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2.
Int J Cardiol ; 346: 8-12, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to recognize intraplaque macrophage infiltration is now well acknowledged. This post-hoc analysis of the CLIMA study aimed to address the clinical impact of the circumferential extension of OCT-defined macrophages and their location at one year follow-up. METHODS: The multicentre CLIMA study enrolled 1003 patients undergoing OCT evaluation of the untreated proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Measurements of circumferential extension of macrophages and measurements of the distance from intima-lumen contour to macrophages string were performed at the plaque cross-section judged as containing the greatest amount of macrophages. The main study endpoint was a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI) and/or target vessel revascularization (TVR). RESULTS: Patients with large macrophage arc (p = 0.001) and superficial macrophage arc (p < 0.001) showed a higher one-year incidence of the main one-year composite endpoint. Consistently hypertension (p = 0.018), family history of CAD (p = 0.046), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.036), lower ejection fraction (p = 0.009) and chronic kidney disease (p = 0.019) were more frequently found in patients experiencing the main composite endpoint. At multivariate Cox regression analysis, fibrous cap thickness < 75 µm (HR 2.51, 95% 1.46-4.32), presence of large (HR 1.97, 95%CI 1.16-3.35, p = 0.012) and superficial (HR 1.72, 95%CI 1.02-2.90; p = 0.040) macrophage arc remained independent predictors of the main composite endpoint. Large macrophage arc was associated with target LAD related MI. CONCLUSION: The present post-hoc analysis of the CLIMA showed that the circumferential extension of macrophages and their location are related to a composite endpoint of cardiac death, MI and/or TVR.

3.
Am J Cardiol ; 162: 31-40, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903344

RESUMO

Currently, both drug-eluting stents (DES) and drug-eluting balloons are recommended in patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR) of metallic stents. However, the clinical results of repeated interventions in patients with restenosis of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) remain unsettled. We sought to assess the results of interventions in patients with BVS-ISR as compared with those obtained in patients with ISR of DES and bare-metal stents (BMS). Restenosis Intrastent: Treatment of Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds Restenosis (RIBS VII) is a prospective multicenter study (23 Spanish sites) that included 117 consecutive patients treated for BVS-ISR. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were similar to those of previous RIBS studies. Patients in the RIBS IV (DES-ISR, n = 309) and RIBS V (BMS - ISR, n = 189) randomized trials, were used as controls. Most patients with BVS-ISR were treated with DES (76%). Patients with BVS-ISR were younger, had larger vessels, and after interventions had higher in-segment residual diameter stenosis (19 ± 13%, 15 ± 11%, 15 ± 12%, p <0.001) than those treated for DES-ISR and BMS-ISR, respectively. At 1-year clinical follow-up (obtained in 100% of patients) target lesion revascularization (6%) was similar to that seen in patients with DES-ISR and BMS-ISR (8.7% and 3.7%, p = 0.32). Freedom from death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization (primary clinical end point) was 8.5%, also similar to that found in patients with DES-ISR and BMS-ISR (14.2% and 7.4%, p = 0.09). Results were also similar when only patients treated with DES in each group were compared and remained unchanged after adjusting for potential confounders in baseline characteristics. Time to BVS-ISR did not influence angiographic or clinical results. This study demonstrates the safety and efficacy of coronary interventions for patients presenting with BVS-ISR. One-year clinical results in these patients are comparable to those seen in patients with ISR of metallic stents (ClinicalTrials.gov ID:NCT03167424).

5.
Circ J ; 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of circulating progenitor cells (CPC) in vascular repair following everolimus-eluting stent (EES) implantation is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between temporal variation in CPC levels following EES implantation and the degree of peri-procedural vascular damage, and stent healing, as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT).Methods and Results:CPC populations (CD133+/KDR+/CD45low) included patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing stent implantation, and were evaluated using a flow cytometry technique both at baseline and at 1 week. OCT evaluation was performed immediately post-implantation to quantify the stent-related injury and at a 9-month follow up to assess the mid-term vascular response. Twenty patients (mean age 66±9 years; 80% male) with EES-treated stenoses (n=24) were included in this study. Vascular injury score was associated with the 1-week increase of CD133+/KDR+/CD45low (ß 0.28 [95% CI 0.15; 0.41]; P<0.001) and with maximum neointimal thickness at a 9-month follow up (ß 0.008 [95% CI 0.0004; 0.002]; P=0.04). Inverse relationships between numbers of uncoated and apposed struts for the 9-month and the 1-week delta values of CD133+/KDR+/CD45low (ß -12.53 [95% CI -22.17; -2.90]; P=0.011), were also found. CONCLUSIONS: The extent of vessel wall injury influences early changes in the levels of CPC and had an effect on mid-term vascular healing after EES implantation. Early CPC mobilisation was associated with mid-term strut coverage.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(22): e022123, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729992

RESUMO

Background Early generation drug-eluting stents (DESs) showed a high grade of coronary endothelial dysfunction that was attributed to lack of stent reendothelialization. Endothelium-dependent vasomotor response of current DESs and bioresorbable scaffolds (BRSs) remains unknown. This study sought to assess the device-related endothelial function of current devices and to correlate neointima healing with endothelial function. Methods and Results A total of 206 patients from 4 randomized trials treated with the durable-polymer everolimus-eluting Xience (n=44), bioresorbable-polymer sirolimus-eluting Orsiro (n=35), polymer-free biolimus-eluting Biofreedom (n=24), bioactive endothelial-progenitor cell-capturing sirolimus-eluting Combo DES (n=25), polymer-based everolimus-eluting Absorb (n=44), and Mg-based sirolimus-eluting Magmaris BRS (n=34) underwent endothelium-dependent vasomotor tests and optical coherence tomography imaging, as per protocol, at follow-up. Crude vasomotor responses of distal segments to low-dose acetylcholine (10-6 mol/L) were different between groups: bioresorbablepolymer DEShad the worst (-8.4%±12.6%) and durable-polymer DES had the most physiologic (-0.4%±11.8%; P=0.014). High-dose acetylcholine (10-4 mol/L) showed similar responses between groups (ranging from -10.8%±11.6% to -18.1%±15.4%; P=0.229). Device healing was different between devices. Uncovered struts ranged from 6.3%±7.1% (bioresorbable-polymer DES) to 2.5%±4.5% (bioactive DES; P=0.056). In multivariate models, endothelium-dependent vasomotor response was associated with age, bioresorbable-polymer DES, and angiographic lumen loss, but not with strut coverage nor plaque type. Endothelial dysfunction (defined as ≥4% vasoconstriction) was observed in 46.6% of patients with low-dose and 68.9% with high-dose acetylcholine, without differences between groups. Conclusions At follow-up, endothelial dysfunction was frequently observed in distal segments treated with current stents without remarkable differences between devices. Although neointima healing was different between devices, poor healing was not associated with endothelial dysfunction.

7.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraprocedural optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a valuable tool for guidance of percutaneous coronary intervention, but long-term follow-up data are lacking. AIMS: The aim of this study was to address the long-term (7.5 years) clinical impact of quantitative OCT metrics of suboptimal stent implantation. METHODS: This retrospective study includes 391 patients with long-term follow-up (mean 2,737 days; interquartile range 1,301-3,143 days) from the multicentre Centro per la Lotta contro l’Infarto – Optimisation of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (CLI-OPCI) registry. OCT-assessed suboptimal stent deployment required the presence of at least one of the following pre-defined OCT findings: in-stent MLA <4.5 mm2, proximal or distal reference lumen narrowing with lumen area <4.5 mm2, significant proximal or distal edge dissection width ≥200 μm. RESULTS: One-hundred-two patients (26.1%) with 138 stented lesions (27.7%) experienced a device-oriented cardiovascular event (DOCE). In-stent MLA <4.5 mm2 (38.1% vs 19.8%, p<0.001), in-stent lumen expansion <70% (29.5% vs 20.3%, p=0.032), proximal reference lumen narrowing <4.5 mm2 (6.5% vs 1.4%, p=0.004), and distal reference lumen narrowing <4.5 mm2 (12.9% vs 3.6%, p=0.001) were significantly more common in the DOCE vs non-DOCE group. OCT assessed suboptimal stent deployment was an independent predictor of long-term DOCE (HR 2.17, p<0.001), together with bare metal stent implantation (HR 1.73, p=0.003) and prior revascularisation (HR 1.53, p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of OCT assessed suboptimal criteria for stent implantation was related to a worse clinical outcome at very long-term follow-up. This information further supports an OCT-guided strategy of stent deployment.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the incidence and timing of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) within the first year after spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) according to the management strategy: conservative versus invasive. BACKGROUND: Treatment of SCAD remains controversial. METHODS: A pooled analysis of studies providing separate individual clinical outcomes for conservative and invasive treatment strategies within 1 year after SCAD was performed. The primary outcome measure was MACE incidence within three predefined study periods after SCAD, namely "in-hospital", "discharge-to-6-months" and "6-to-12-months". MACE was defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, heart failure and SCAD recurrence. RESULTS: A total of 16 studies (444 patients) were included; 277 (62%) patients were treated conservatively and 167 (38%) invasively. Within 1-year follow-up, 39 (67%) MACE occurred during the in-hospital period compared to 10 (17%) in the "discharge-to-6 months" period and 9 (16%) in the "6-to-12-months" period (p < 0.0001 for the overall comparison). MACE incidence was also significantly different between the three study periods in the conservatively-treated group (23 [78%] vs. 7 [23%] vs. 0 [0%], respectively; p < 0.0001) and the invasively-treated group (12 [66%] vs. 3 [17%] vs. 3 [17%], respectively; p < 0.0001), although no significant difference was found regarding MACE incidence in the intra-period comparisons between conservative and invasive treatment strategies. CONCLUSIONS: This pooled analysis showed that most MACE following SCAD occurred during the in-hospital period compared to the following two semesters, regardless of the treatment strategy. No difference regarding MACE incidence was found between conservative and invasive strategies in each study period.

13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(1): 106161, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689053

RESUMO

OBJETIVE: Cryptogenic stroke (CS) represents up to 30% of ischemic strokes (IS). Since atrial fibrillation (AF) can be detected in up to 30% of CS, there is a clinical need for estimating the probability of underlying AF in CS to guide the optimal secondary prevention strategy. The aim of the study was to develop the first comprehensive predictive score including clinical conditions, biomarkers, and left atrial strain (LAS), to predict AF detection in this setting. METHODS: Sixty-three consecutive patients with IS or transient ischemic attack with ABCD2 scale ≥ 4 of unknown etiology were prospectively recruited. Clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic variables were collected. All patients underwent 15 days wearable Holter-ECG monitoring. Main objective was the Decryptoring score creation to predict AF in CS. Score variables were selected by a univariate analysis and, thereafter, score points were derived according to a multivariant analysis. RESULTS: AF was detected in 15 patients (24%). Age > 75 (9 points), hypertension (1 point), Troponin T > 40 ng/L (8.5 points), NTproBNP > 200 pg/ml (0.5 points), LAS reservoir < 25.3% (24.5 points) and LAS conduct < 10.4% (0.5 points) were included in the score. The rate of AF detection was 0% among patients with a score of < 10 and 80% among patients with a score > 35. The comparison of the predictive validity between the proposed score and AF-ESUS score resulted in an AUC of 0.94 for Decryptoring score and of 0.65 for the AF-ESUS score(p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This novel score offers an accurate AF prediction in patients with CS; however these results will require validation in an independent cohort using this model before they may be translated into clinical practice.

14.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561195

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION Y OBJECTIVES: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. Most patients are empirically treated with beta-blockers and antiplatelet drugs. The Beta-blockers and Antiplatelet agents in patients with Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection (BA-SCAD) is an academic, pragmatic, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint clinical trial, performed under the auspices of the Spanish Society of Cardiology, to assess the efficacy of pharmacological therapy in patients with SCAD. METHODS: Using a 2 x 2 factorial design, 600 patients will be randomized (1:1/1:1) to: a) beta-blockers (yes/no) and b) "short" (1 month) vs "prolonged" (12 months) antiplatelet therapy. Only patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction will be randomized to beta-blockers (yes/no) because patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction will receive beta-blockers according to current guidelines. Similarly, only conservatively managed patients (ie, no coronary intervention) will be randomized to the antiplatelet stratum, as patients requiring coronary interventions will receive 1-year dual antiplatelet therapy. The primary efficacy endpoint includes a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, recurrent SCAD, and unplanned hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome or heart failure at 1 year. The primary safety endpoint will be bleeding. All patients will be clinically followed up yearly. A comprehensive set of additional substudies (clinical, imaging, revascularization, biomarkers, inflammatory, immunologic, pharmacogenetics, and genetic) will be conducted to ensure a holistic view of this unique and challenging clinical entity. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the BA-SCAD randomized clinical trial will advance our knowledge in the treatment of patients with SCAD. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04850417).

15.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(3): 779-786, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565076

RESUMO

Ischemic heart disease constitutes the leading cause of death in Western countries. The general incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), especially non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), is growing. Advanced age is both a strong risk factor for ACS and an independent predictor of poorer clinical outcomes. Management of this entity is often complex in the elderly, while special attention should be focused on comorbidities and geriatric conditions. This article aims to review clinical presentation, identification and management of NSTEMI in the elderly population.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Isquemia Miocárdica , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Idoso , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to test the safety and efficacy of intravascular imaging and specifically optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a diagnostic tool for left main angioplasty and analyze the mid-term outcome accordingly. BACKGROUND: Clinical data and international guidelines recommend the use of intravascular imaging ultrasound (IVUS) to guide left main (LM) angioplasty. Despite early experience using OCT in this setting is encouraging, the evidence supporting its use is still limited. METHODS: ROCK II is a multicenter, investigator-driven, retrospective European study to compare the performance of IVUS and OCT versus angiography in patients undergoing distal-LM stenting. The primary study endpoint was target-lesion failure (TLF) including cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction and target-lesion revascularization. We designed this study hypothesizing the superiority of intravascular imaging over angiographic guidance alone, and the non-inferiority of OCT versus IVUS. RESULTS: A total of 730 patients, 377 with intravascular-imaging guidance (162 OCT, 215 IVUS) and 353 with angiographic guidance, were analyzed. The one-year rate of TLF was 21.2% with angiography and 12.7% with intravascular-imaging (p = 0.039), with no difference between OCT and IVUS (p = 0.26). Intravascular-imaging was predictor of freedom from TLF (HR 0.46; 95% CI 0.23-0.93: p = 0.03). Propensity-score matching identified three groups of 100 patients each with no significant differences in baseline characteristics. The one-year rate of TLF was 16% in the angiographic, 7% in the OCT and 6% in the IVUS group, respectively (p = 0.03 for IVUS or OCT vs. angiography). No between-group significant differences in the rate of individual components of TLF were found. CONCLUSIONS: Intravascular imaging was superior to angiography for distal LM stenting, with no difference between OCT and IVUS.

18.
Eur Heart J ; 42(45): 4671-4679, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345911

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to understand the impact of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-detected thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) on clinical outcomes of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with fractional flow reserve (FFR)-negative lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: COMBINE OCT-FFR study was a prospective, double-blind, international, natural history study. After FFR assessment, and revascularization of FFR-positive lesions, patients with ≥1 FFR-negative lesions (target lesions) were classified in two groups based on the presence or absence of ≥1 TCFA lesion. The primary endpoint compared FFR-negative TCFA-positive patients with FFR-negative TCFA-negative patients for a composite of cardiac mortality, target vessel myocardial infarction, clinically driven target lesion revascularization or unstable angina requiring hospitalization at 18 months. Among 550 patients enrolled, 390 (81%) patients had ≥1 FFR-negative lesions. Among FFR-negative patients, 98 (25%) were TCFA positive and 292 (75%) were TCFA negative. The incidence of the primary endpoint was 13.3% and 3.1% in TCFA-positive vs. TCFA-negative groups, respectively (hazard ratio 4.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.99-10.89; P < 0.001). The Cox regression multivariable analysis identified TCFA as the strongest predictor of major adverse clinical events (MACE) (hazard ratio 5.12; 95% confidence interval 2.12-12.34; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among DM patients with ≥1 FFR-negative lesions, TCFA-positive patients represented 25% of this population and were associated with a five-fold higher rate of MACE despite the absence of ischaemia. This discrepancy between the impact of vulnerable plaque and ischaemia on future adverse events may represent a paradigm shift for coronary artery disease risk stratification in DM patients.

20.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(7): 4023-4032, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422332

RESUMO

Background: Evolut Pro (EVP) is a novel self-expandable aortic valve. This prosthesis consists of an external porcine pericardial wrap designed to reduce paravalvular leak (PVL), maintaining the benefits of its predecessor, the Evolut R (EVR). The aim was to compare the functional and clinical results in the short and medium term of the new EVP with the EVR system. Methods: Consecutive patients receiving either the EVR (n=50) or the EVP (n=33) from June 2015 to October 2018 were compared. Baseline characteristics, cardiovascular imaging, procedural outcomes, short and mid-term follow-up outcomes were prospectively collected and assessed. Results: Residual mild PVL was common and comparable in the two groups (EVR 79% vs. EVP 70%; P=0.4). In the EVR group, the presence of PVL was directly related to prosthesis size, but this correlation was not observed in the EVP group. Conduction abnormalities were more prevalent with the EVP, but these did not translate into a higher need of permanent pacemaker implantation. Vascular and bleeding complications were infrequent in both groups. At mid-term clinical follow-up (median survival time: EVR 11±0.3 months, EVP 12±0.2 months), the 1-year rate of adverse events was similar (EVR: 24%, EVP: 33%; P=0.3). Conclusions: Both protheses are effective for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis with excellent results at mid-term clinical follow up. The EVP remains associated with a significant rate of residual mild PVL that appears to be similar to that observed with EVR.

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