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1.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The clinical and serological characteristics of spotted fever group rickettsial (SFGR) infections in South Asia are poorly understood. We studied the clinical presentation and the IgM/IgG response in cases enrolled at two health care centres in South India. METHOD: We enrolled 77 patients. Fifty-seven of these patients were recruited at a tertiary care centre, the remaining 20 at a community hospital (secondary care level). Diagnostic tests included IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction. Over a period of 1 year, 41 cases were followed up for repeated sero-analysis. RESULTS: Median age was 9 years (range 1-79). A rash was present in 74% of cases (57/77). In cases aged <15 years, rash was present in 94% (44/47) vs. 43% (13/30) in cases aged ≥15 years. An eschar was found in two cases (3%). Severe infection or complications occurred in 10 cases (13%). These included central nervous system infection (6/77, 8%), kidney injury (3/77, 4%), shock (3/77, 4%), lung involvement (2/77, 3%) and peripheral gangrene (2/77, 3%). IgM antibody levels increased faster after fever onset than IgG antibodies, peaking at 50 and 60 days, respectively. After the peak, IgM and IgG levels showed a slow decline over one year with less than 50% of cases showing persistent IgG antibody levels. CONCLUSION: Spotted fever group rickettsial infections in South India may be under-diagnosed, as many cases may not develop a rash. The proportion of cases developing severe infection seems lower than for scrub typhus in this region. IgG seroprevalence may substantially underestimate the proportion in a population with past SFGR infection.

2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491225

RESUMO

Evidence on the effectiveness of low-cost, sustainable biological vector control tools for Aedes mosquitoes is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this trial was to estimate the impact of guppy fish in combination with the larvicide pyriproxyfen (PPF) (Sumilarv® 2MR) and communication for behavioral impact (COMBI) activities to reduce entomological indices in Cambodia. In this cluster randomized, controlled superiority trial, 30 clusters comprised of one or more villages each was allocated in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive either 1) all three interventions (guppies, PPF, and COMBI), 2) two interventions (guppies and COMBI), or 3) control (standard vector control). Entomological surveys among 40 randomly selected households per cluster were carried out quarterly. The primary outcome was the population abundance of adult female Aedes mosquitoes trapped using adult resting collections. In the primary analysis, adult female Aedes abundance and mosquito infection rates was aggregated over follow-up time points to give a single rate per cluster. These data were analyzed by negative binomial regression, yielding abundance ratios (ARs). The number of Aedes females was reduced roughly by half compared with the control in both the guppy, PPF, and COMBI arm (AR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34-0.85; P = 0.0073); and the guppy and COMBI arm (AR = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.31-0.77; P = 0.0021). The effectiveness demonstrated and extremely low cost of including fish rearing in community-based health structures suggest they should be considered as a vector control tool as long as the benefits outweigh any potential environmental concerns. Sumilarv® 2MR was also highly accepted and preferred over current vector control tools used in Cambodia.

3.
Acta Trop ; 224: 106122, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480871

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Passive surveillance systems are thought to under-estimate the true incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) by two- to five-fold. Ecological niche models based on remotely sensed data can identify environmental factors which favor phlebotomine vectors. Here we report an integrated approach to identifying areas at risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis by applying spatial analysis methods to niche model results, and local surveillance data, in two locations in Colombia with differing vector ecology. The objective was to identify townships in which later phases of the project could implement community-based surveillance to obtain direct estimates of under-reporting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in one municipality in each of two departments of the Andean region of Colombia: Pueblo Rico in Risaralda, and Rovira in Tolima. Niche mapping by maximum entropy, based on published and unpublished existing locations of Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) longiflocosa and Psychodopygus panamensis, and using variables on land cover, climate and elevation. Field catches were done in each municipality to test predictions of high relative probability of presence. The niche model results were included as a predictor in a conditional autoregressive spatial model, in which the outcome variable was the number of cases by township, as detected by passive surveillance. RESULTS: Having rarefied 173 geolocated records, 46 of Pi. longiflocosa and 57 of Ps. panamensis were used for the niche modelling. At the national level, both species had high relative probability of presence on parts of the slopes of the three Andean cordilleras. Pi. longiflocosa also has a high relative probability of presence in the higher parts of the Magdalena valley, as does Ps. panamensis in some areas close to the Caribbean coast. At the local level, field catches confirmed that Pi. longiflocosa was the most abundant species in Rovira, and likewise Ps. panamensis in Pueblo Rico. The spatial regression showed that the incidence of ACL, according to surveillance, was positively, but not statistically significantly, associated with the relative probability of presence from the risk model. CONCLUSIONS: These niche maps bring together published and unpublished results on phlebotomine species which are important vectors in Colombia. Maps of the fitted values of incidence were used to guide the selection of townships in which further phases of the study will attempt to quantify the extent of under-estimation of ACL incidence.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256566, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate testing is critically important for control of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Antibody testing is an option for case management and epidemiologic studies, with high specificity and variable sensitivity. However, characteristics of local populations may affect performance of these tests. For this reason, the National Institute of Health (INS) and regulatory agencies in Colombia require verification of diagnostic accuracy of tests introduced to the Colombian market. METHODS: We conducted a validation study of the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 test for qualitative detection of IgG using the Abbott Architect i2000SR. Participants and retrospective samples were included from patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection, age ≥18 years, and ≥8 days elapsed since initiation of symptoms. Pre-pandemic plasma samples (taken before October 2019) were used as controls. We estimated the sensitivity, specificity and agreement (kappa) of the Abbott IgG test compared to the gold standard (RT-PCR). RESULTS: The overall sensitivity was 83.1% (95% CI: 75.4-100). Sensitivity among patients with ≥14 days since the start of symptoms was 85.7%, reaching 88% in samples collected from patients with COVID-19 symptoms onset >60 days. Specificity was 100% and the kappa index of agreement was 0.804 (95% CI: 0.642-0.965). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show high sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott IgG test in a Colombian population, which meet the criteria set by the Colombian INS to aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19. Data from our patient groups also suggest that IgG response is detectable in a high proportion of individuals (88.1%) during the first two months following onset of symptoms.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/instrumentação , COVID-19/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257460, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520486

RESUMO

Dengue is hyperendemic in most Southeast Asian countries including Thailand, where all four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1 to -4) have circulated over different periods and regions. Despite dengue cases being annually reported in all regions of Thailand, there is limited data on the relationship of epidemic DENV infection between humans and mosquitoes, and about the dynamics of DENV during outbreaks in the northeastern region. The present study was conducted in this region to investigate the molecular epidemiology of DENV and explore the relationships of DENV infection in humans and in mosquitoes during 2016-2018. A total of 292 dengue suspected patients from 11 hospitals and 902 individual mosquitoes (at patient's houses and neighboring houses) were recruited and investigated for DENV serotypes infection using PCR. A total of 103 patients and 149 individual mosquitoes were DENV -positive. Among patients, the predominant DENV serotypes in 2016 and 2018 were DENV-4 (74%) and DENV-3 (53%) respectively, whereas in 2017, DENV-1, -3 and -4 had similar prevalence (38%). Additionally, only 19% of DENV infections in humans and mosquitoes at surrounding houses were serotypically matched, while 81% of infections were serotypically mismatched, suggesting that mosquitoes outside the residence may be an important factor of endemic dengue transmission. Phylogenetic analyses based on envelope gene sequences showed the genotype I of both DENV-1 and DENV-4, and co-circulation of the Cosmopolitan and Asian I genotypes of DENV-2. These strains were closely related to concurrent strains in other parts of Thailand and also similar to strains in previous epidemiological profiles in Thailand and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. These findings highlight genomic data of DENV in this region and suggest that people's movement in urban environments may result in mosquitoes far away from the residential area being key determinants of DENV epidemic dynamics.

6.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(8): 583-592, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354313

RESUMO

Water-related diseases such as diarrhoeal diseases from viral, bacterial and parasitic organisms and Aedes-borne arboviral diseases are major global health problems. We believe that these two disease groups share common risk factors, namely inadequate household water management, poor sanitation and solid waste management. Where water provision is inadequate, water storage is essential. Aedes mosquitoes commonly breed in household water storage containers, which can hold water contaminated with enteric disease-causing organisms. Microbiological contamination of water between source and point-of-use is a major cause of reduced drinking-water quality. Inadequate sanitation and solid waste management increase not only risk of water contamination, but also the availability of mosquito larval habitats. In this article we discuss integrated interventions that interrupt mosquito breeding while also providing sanitary environments and clean water. Specific interventions include improving storage container design, placement and maintenance and scaling up access to piped water. Vector control can be integrated into sanitation projects that target sewers and drains to avoid accumulation of stagnant water. Better management of garbage and solid waste can reduce the availability of mosquito habitats while improving human living conditions. Our proposed integration of disease interventions is consistent with strategies promoted in several global health frameworks, such as the sustainable development goals, the global vector control response, behavioural change, and water, sanitation and hygiene initiatives. Future research should address how interventions targeting water, sanitation, hygiene and community waste disposal also benefit Aedes-borne disease control. The projected effects of climate change mean that integrated management and control strategies will become increasingly important.


Assuntos
Aedes , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Saneamento , Purificação da Água , Animais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 213, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease whose lasting scars can cause stigmatization and depressive symptoms. It is endemic in remote rural areas and its incidence is under-reported, while the effectiveness, as opposed to efficacy, of its treatments is largely unknown. Here we present the data management plan (DMP) of a project which includes mHealth tools to address these knowledge gaps in Colombia. The objectives of the DMP are to specify the tools and procedures for data collection, data transfer, data entry, creation of analysis dataset, monitoring and archiving. RESULTS: The DMP includes data from two mobile apps: one implements a clinical prediction rule, and the other is for follow-up and treatment of confirmed cases. A desktop interface integrates these data and facilitates their linkage with other sources which include routine surveillance as well as paper and electronic case report forms. Multiple user and programming interfaces are used, as well as multiple relational and non-relational database engines. This DMP describes the successful integration of heterogeneous data sources and technologies. However the complexity of the project meant that the DMP took longer to develop than expected. We describe lessons learned which could be useful for future mHealth projects.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento de Dados , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009440, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes mosquitoes are vectors for several major arboviruses of public health concern including dengue viruses. The relationships between Aedes infestation and disease transmission are complex wherein the epidemiological dynamics can be difficult to discern because of a lack of robust and sensitive indicators for predicting transmission risk. This study investigates the use of anti-Aedes saliva antibodies as a serological biomarker for Aedes mosquito bites to assess small scale variations in adult Aedes density and dengue virus (DENV) transmission risk in northeastern Thailand. Individual characteristics, behaviors/occupation and socio-demographics, climatic and epidemiological risk factors associated with human-mosquito exposure are also addressed. METHODS: The study was conducted within a randomized clustered control trial in Roi Et and Khon Kaen provinces over a consecutive 19 months period. Thirty-six (36) clusters were selected, each of ten houses. Serological and entomological surveys were conducted in all houses every four months and monthly in three sentinel households per cluster between September 2017 and April 2019 for blood spot collections and recording concurrent immature and adult Aedes indices. Additionally, the human exposure to Aedes mosquito bites (i.e., Mosquito Exposure Index or MEI) was estimated by ELISA measuring levels of human antibody response to the specific Nterm-34 kDa salivary antigen. The relationships between the MEI, vector infestation indices (adult and immature stages) and vector DENV infection were evaluated using a two-level (house and individual levels) mixed model analysis with one-month lag autoregressive correlation. RESULTS: There was a strong positive relationship between the MEI and adult Aedes (indoor and outdoor) density. Individuals from households with a medium mosquito density (mean difference: 0.091, p<0.001) and households with a high mosquito density (mean difference: 0.131, p<0.001) had higher MEI's compared to individuals from households without Aedes. On a similar trend, individuals from households with a low, medium or high indoor Aedes densities (mean difference: 0.021, p<0.007, 0.053, p<0.0001 and 0.037, p<0.0001 for low, medium and high levels of infestation, respectively) had higher MEI than individuals from houses without indoor Aedes. The MEI was driven by individual characteristics, such as gender, age and occupation/behaviors, and varied according to climatic, seasonal factors and vector control intervention (p<0.05). Nevertheless, the study did not demonstrate a clear correlation between MEI and the presence of DENV-infected Aedes. CONCLUSION: This study represents an important step toward the validation of the specific IgG response to the Aedes salivary peptide Nterm-34kDa as a proxy measure for Aedes infestation levels and human-mosquito exposure risk in a dengue endemic setting. The use of the IgG response to the Nterm-34 kDa peptide as a viable diagnostic tool for estimating dengue transmission requires further investigations and validation in other geographical and transmission settings.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Aedes/virologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Saliva/imunologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 374, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In common with many South East Asian countries, Malaysia is endemic for dengue. Dengue control in Malaysia is currently based on reactive vector management within 24 h of a dengue case being reported. Preventive rather than reactive vector control approaches, with combined interventions, are expected to improve the cost-effectiveness of dengue control programs. The principal objective of this cluster randomized controlled trial is to quantify the effectiveness of a preventive integrated vector management (IVM) strategy on the incidence of dengue as compared to routine vector control efforts. METHODS: The trial is conducted in randomly allocated clusters of low- and medium-cost housing located in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. The IVM approach combines: targeted outdoor residual spraying with K-Othrine Polyzone, deployment of mosquito traps as auto-dissemination devices, and community engagement activities. The trial includes 300 clusters randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio. The clusters receive either the preventive IVM in addition to the routine vector control activities or the routine vector control activities only. Epidemiological data from monthly confirmed dengue cases during the study period will be obtained from the Vector Borne Disease Sector, Malaysian Ministry of Health e-Dengue surveillance system. Entomological surveillance data will be collected in 12 clusters randomly selected from each arm. To measure the effectiveness of the IVM approach on dengue incidence, a negative binomial regression model will be used to compare the incidence between control and intervention clusters. To quantify the effect of the interventions on the main entomological outcome, ovitrap index, a modified ordinary least squares regression model using a robust standard error estimator will be used. DISCUSSION: Considering the ongoing expansion of dengue burden in Malaysia, setting up proactive control strategies is critical. Despite some limitations of the trial such as the use of passive surveillance to identify cases, the results will be informative for a better understanding of effectiveness of proactive IVM approach in the control of dengue. Evidence from this trial may help justify investment in preventive IVM approaches as preferred to reactive case management strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN ISRCTN81915073 . Retrospectively registered on 17 April 2020.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Animais , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Malásia/epidemiologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 73, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To secure the gains of lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination programs, attention is needed to the 'residual microfilaremia phase', in which high-risk populations may be crucial. The present study documents the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) in the urban Indian setting of Surat City, with high rates of in-migration. METHODS: Epidemiological assessment included National Filaria Control Program (NFCP) and World Health Organization recommended routine and pre-MDA microfilaremia surveys respectively. Routine filaria surveys were conducted around the year in approximately 2000-4000 people per month, while pre-MDA surveys were carried out annually among approximately 4000 people from four fixed and four random sites. In 2016, Transmission Assessment Survey (TAS) was done in primary school children. The outcomes were microfilaremia (Mf) and antigen prevalence; more specifically, microfilaremia according to place of birth, in pre-MDA and routine night blood smears (NBS) collected from 2008 to 2015. Prevalence ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 25 480 pre-MDA and 306 198 routine NBS were examined during the study. In 2008, the Mf prevalence in the routine survey was 63/18 814 (0.33%), declining to 23/39 717 (0.06%) in 2016. Pre-MDA surveys showed a similar decrease from 47/4184 (1.1%) in 2008 to 12/4042 (0.3%) in 2015. In those born outside Surat, microfilaremia decreased below transmission thresholds, but remained more than treble that of the remainder of the population, in both the pre-MDA surveys [prevalence ratio: 3.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-8.72], and the routine surveys (3.31, 95% CI: 1.47-7.48). Though the TAS results indicated that MDA endpoints had been reached, sub-group analysis identified that 90% of antigenemic children were from families of high-risk groups. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive long-term epidemiological monitoring suggests that all the urban population, including high-risk groups, have benefitted from the ELF program. To prevent re-establishment of infection in large urban areas with unsanitary conditions conducive to filarial vector breeding, there is need to identify residual microfilaremia by customized surveys in addition to pre-MDA monitoring and TAS. The present findings can be used to develop strategies to prioritize screening, surveillance and plan treatment of high-risk groups after achieving MDA endpoints.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247255, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The force of infection, or the rate at which susceptible individuals become infected, is an important public health measure for assessing the extent of outbreaks and the impact of control programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present Bayesian methods for estimating force of infection using serological surveys of infections which produce a lasting immune response, accounting for imperfections of the test, and uncertainty in such imperfections. In this estimation, the sensitivity and specificity can either be fixed, or belief distributions of their values can be elicited to allow for uncertainty. We analyse data from two published serological studies of dengue, one in Colombo, Sri Lanka, with a single survey and one in Medellin, Colombia, with repeated surveys in the same individuals. For the Colombo study, we illustrate how the inferred force of infection increases as the sensitivity decreases, and the reverse for specificity. When 100% sensitivity and specificity are assumed, the results are very similar to those from a standard analysis with binomial regression. For the Medellin study, the elicited distribution for sensitivity had a lower mean and higher variance than the one for specificity. Consequently, taking uncertainty in sensitivity into account resulted in a wide credible interval for the force of infection. CONCLUSIONS: These methods can make more realistic estimates of force of infection, and help inform the choice of serological tests for future serosurveys.


Assuntos
Dengue/sangue , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Testes Sorológicos , Humanos , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009283, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a dominant cause of febrile illness in many parts of Asia. Immunity is limited by the great strain diversity of Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is unclear whether previous infection protects from severe infection or enhances the risk. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied IgG antibody levels against O. tsutsugamushi at presentation in 636 scrub typhus patients using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The association between ELISA optical density (OD) and risk of severe infection was modelled using Poisson regression. OD was categorised as low (<1.0), intermediate (1.0 to 2.9), and high (≥3.0). OD was also modelled as a continuous variable (cubic spline). Median age of cases was 41 years (range 0-85), with 37% having severe infection. Compared to the low category, the age-adjusted risk of severe infection was 1.5 times higher in the intermediate category (95%CI 1.2, 1.9), and 1.3 times higher in the high category (95%CI 1.0, 1.7). The effect was stronger in cases <40 years, doubling the risk in the intermediate and high categories compared to the low category. The effect was more pronounced in cases tested within 7 days of fever onset when IgG ODs are more likely to reflect pre-infection levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Intermediate and high IgG antibody levels at the time of diagnosis are associated with a higher risk of severe scrub typhus infection. The findings may be explained by severe infection eliciting an accelerated IgG response or by previous scrub typhus infection enhancing the severity of subsequent episodes.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Proteção Cruzada/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Orientia tsutsugamushi/imunologia , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Tifo por Ácaros/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0008861, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Africa, information on dengue is limited to outbreak reports and focused on some countries with continuing transmission in West and East Africa. To estimate the proportion of dengue-positive cases among febrile patients and identify clinical indicators of dengue cases, we conducted passive facility-based fever surveillance in a catchment area population of 70,000 residents of Lambaréné and its surroundings in Gabon. METHODS: Non-malarial febrile patients with current fever or history of fever (≤7 days) between 1 and 55 years of age, were enrolled at Albert Schweitzer Hospital (ASH). Acute (visit 1, day of enrollment) and convalescent blood samples were collected between 10 and 21 days after enrollment. Acute/convalescent samples were tested with IgM/IgG ELISA, and a selected subset of acute samples with RT-PCR. RESULTS: Among 682 non-malarial febrile patients enrolled, 119 (17.4%) were identified as dengue-positive (94 dengue-confirmed and 25 dengue-probable cases). Of these dengue-positive cases, 14 were confirmed with PCR, and based on serotyping, two infections were identified to be DENV-2 and two were DENV-3. The majority of our enrolled patients were <25 years of age and close to 80% of our dengue-positive cases were <15 years of age. In adjusted analyses, retro-orbital pain and abdominal pain were 2.7 and 1.6 times more frequently found among dengue-positive cases, compared to non-dengue cases. CONCLUSION: Lambaréné is not considered dengue-endemic. However, one in six non-malarial febrile episodes was found to be dengue-positive in the study period. Dengue should be considered more frequently in clinicians' diagnosis among non-malarial febrile patients in Lambaréné. Given the lack of data on dengue in Gabon, additional prospective and longitudinal studies would help to further define the burden and patterns of dengue for improved case detection.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/patologia , Surtos de Doenças , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Instalações de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Gabão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0008989, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detection and management of neglected tropical diseases such as cutaneous leishmaniasis present unmet challenges stemming from their prevalence in remote, rural, resource constrained areas having limited access to health services. These challenges are frequently compounded by armed conflict or illicit extractive industries. The use of mobile health technologies has shown promise in such settings, yet data on outcomes in the field remain scarce. METHODS: We adapted a validated prediction rule for the presumptive diagnosis of CL to create a mobile application for use by community health volunteers. We used human-centered design practices and agile development for app iteration. We tested the application in three rural areas where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic and an urban setting where patients seek medical attention in the municipality of Tumaco, Colombia. The application was assessed for usability, sensitivity and inter-rater reliability (kappa) when used by community health volunteers (CHV), health workers and a general practitioner, study physician. RESULTS: The application was readily used and understood. Among 122 screened cases with cutaneous ulcers, sensitivity to detect parasitologically proven CL was >95%. The proportion of participants with parasitologically confirmed CL was high (88%), precluding evaluation of specificity, and driving a high level of crude agreement between the app and parasitological diagnosis. The chance-adjusted agreement (kappa) varied across the components of the risk score. Time to diagnosis was reduced significantly, from 8 to 4 weeks on average when CHV conducted active case detection using the application, compared to passive case detection by health facility-based personnel. CONCLUSIONS: Translating a validated prediction rule to a mHealth technology has shown the potential to improve the capacity of community health workers and healthcare personnel to provide opportune care, and access to health services for underserved populations. These findings support the use of mHealth tools for NTD research and healthcare.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Aplicativos Móveis , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medicina Tropical/instrumentação , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e042745, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite most cases not requiring hospital care, there are limited community-based clinical data on COVID-19. METHODS: The Corona São Caetano programme is a primary care initiative providing care to all residents with COVID-19 in São Caetano do Sul, Brazil. It was designed to capture standardised clinical data on community COVID-19 cases. After triage of potentially severe cases, consecutive patients presenting to a multimedia screening platform between 13 April and 13 May 2020 were tested at home with SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR; positive patients were followed up for 14 days with phone calls every 2 days. RT-PCR-negative patients were offered additional SARS-CoV-2 serology testing to establish their infection status. We describe the clinical, virological and natural history features of this prospective population-based cohort. FINDINGS: Of 2073 suspected COVID-19 cases, 1583 (76.4%) were tested by RT-PCR, of whom 444 (28.0%, 95% CI 25.9 to 30.3) were positive; 604/1136 (53%) RT-PCR-negative patients underwent serology, of whom 52 (8.6%) tested SARS-CoV-2 seropositive. The most common symptoms of confirmed COVID-19 were cough, fatigue, myalgia and headache; whereas self-reported fever (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.4 to 3.9), anosmia (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.6 to 4.4) and ageusia (OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.3 to 3.8) were most strongly associated with a positive COVID-19 diagnosis by RT-PCR or serology. RT-PCR cycle thresholds were lower in men, older patients, those with fever and arthralgia and closer to symptom onset. The rates of hospitalisation and death among 444 RT-PCR-positive cases were 6.7% and 0.7%, respectively, with older age and obesity more frequent in the hospitalised group. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 presents in a similar way to other mild community-acquired respiratory diseases, but the presence of fever, anosmia and ageusia can assist the specific diagnosis. Most patients recovered without requiring hospitalisation with a low fatality rate compared with other hospital-based studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , COVID-19/complicações , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Tosse/etiologia , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Cefaleia/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): e484-e492, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) relies on chemotherapy, yet gaps in our understanding of the determinants of therapeutic outcome impede optimization of antileishmanial drug regimens. Pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters of antimicrobials are based on the relationship between drug concentrations/exposure and microbial kill. However, viable Leishmania persist in a high proportion of individuals despite clinical resolution, indicating that determinants other than parasite clearance are involved in drug efficacy. METHODS: In this study, the profiles of expression of neutrophils, monocytes, Th1 and Th17 gene signatures were characterized in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during treatment with meglumine antimoniate (MA) and clinical cure of human CL caused by Leishmania (Viannia). We explored relationships of immune gene expression with plasma and intracellular antimony (Sb) concentrations. RESULTS: Our findings show a rapid and orchestrated modulation of gene expression networks upon exposure to MA. We report nonlinear pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships of Sb and gene expression dynamics in PBMCs , concurring with a time lag in the detection of intracellular drug concentrations and with PK evidence of intracellular Sb accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results quantitatively portray the immune dynamics of therapeutic healing, and provide the knowledge base for optimization of antimonial drug treatments, guiding the selection and/or design of targeted drug delivery systems and strategies for targeted immunomodulation.

17.
Biometrics ; 77(2): 490-505, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557560

RESUMO

This paper describes methodology for analyzing data from cluster randomized trials with count outcomes, taking indirect effects as well spatial effects into account. Indirect effects are modeled using a novel application of a measure of depth within the intervention arm. Both direct and indirect effects can be estimated accurately even when the proposed model is misspecified. We use spatial regression models with Gaussian random effects, where the individual outcomes have distributions overdispersed with respect to the Poisson, and the corresponding direct and indirect effects have a marginal interpretation. To avoid spatial confounding, we use orthogonal regression, in which random effects represent spatial dependence using a homoscedastic and dimensionally reduced modification of the intrinsic conditional autoregression model. We illustrate the methodology using spatial data from a pair-matched cluster randomized trial against the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, done in Trujillo, Venezuela.

18.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(3): 337-340, 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415777

RESUMO

Late gestational exposure to Zika increases the odds of delay in the Bayley-II mental developmental index (MDI) in children with normal baseline neurologic assessments; 9-fold when comparing third and first trimester exposure. Risk of MDI developmental delay increases by 8% for each week of gestational age at time of exposure.

19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1): 130-139, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350906

RESUMO

Because of limited data on dengue virus in Burkina Faso, we conducted 4 consecutive age-stratified longitudinal serologic surveys, ≈6 months apart, among persons 1-55 years of age, during June 2015-March 2017, which included a 2016 outbreak. The seroconversion rate before the serosurvey enrollment was estimated by binomial regression, taking age as the duration of exposure, and assuming constant force of infection (FOI) over age and calendar time. We calculated FOI between consecutive surveys and rate ratios for potentially associated characteristics based on seroconversion using the duration of intervals. Among 2,897 persons at enrollment, 66.3% were IgG-positive, and estimated annual FOI was 5.95%. Of 1,269 enrollees participating in all 4 serosurveys, 438 were IgG-negative at enrollment. The annualized FOI ranged from 10% to 20% (during the 2016 outbreak). Overall, we observed high FOI for dengue. These results could support decision-making about control and preventive measures for dengue.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Lactente
20.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e035307, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323426

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnancy has been associated with microcephaly and severe neurological damage to the fetus. Our aim is to document the risks of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes and the prevalence of laboratory markers of congenital infection in deliveries to women experiencing ZIKV infection during pregnancy, using data from European Commission-funded prospective cohort studies in 20 centres in 11 countries across Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will carry out a centre-by-centre analysis of the risks of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, comparing women with confirmed and suspected ZIKV infection in pregnancy to those with no evidence of infection in pregnancy. We will document the proportion of deliveries in which laboratory markers of congenital infection were present. Finally, we will investigate the associations of trimester of maternal infection in pregnancy, presence or absence of maternal symptoms of acute ZIKV infection and previous flavivirus infections with adverse outcomes and with markers of congenital infection. Centre-specific estimates will be pooled using a two-stage approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained at each centre. Findings will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed open access journals and discussed with local public health officials and representatives of the national Ministries of Health, Pan American Health Organization and WHO involved with ZIKV prevention and control activities.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
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