1.04, p=0.075) arm girls enrolled for 9 months or longer. No adverse events were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Provision of menstrual cups and sanitary pads for ∼1 school-year was associated with a lower STI risk, and cups with a lower bacterial vaginosis risk, but there was no association with school dropout. A large-scale trial on menstrual cups is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN17486946; Results.


Assuntos
Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Análise Multivariada , Projetos Piloto , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , Evasão Escolar , Estudantes
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27355962

RESUMO

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programs in schools can increase the health, dignity and comfort of students and teachers. Understanding the costs of WASH facilities and services in schools is one essential piece for policy makers to utilize when budgeting for schools and helping to make WASH programs more sustainable. In this study we collected data from NGO and government offices, local hardware shops and 89 rural primary schools across three Kenyan counties. Current expenditures on WASH, from school and external (NGO, government, parent) sources, averaged 1.83 USD per student per year. After reviewing current expenditures, estimated costs of operations and maintenance for bringing schools up to basic WASH standards, were calculated to be 3.03 USD per student per year. This includes recurrent costs, but not the cost of installing or setting up WASH infrastructure, which was 18,916 USD per school, for a school of 400 students (4.92 USD per student, per year). These findings demonstrate the need for increases in allocations to schools in Kenya, and stricter guidance on how money should be spent on WASH inputs to enable all schools to provide basic WASH for all students.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Higiene/economia , Saneamento/economia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Abastecimento de Água/economia , Quênia , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas/economia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (10): CD004794, 2015 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26488938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a major cause of death and disease, especially among young children in low-income countries. In these settings, many infectious agents associated with diarrhoea are spread through water contaminated with faeces.In remote and low-income settings, source-based water quality improvement includes providing protected groundwater (springs, wells, and bore holes), or harvested rainwater as an alternative to surface sources (rivers and lakes). Point-of-use water quality improvement interventions include boiling, chlorination, flocculation, filtration, or solar disinfection, mainly conducted at home. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (11 November 2014), CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library, 7 November 2014), MEDLINE (1966 to 10 November 2014), EMBASE (1974 to 10 November 2014), and LILACS (1982 to 7 November 2014). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked references from identified studies through 11 November 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) comparing interventions aimed at improving the microbiological quality of drinking water with no intervention in children and adults. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect, where appropriate, and investigated potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analyses. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Forty-five cluster-RCTs, two quasi-RCTs, and eight CBA studies, including over 84,000 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Most included studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) (50 studies) with unimproved water sources (30 studies) and unimproved or unclear sanitation (34 studies). The primary outcome in most studies was self-reported diarrhoea, which is at high risk of bias due to the lack of blinding in over 80% of the included studies. Source-based water quality improvementsThere is currently insufficient evidence to know if source-based improvements such as protected wells, communal tap stands, or chlorination/filtration of community sources consistently reduce diarrhoea (one cluster-RCT, five CBA studies, very low quality evidence). We found no studies evaluating reliable piped-in water supplies delivered to households. Point-of-use water quality interventionsOn average, distributing water disinfection products for use at the household level may reduce diarrhoea by around one quarter (Home chlorination products: RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.91; 14 trials, 30,746 participants, low quality evidence; flocculation and disinfection sachets: RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.82, four trials, 11,788 participants, moderate quality evidence). However, there was substantial heterogeneity in the size of the effect estimates between individual studies.Point-of-use filtration systems probably reduce diarrhoea by around a half (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.59, 18 trials, 15,582 participants, moderate quality evidence). Important reductions in diarrhoea episodes were shown with ceramic filters, biosand systems and LifeStraw® filters; (Ceramic: RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.53; eight trials, 5763 participants, moderate quality evidence; Biosand: RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.57; four trials, 5504 participants, moderate quality evidence; LifeStraw®: RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.93; three trials, 3259 participants, low quality evidence). Plumbed in filters have only been evaluated in high-income settings (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.94, three trials, 1056 participants, fixed effects model).In low-income settings, solar water disinfection (SODIS) by distribution of plastic bottles with instructions to leave filled bottles in direct sunlight for at least six hours before drinking probably reduces diarrhoea by around a third (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.94; four trials, 3460 participants, moderate quality evidence).In subgroup analyses, larger effects were seen in trials with higher adherence, and trials that provided a safe storage container. In most cases, the reduction in diarrhoea shown in the studies was evident in settings with improved and unimproved water sources and sanitation. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that address the microbial contamination of water at the point-of-use may be important interim measures to improve drinking water quality until homes can be reached with safe, reliable, piped-in water connections. The average estimates of effect for each individual point-of-use intervention generally show important effects. Comparisons between these estimates do not provide evidence of superiority of one intervention over another, as such comparisons are confounded by the study setting, design, and population.Further studies assessing the effects of household connections and chlorination at the point of delivery will help improve our knowledge base. As evidence suggests effectiveness improves with adherence, studies assessing programmatic approaches to optimising coverage and long-term utilization of these interventions among vulnerable populations could also help strategies to improve health outcomes.


Assuntos
Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Purificação da Água/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Água Potável/normas , Humanos , Lactente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Purificação da Água/normas
10.
Int J Public Health ; 60(8): 977-86, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25926341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A key challenge for achieving universal water access in Sub-Saharan Africa is poor sustainability of water schemes. Previous studies have posited factors that may lead to failed schemes; however, empirical data are lacking. METHODS: We conducted direct observations of water sources and interviewed water committee members about governance in two regions of Ethiopia. Based on direct observation at each water point, and harmonizing previous research in the sector, we developed an ordinal measure of functionality. Among functional systems, linear regression models were used to assess changes in score or level of functionality against governance characteristics. RESULTS: Of 89 water schemes over 5 years old, 82 had sufficient data to receive a score. Higher functionality scores were associated with having good records, meeting regularly, financial audits, higher monthly fees, a paid caretaker and water committees with capacity to perform minor repairs. CONCLUSIONS: Our continuous measure of functionality was simple to derive, objective and may be widely applicable for further studies assessing key indicators of sustainability.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , População Rural , Abastecimento de Água , Países em Desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente , Etiópia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pobreza , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
J Water Health ; 11(3): 507-19, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23981878

RESUMO

Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programs in schools have been shown to improve health and reduce absence. In resource-poor settings, barriers such as inadequate budgets, lack of oversight, and competing priorities limit effective and sustained WASH service delivery in schools. We employed a cluster-randomized trial to examine if schools could improve WASH conditions within existing administrative structures. Seventy schools were divided into a control group and three intervention groups. All intervention schools received a budget for purchasing WASH-related items. One group received no further intervention. A second group received additional funding for hiring a WASH attendant and making repairs to WASH infrastructure, and a third group was given guides for student and community monitoring of conditions. Intervention schools made significant improvements in provision of soap and handwashing water, treated drinking water, and clean latrines compared with controls. Teachers reported benefits of monitoring, repairs, and a WASH attendant, but quantitative data of WASH conditions did not determine whether expanded interventions out-performed our budget-only intervention. Providing schools with budgets for WASH operational costs improved access to necessary supplies, but did not ensure consistent service delivery to students. Further work is needed to clarify how schools can provide WASH services daily.


Assuntos
Higiene , Saneamento , Instituições Acadêmicas , Abastecimento de Água , Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Sabões , Toaletes
12.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 12(6): 823-7, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20204515

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) remains highly endemic in many parts of the world. Refugees resettling in their host countries may carry a significant burden of disease due to HBV and may require long-term medical care. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted to assess the epidemiology of HBV and entry into medical care in refugee communities resettled in the State of Georgia over a five-year period: 2003-2007. Among 6,347 refugees (89.7% of those resettled) screened for HBV infection, six hundred and eighty (10.7%) were found to be HBsAg seropositive. Those between the ages of 10-39 years of age contributed to the majority of cases; and most originated from Africa (71%). All HBsAg positive cases were adequately referred to a primary care physician for further management but there are no formal feedback mechanisms in place to learn if those who tested positive for HBsAg accessed the primary healthcare system. HBV infection is a frequent infection among refugees resettled in the US. but their entry into healthcare to treat those with chronic infection is often unknown. Further efforts are required to assure their entry into the healthcare system. Primary care physicians caring for refugee patients should think about verifying HBV-infection status as part of health maintenance protocols.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/etnologia , Refugiados , Adolescente , Adulto , África/etnologia , Criança , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Arch Med Res ; 40(8): 669-72, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20304254

RESUMO

Outbreaks of influenza A (H1N1) of avian- or swine-related origin have substantially impacted human populations. The most dramatic pandemic of influenza H1N1 occurred during 1918-1919 producing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the 20th century, two other major pandemics took place but they were the H2N2 and H3N2 reassorted influenza strains. In 1976, a small outbreak of swine-related H1N1 in the U.S. led to a national scare but without any significant public health impact. More recently, in April 2009, in Mexico, and subsequently worldwide, an influenza (H1N1) triple reassortant strain produced >200,000 laboratory-confirmed cases and resulted in >2000 deaths. In August 2009, WHO declared this outbreak as the first influenza pandemic of the 21(st) century. It is critical to apply lessons learned during previous pandemics to mitigate the public health impact of the ongoing influenza pandemic in 2009. In particular, it is useful to compare the events in Mexico in 2009 to those during the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-1919.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Influenza Humana/história , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , México/epidemiologia
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