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1.
J Chem Phys ; 151(16): 164702, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675894

RESUMO

Due to their current and future technological applications, including realization of water filters and desalination membranes, water adsorption on graphitic sp2-bonded carbon is of overwhelming interest. However, these systems are notoriously challenging to model, even for electronic structure methods such as density functional theory (DFT), because of the crucial role played by London dispersion forces and noncovalent interactions, in general. Recent efforts have established reference quality interactions of several carbon nanostructures interacting with water. Here, we compile a new benchmark set (dubbed WaC18), which includes a single water molecule interacting with a broad range of carbon structures and various bulk (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) ice polymorphs. The performance of 28 approaches, including semilocal exchange-correlation functionals, nonlocal (Fock) exchange contributions, and long-range van der Waals (vdW) treatments, is tested by computing the deviations from the reference interaction energies. The calculated mean absolute deviations on the WaC18 set depend crucially on the DFT approach, ranging from 135 meV for local density approximation (LDA) to 12 meV for PBE0-D4. We find that modern vdW corrections to DFT significantly improve over their precursors. Within the 28 tested approaches, we identify the best performing within the functional classes of generalized gradient approximated (GGA), meta-GGA, vdW-DF, and hybrid DF, which are BLYP-D4, TPSS-D4, rev-vdW-DF2, and PBE0-D4, respectively.

2.
ACS Nano ; 13(10): 12230-12241, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589408

RESUMO

Graphene has been proposed to be either fully transparent to van der Waals interactions to the extent of allowing switching between hydrophobic and hydrophilic behavior, or partially transparent (translucent), yet there has been considerable debate on this topic, which is still ongoing. In a combined experimental and theoretical study we investigate the effects of different metal substrates on the adsorption energy of atomic (argon) and molecular (carbon monoxide) adsorbates on high-quality epitaxial graphene. We demonstrate that while the adsorption energy is certainly affected by the chemical composition of the supporting substrate and by the corrugation of the carbon lattice, the van der Waals interactions between adsorbates and the metal surfaces are partially screened by graphene. Our results indicate that the concept of graphene translucency, already introduced in the case of water droplets, is found to hold more generally also in the case of single polar molecules and atoms, which are apolar.

3.
J Chem Phys ; 151(13): 134105, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594339

RESUMO

Fixed node diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) is an increasingly used computational approach for investigating the electronic structure of molecules, solids, and surfaces with controllable accuracy. It stands out among equally accurate electronic structure approaches for its favorable cubic scaling with system size, which often makes FN-DMC the only computationally affordable high-quality method in large condensed phase systems with more than 100 atoms. In such systems, FN-DMC deploys pseudopotentials (PPs) to substantially improve efficiency. In order to deal with nonlocal terms of PPs, the FN-DMC algorithm must use an additional approximation, leading to the so-called localization error. However, the two available approximations, the locality approximation (LA) and the T-move approximation (TM), have certain disadvantages and can make DMC calculations difficult to reproduce. Here, we introduce a third approach, called the determinant localization approximation (DLA). DLA eliminates reproducibility issues and systematically provides good quality results and stable simulations that are slightly more efficient than LA and TM. When calculating energy differences-such as interaction and ionization energies-DLA is also more accurate than the LA and TM approaches. We believe that DLA paves the way to the automation of FN-DMC and its much easier application in large systems.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(3): 358-368, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615460

RESUMO

Wet carbon interfaces are ubiquitous in the natural world and exhibit anomalous properties, which could be exploited by emerging technologies. However, progress is limited by lack of understanding at the molecular level. Remarkably, even for the most fundamental system (a single water molecule interacting with graphene), there is no consensus on the nature of the interaction. We tackle this by performing an extensive set of complementary state-of-the-art computer simulations on some of the world's largest supercomputers. From this effort a consensus on the water-graphene interaction strength has been obtained. Our results have significant impact for the physical understanding, as they indicate that the interaction is weaker than predicted previously. They also pave the way for more accurate and reliable studies of liquid water at carbon interfaces.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(8): 1724-1729, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29432177

RESUMO

Computer simulation plays a central role in modern-day materials science. The utility of a given computational approach depends largely on the balance it provides between accuracy and computational cost. Molecular crystals are a class of materials of great technological importance which are challenging for even the most sophisticated ab initio electronic structure theories to accurately describe. This is partly because they are held together by a balance of weak intermolecular forces but also because the primitive cells of molecular crystals are often substantially larger than those of atomic solids. Here, we demonstrate that diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) delivers subchemical accuracy for a diverse set of molecular crystals at a surprisingly moderate computational cost. As such, we anticipate that DMC can play an important role in understanding and predicting the properties of a large number of molecular crystals, including those built from relatively large molecules which are far beyond reach of other high-accuracy methods.

6.
J Chem Phys ; 147(4): 044710, 2017 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764374

RESUMO

Molecular adsorption on surfaces plays an important part in catalysis, corrosion, desalination, and various other processes that are relevant to industry and in nature. As a complement to experiments, accurate adsorption energies can be obtained using various sophisticated electronic structure methods that can now be applied to periodic systems. The adsorption energy of water on boron nitride substrates, going from zero to 2-dimensional periodicity, is particularly interesting as it calls for an accurate treatment of polarizable electrostatics and dispersion interactions, as well as posing a practical challenge to experiments and electronic structure methods. Here, we present reference adsorption energies, static polarizabilities, and dynamic polarizabilities, for water on BN substrates of varying size and dimension. Adsorption energies are computed with coupled cluster theory, fixed-node quantum Monte Carlo (FNQMC), the random phase approximation, and second order Møller-Plesset theory. These wavefunction based correlated methods are found to agree in molecular as well as periodic systems. The best estimate of the water/h-BN adsorption energy is -107±7 meV from FNQMC. In addition, the water adsorption energy on the BN substrates could be expected to grow monotonically with the size of the substrate due to increased dispersion interactions, but interestingly, this is not the case here. This peculiar finding is explained using the static polarizabilities and molecular dispersion coefficients of the systems, as computed from time-dependent density functional theory (DFT). Dynamic as well as static polarizabilities are found to be highly anisotropic in these systems. In addition, the many-body dispersion method in DFT emerges as a particularly useful estimation of finite size effects for other expensive, many-body wavefunction based methods.

7.
J Chem Phys ; 146(20): 204108, 2017 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28571392

RESUMO

We present a comprehensive benchmark study of the adsorption energy of a single water molecule on the (001) LiH surface using periodic coupled cluster and quantum Monte Carlo theories. We benchmark and compare different implementations of quantum chemical wave function based theories in order to verify the reliability of the predicted adsorption energies and the employed approximations. Furthermore we compare the predicted adsorption energies to those obtained employing widely used van der Waals density-functionals. Our findings show that quantum chemical approaches are becoming a robust and reliable tool for condensed phase electronic structure calculations, providing an additional tool that can also help in potentially improving currently available van der Waals density-functionals.

8.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(21): 4139-4151, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28436661

RESUMO

Small-molecule binding in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be accurately studied both experimentally and computationally, provided the proper tools are employed. Herein, we compare and contrast properties associated with guest binding by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations using nine different functionals for the M2(dobdc) (dobdc4- = 2,5-dioxido,1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) series, where M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. Additionally, we perform Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations for one system to determine if this method can be used to assess the performance of DFT. We also make comparisons with previously published experimental results for carbon dioxide and water and present new methane neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data for further comparison. All of the functionals are able to predict the experimental variation in the binding energy from one metal to the next; however, the interpretation of the performance of the functionals depends on which value is taken as the reference. On the one hand, if we compare against experimental values, we would conclude that the optB86b-vdW and optB88-vdW functionals systematically overestimate the binding strength, while the second generation of van der Waals (vdW) nonlocal functionals (vdw-DF2 and rev-vdW-DF2) correct for this providing a good description of binding energies. On the other hand, if the QMC calculation is taken as the reference then all of the nonlocal functionals yield results that fall just outside the error of the higher-level calculation. The empirically corrected vdW functionals are in reasonable agreement with experimental heat of adsorptions but under bind when compared with QMC, while Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof fails by more than 20 kJ/mol regardless of which reference is employed. All of the functionals, with the exception of vdW-DF2, predict reasonable framework and guest binding geometries when compared with NPD measurements. The newest of the functionals considered, rev-vdW-DF2, should be used in place of vdW-DF2, as it yields improved bond distances with similar quality binding energies.

9.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14052, 2017 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28169280

RESUMO

Non-covalent π-π interactions are central to chemical and biological processes, yet the full understanding of their origin that would unite the simplicity of empirical approaches with the accuracy of quantum calculations is still missing. Here we employ a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian model for van der Waals interactions, to demonstrate that intermolecular electron correlation in large supramolecular complexes at equilibrium distances is appropriately described by collective charge fluctuations. We visualize these fluctuations and provide connections both to orbital-based approaches to electron correlation, as well as to the simple London pairwise picture. The reported binding energies of ten supramolecular complexes obtained from the quantum-mechanical fluctuation model joined with density functional calculations are within 5% of the reference energies calculated with the diffusion quantum Monte-Carlo method. Our analysis suggests that π-π stacking in supramolecular complexes can be characterized by strong contributions to the binding energy from delocalized, collective charge fluctuations-in contrast to complexes with other types of bonding.

10.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 120(46): 26402-26413, 2016 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27917256

RESUMO

Clay minerals are ubiquitous in nature, and the manner in which they interact with their surroundings has important industrial and environmental implications. Consequently, a molecular-level understanding of the adsorption of molecules on clay surfaces is crucial. In this regard computer simulations play an important role, yet the accuracy of widely used empirical force fields (FF) and density functional theory (DFT) exchange-correlation functionals is often unclear in adsorption systems dominated by weak interactions. Herein we present results from quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) for water and methanol adsorption on the prototypical clay kaolinite. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time QMC has been used to investigate adsorption at a complex, natural surface such as a clay. As well as being valuable in their own right, the QMC benchmarks obtained provide reference data against which the performance of cheaper DFT methods can be tested. Indeed using various DFT exchange-correlation functionals yields a very broad range of adsorption energies, and it is unclear a priori which evaluation is better. QMC reveals that in the systems considered here it is essential to account for van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces since this alters both the absolute and relative adsorption energies of water and methanol. We show, via FF simulations, that incorrect relative energies can lead to significant changes in the interfacial densities of water and methanol solutions at the kaolinite interface. Despite the clear improvements offered by the vdW-corrected and the vdW-inclusive functionals, absolute adsorption energies are often overestimated, suggesting that the treatment of vdW forces in DFT is not yet a solved problem.

11.
J Chem Phys ; 144(15): 154706, 2016 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27389233

RESUMO

Novel uses for 2-dimensional materials like graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) are being frequently discovered especially for membrane and catalysis applications. Still however, a great deal remains to be understood about the interaction of environmentally and industrially relevant molecules such as water with these materials. Taking inspiration from advances in hybridising graphene and h-BN, we explore using density functional theory, the dissociation of water, hydrogen, methane, and methanol on graphene, h-BN, and their isoelectronic doped counterparts: BN dopedgraphene and C doped h-BN. We find that dopedsurfaces are considerably more reactive than their pristine counterparts and by comparing the reactivity of several small molecules, we develop a general framework for dissociative adsorption. From this a particularly attractive consequence of isoelectronic doping emerges: substrates can be doped to enhance their reactivity specifically towards either polar or non-polar adsorbates. As such, these substrates are potentially viable candidates for selective catalysts and membranes, with the implication that a range of tuneable materials can be designed.

12.
J Chem Phys ; 144(13): 130901, 2016 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27059554

RESUMO

Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) has become established as an indispensable tool for investigating aqueous systems of all kinds, including those important in chemistry, surface science, biology, and the earth sciences. Nevertheless, many widely used approximations for the exchange-correlation (XC) functional describe the properties of pure water systems with an accuracy that is not fully satisfactory. The explicit inclusion of dispersion interactions generally improves the description, but there remain large disagreements between the predictions of different dispersion-inclusive methods. We present here a review of DFT work on water clusters, ice structures, and liquid water, with the aim of elucidating how the strengths and weaknesses of different XC approximations manifest themselves across this variety of water systems. Our review highlights the crucial role of dispersion in describing the delicate balance between compact and extended structures of many different water systems, including the liquid. By referring to a wide range of published work, we argue that the correct description of exchange-overlap interactions is also extremely important, so that the choice of semi-local or hybrid functional employed in dispersion-inclusive methods is crucial. The origins and consequences of beyond-2-body errors of approximate XC functionals are noted, and we also discuss the substantial differences between different representations of dispersion. We propose a simple numerical scoring system that rates the performance of different XC functionals in describing water systems, and we suggest possible future developments.

13.
Springerplus ; 5: 256, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27026948

RESUMO

We report on the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of solid iron at high pressure, up to and including conditions likely to be found at the centre of the Earth. We have extended some of the calculations of the resistivities of pure solid iron we recently performed at Earth's core conditions (Pozzo et al. in Earth Planet Sci Lett 393:159-164, 2014) to lower temperature. We show that at low temperature the resistivity increases linearly with temperature, and saturates at high temperature. This saturation effect is well known as the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit in metals, but has been largely ignored to estimate the resistivity of iron at Earth's core conditions. Recent experiments (Gomi et al. in Phys Earth Planet Int 224:88-103, 2013) coupled new high pressure data and saturation to predict the resitivity of iron and iron alloys at Earth's core conditions, and reported values up to three times lower than previous estimates, confirming recent first principles calculations (de Koker et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:4070-4073, 2012; Pozzo et al. in Nature 485:355-358, 2012, Phys Rev B 87:014110-10, 2013, Earth Planet Sci Lett 393:159-164, 2014; Davies et al. in Nat Geosci 8:678-685, 2015). The present results support the saturation effect idea.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(10): 3395-402, 2016 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26829531

RESUMO

The atomistic understanding of the dissociation mechanisms for large molecules adsorbed on surfaces is still a challenge in heterogeneous catalysis. This is especially true for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which represent an important class of organic compounds used to produce novel graphene-based architectures. Here, we show that coronene molecules adsorbed on Ir(111) undergo major conformational changes during dissociation. They first tilt upward with respect to the surface, still keeping their planar configuration, and subsequently experience a rotation, which changes the molecular axis orientation. Upon lifting, the internal C-C strain is initially relieved; as the dehydrogenation proceeds, the molecules experience a progressive increase in the average interatomic distance and gradually settle to form dome-shaped nanographene flakes. Our results provide important insight into the complex mechanism of molecular breakup, which could have implications in the synthesis of new carbon-based nanostructured materials.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26027007

RESUMO

The complete structure of MgSeO4·9H2O has been refined from neutron single-crystal diffraction data obtained at 5, 100, 175 and 250 K. It is monoclinic, space group P21/c, Z = 4, with unit-cell parameters a = 7.222 (2), b = 10.484 (3), c = 17.327 (4) Å, ß = 109.57 (2)°, and V = 1236.1 (6) Å(3) [ρ(calc) = 1770 (1) kg m(-3)] at 5 K. The structure consists of isolated [Mg(H2O)6](2+) octahedra, [SeO4](2-) tetrahedra and three interstitial lattice water molecules, all on sites of symmetry 1. The positions of the H atoms agree well with those inferred on the basis of geometrical considerations in the prior X-ray powder diffraction structure determination: no evidence of orientational disorder of the water molecules is apparent in the temperature range studied. Six of the nine water molecules are hydrogen bonded to one another to form a unique centrosymmetric dodecamer, (H2O)12. Raman spectra have been acquired in the range 170-4000 cm(-1) at 259 and 78 K; ab initio calculations, using density functional theory, have been carried out in order to aid in the analysis of the Raman spectrum as well as providing additional insights into the geometry and thermodynamics of the hydrogen bonds. Complementary information concerning the thermal expansion, crystal morphology and the solubility are also presented.

16.
J Chem Phys ; 142(18): 181101, 2015 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25978876

RESUMO

Despite a recent flurry of experimental and simulation studies, an accurate estimate of the interaction strength of water molecules with hexagonal boron nitride is lacking. Here, we report quantum Monte Carlo results for the adsorption of a water monomer on a periodic hexagonal boron nitride sheet, which yield a water monomer interaction energy of -84 ± 5 meV. We use the results to evaluate the performance of several widely used density functional theory (DFT) exchange correlation functionals and find that they all deviate substantially. Differences in interaction energies between different adsorption sites are however better reproduced by DFT.

17.
J Chem Phys ; 142(6): 064506, 2015 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25681922

RESUMO

Using a self-developed combination of the thermodynamic integration and the ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics methods, we quantitatively studied the influence of nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) on the melting of dense lithium at 45 GPa. We find that although the NQEs significantly change the free-energies of the competing solid and liquid phases, the melting temperature (Tm) is lowered by only ∼15 K, with values obtained using both classical and quantum nuclei in close proximity to a new experiment. Besides this, a substantial narrowing of the solid/liquid free-energy differences close to Tm was observed, in alignment with a tendency that glassy states might form upon rapid cooling. This tendency was demonstrated by the dynamics of crystallization in the two-phase simulations, which helps to reconcile an important conflict between two recent experiments. This study presents a simple picture for the phase diagram of lithium under pressure. It also indicates that claims on the influence of NQEs on phase diagrams should be carefully made and the method adopted offers a robust solution for such quantitative analyses.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25449618

RESUMO

We have determined the crystal structure of ammonium carbonate monohydrate, (NH4)2CO3·H2O, using Laue single-crystal diffraction methods with pulsed neutron radiation. The crystal is orthorhombic, space group Pnma (Z = 4), with unit-cell dimensions a = 12.047 (3), b = 4.453 (1), c = 11.023 (3) Šand V = 591.3 (3) Å(3) [ρcalc = 1281.8 (7) kg m(-3)] at 10 K. The single-crystal data collected at 10 and 100 K are complemented by X-ray powder diffraction data measured from 245 to 273 K, Raman spectra measured from 80 to 263 K and an athermal zero-pressure calculation of the electronic structure and phonon spectrum carried out using density functional theory (DFT). We find no evidence of a phase transition between 10 and 273 K; above 273 K, however, the title compound transforms first to ammonium sesquicarbonate monohydrate and subsequently to ammonium bicarbonate. The crystallographic and spectroscopic data and the calculations reveal a quite strongly hydrogen-bonded structure (EHB ≃ 30-40 kJ mol(-1)), on the basis of H...O bond lengths and the topology of the electron density at the bond critical points, in which there is no free rotation of the ammonium cation at any temperature. The barrier to free rotation of the ammonium ions is estimated from the observed librational frequency to be ∼ 36 kJ mol(-1). The c-axis exhibits negative thermal expansion, but the thermal expansion behaviour of the a and b axes is ormal.


Assuntos
Carbonatos/química , Elétrons , Água/química , Cristalização , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Temperatura Ambiente , Termodinâmica
19.
J Chem Phys ; 141(18): 18C530, 2014 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25399195

RESUMO

Density functional theory (DFT) studies of weakly interacting complexes have recently focused on the importance of van der Waals dispersion forces, whereas the role of exchange has received far less attention. Here, by exploiting the subtle binding between water and a boron and nitrogen doped benzene derivative (1,2-azaborine) we show how exact exchange can alter the binding conformation within a complex. Benchmark values have been calculated for three orientations of the water monomer on 1,2-azaborine from explicitly correlated quantum chemical methods, and we have also used diffusion quantum Monte Carlo. For a host of popular DFT exchange-correlation functionals we show that the lack of exact exchange leads to the wrong lowest energy orientation of water on 1,2-azaborine. As such, we suggest that a high proportion of exact exchange and the associated improvement in the electronic structure could be needed for the accurate prediction of physisorption sites on doped surfaces and in complex organic molecules. Meanwhile to predict correct absolute interaction energies an accurate description of exchange needs to be augmented by dispersion inclusive functionals, and certain non-local van der Waals functionals (optB88- and optB86b-vdW) perform very well for absolute interaction energies. Through a comparison with water on benzene and borazine (B3N3H6) we show that these results could have implications for the interaction of water with doped graphene surfaces, and suggest a possible way of tuning the interaction energy.


Assuntos
Benzeno/química , Teoria Quântica , Água/química , Compostos de Boro/química , Conformação Molecular
20.
ACS Nano ; 8(10): 9905-13, 2014 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25300825

RESUMO

The energetic barriers that atoms and molecules often experience when binding to surfaces are incredibly important to a myriad of chemical and physical processes. However, these barriers are difficult to describe accurately with current computer simulation approaches. Two prominent contemporary challenges faced by simulation are the role of van der Waals forces and nuclear quantum effects. Here we examine the widely studied model systems of hydrogen on graphene and coronene using a van der Waals inclusive density functional theory approach together with path integral molecular dynamics at 50 K. We find that both van der Waals and quantum nuclear effects work together in a cooperative manner to dramatically reduce the barriers for hydrogen atoms to adsorb. This suggests that the low temperature hydrogenation of graphene is easier than previously thought and in more general terms that the combined roles of van der Waals and quantum tunnelling can lead to qualitative changes in adsorption.

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