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1.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between individual rheumatoid arthritis (RA) autoantibodies, sex and age at RA onset. METHODS: Anti-CCP2, IgA-, IgG- and IgM-RF were analysed centrally in baseline sera from 1600 RA patients diagnosed within one year of RA symptom onset. Cut-offs for RF isotypes were determined at the 98th percentile based on RA-free controls, close to the 98.4% anti-CCP2 specificity. RESULTS: Anti-CCP2 was found in 1020 patients (64%), IgA RF in 692 (43%), IgG RF in 529 (33%) and IgM RF in 916 (57%) of the patients. When assessed one by one, anti-CCP2 and IgM RF were both associated with lower age at RA diagnosis. When assessed in one joint model, the association to IgM RF weakened and a strong association between IgA RF and higher age at RA diagnosis appeared. IgA RF and IgG RF associated with male sex, and IgM RF with female sex, with no difference for anti-CCP2. When the model was adjusted for sex, the association between IgM RF and age disappeared, whereas the strong associations between IgA RF and high age and between anti-CCP2 and low age at diagnosis remained. Further adjustments for smoking, shared epitope and inclusion year did not change the outcome. Univariate analyses stratified on anti-CCP2 and IgA RF status confirmed the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-CCP associate with low, and IgA RF with high age at RA onset. RFs and anti-CCP2 display opposing association with sex. These results underscore that studies on RA phenotypes in relation to autoantibodies should accommodate age and sex.

2.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 174: 108760, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744376

RESUMO

AIMS: We investigated the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and type 2 diabetes in relation to a healthy lifestyle, the proportion of patients attributable to an unhealthy lifestyle, and the influence of family history of diabetes (FHD) and genetic susceptibility. METHODS: The population-based study included incident LADA (n = 571), type 2 diabetes (n = 1962), and matched controls (n = 2217). A healthy lifestyle was defined by BMI < 25 kg/m2, moderate-to-high physical activity, a healthy diet, no smoking, and moderate alcohol consumption. We estimated odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, sex, education, and FHD. RESULTS: Compared to a poor/moderate lifestyle, a healthy lifestyle was associated with a reduced risk of LADA (OR 0.51, CI 0.34-0.77) and type 2 diabetes (OR 0.09, CI 0.05-0.15). A healthy lifestyle conferred a reduced risk irrespective of FHD and high-risk HLA genotypes. Having a BMI < 25 kg/m2 conferred the largest risk reduction for both LADA (OR 0.54, CI 0.43-0.66) and type 2 diabetes (OR 0.12, CI 0.10-0.15) out of the individual items. CONCLUSION: People with a healthy lifestyle, especially a healthy body weight, have a reduced risk of LADA including those with genetic susceptibility to diabetes.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the influence of environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS) in different genetic contexts, and study if interactions between environmental factors and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes differ in magnitude according to heterozygocity and homozygocity for HLA-DRB1*15:01. METHODS: Using population-based case-control studies (6985 cases, 6569 controls), subjects with different genotypes and smoking, EBNA-1 status and adolescent Body Mass status, were compared regarding MS risk, by calculating OR with 95% CI employing logistic regression. The interaction between different genotypes and each environmental factor was evaluated on the additive scale. RESULTS: The effect of each DRB1*15:01 allele on MS risk was additive on the log-odds scale for each additional allele. Interaction between DRB1*15:01 and each assessed environmental factor was of similar magnitude regardless of the number of DRB1*15:01 alleles, although ORs were affected. When any of the environmental factors were present in DRB1*15:01 carriers without the protective A*02:01 allele, a three-way interaction occurred and rendered high ORs, especially among DRB1*15:01 homozygotes (OR 20.0, 95% CI 13.1 to 30.5 among smokers, OR 21.9, 95% CI 15.0 to 31.8 among those with elevated EBNA-1 antibody levels, and OR 44.3, 95% CI 13.5 to 145 among those who reported adolescent overweight/obesity). CONCLUSIONS: The strikingly increased MS risk among DRB*15:01 homozygotes exposed to any of the environmental factors is a further argument in favour of these factors acting on immune-related mechanisms. The data further reinforce the importance of preventive measures, in particular for those with a genetic susceptibility to MS.

4.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 46, 2021 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fine-mapping of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk factors has identified several HLA alleles and its corresponding amino acid residues as independent signals (i.e., HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DPB1, and HLA-DQA1 genes), in addition to the well-established genetic factor in HLA-DRB1 gene. However, this was mainly performed in the Caucasian and East Asian populations, and data from different Asian regions is less represented. We aimed to evaluate whether there are independent RA risk variants in both anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative RA patients from the multi-ethnic Malaysian population, using the fine-mapping of HLA region strategy. METHODS: We imputed the classical HLA alleles, amino acids, and haplotypes using the Immunochip genotyping data of 1260 RA cases (i.e., 530 Malays, 259 Chinese, 412 Indians, and 59 mixed ethnicities) and 1571 controls (i.e., 981 Malays, 205 Chinese, 297 Indians, and 87 mixed ethnicities) from the Malaysian Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (MyEIRA) population-based case-control study. Stepwise logistic regression was performed to identify the independent genetic risk factors for RA within the HLA region. RESULTS: We confirmed that the HLA-DRB1 amino acid at position 11 with valine residue conferred the strongest risk effect for ACPA-positive RA (OR = 4.26, 95% CI = 3.30-5.49, PGWAS = 7.22 × 10-29) in the Malays. Our study also revealed that HLA-DRB1 amino acid at position 96 with histidine residue was negatively associated with the risk of developing ACPA-positive RA in the Indians (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.37-0.62, PGWAS = 2.58 × 10-08). Interestingly, we observed that HLA-DQB1*03:02 allele was inversely related to the risk of developing ACPA-positive RA in the Malays (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.09-0.30, PGWAS = 1.60 × 10-09). No association was observed between the HLA variants and risk of developing ACPA-negative RA in any of the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the RA-associated genetic factors in the multi-ethnic Malaysian population are similar to those in the Caucasian population, despite significant differences in the genetic architecture of HLA region across populations. A novel and distinct independent association between the HLA-DQB1*03:02 allele and ACPA-positive RA was observed in the Malays. In common with the Caucasian population, there is little risk from HLA region for ACPA-negative RA.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Because obesity affects the cellular immune response to infections, we aimed to investigate whether high body mass index (BMI) in young adulthood and high Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) antibody levels interact with regard to MS risk. We also aimed at exploring potential 3-way interactions between BMI at age 20 years, aspects of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (high EBNA-1 antibody levels and infectious mononucleosis [IM] history, respectively) and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1*15:01 allele. METHODS: Using Swedish population-based case-control studies (5,460 cases and 7,275 controls), we assessed MS risk in relation to interactions between overweight/obesity at age 20 years, IM history, EBNA-1 levels, and HLA-DRB1*15:01 status by calculating ORs with 95% CIs using logistic regression. Potential interactions were evaluated on the additive scale. RESULTS: Overweight/obesity, compared with normal weight, interacted significantly with high (>50th percentile) EBNA-1 antibody levels (attributable proportion due to interaction 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.4). The strength of the interaction increased with higher category of EBNA-1 antibody levels. Furthermore, 3-way interactions were present between HLA-DRB1*15:01, overweight/obesity at age 20 years, and each aspect of EBV infection. CONCLUSIONS: With regard to MS risk, overweight/obesity in young adulthood acts synergistically with both aspects of EBV infection, predominantly among those with a genetic susceptibility to the disease. The obese state both induces a chronic immune-mediated inflammation and affects the cellular immune response to infections, which may contribute to explain our findings.

6.
Addict Biol ; 26(1): e12880, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064741

RESUMO

Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [rg ], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from ~2400 to ~537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (rg = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (rg = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (rg = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (rgs = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.

7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(6): 2041-2050, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health consequences of the use of Swedish snus, including its relationship with mortality, have not been fully established. We investigated the relationship between snus use and all-cause and cause-specific mortality (death due to cardiovascular diseases, cancer diseases and all other reasons, respectively) in a nationwide collaborative pooling project. METHODS: We followed 169 103 never-smoking men from eight Swedish cohort studies, recruited in 1978-2010. Shared frailty models with random effects at the study level were used in order to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mortality associated with snus use. RESULTS: Exclusive current snus users had an increased risk of all-cause mortality (aHR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20-1.35), cardiovascular mortality (aHR 1.27, 95% CI 1.15-1.41) and other cause mortality (aHR 1.37, 95% CI 1.24-1.52) compared with never-users of tobacco. The risk of cancer mortality was also increased (aHR 1.12, 95% CI 1.00-1.26). These mortality risks increased with duration of snus use, but not with weekly amount. CONCLUSIONS: Snus use among men is associated with increased all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, with death from other causes and possibly with increased cancer mortality.

8.
Front Neurol ; 11: 993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013655

RESUMO

Murine models have demonstrated that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is associated with pain-like behavior in peripheral nerve injury, however, the same association has not been shown when considering injury to the central nervous system (CNS), which more closely mimics the damage to the CNS experienced by MS patients. Previous research has indicated the DQB1*03:02 allele of the class II HLA genes as being associated with development of neuropathic pain in persons undergoing inguinal hernia surgery or with lumbar spinal disk herniation. Whether this HLA allele plays a part in susceptibility to pain, has not, as far as we are aware, been previously investigated. This study utilizes information on DQB1*03:02 alleles as part of the EIMS, GEMS, and IMSE studies in Sweden. It also uses register data for 3,877 MS patients, and 4,548 matched comparators without MS, to assess whether the DQB1*03:02 allele is associated with prescribed pain medication use, and whether associations with this genotype differ depending on MS status. Our results showed no association between the DQB1*03:02 genotype and pain medication in MS patients, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.02 (95% CI 0.85-1.24). In contrast, there was a statistically significant association of low magnitude in individuals without MS [adjusted OR 1.18 (95% CI 1.03-1.35)], which provides support for HLA influence on susceptibility to pain in the general population. Additionally, the effect of zygosity was evident for the non-MS cohort, but not among MS patients, suggesting the DQB1*03:02 allele effect is modified by the presence of MS.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use the case-only gene-environment (G [Formula: see text] E) interaction study design to estimate interaction between pregnancy before onset of MS symptoms and established genetic risk factors for MS among White adult females. METHODS: We studied 2,497 female MS cases from 4 cohorts in the United States, Sweden, and Norway with clinical, reproductive, and genetic data. Pregnancy exposure was defined in 2 ways: (1) [Formula: see text] live birth pregnancy before onset of MS symptoms and (2) parity before onset of MS symptoms. We estimated interaction between pregnancy exposure and established genetic risk variants, including a weighted genetic risk score and both HLA and non-HLA variants, using logistic regression and proportional odds regression within each cohort. Within-cohort associations were combined using inverse variance meta-analyses with random effects. The case-only G × E independence assumption was tested in 7,067 individuals without MS. RESULTS: Evidence for interaction between pregnancy exposure and established genetic risk variants, including the strongly associated HLA-DRB1*15:01 allele and a weighted genetic risk score, was not observed. Results from sensitivity analyses were consistent with observed results. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that pregnancy before symptom onset does not modify the risk of MS in genetically susceptible White females.

10.
RMD Open ; 6(3)2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for several autoimmune diseases, but its role in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the association between cigarette smoking and subsequent development of pSS. METHODS: Information on smoking habits was collected from lifestyle habit questionnaires of patients with pSS (n=815) and a matched control group (n=4425) for a case-control study. Differences in smoking exposure were analysed by conditional logistic regression. Potential interactions between smoking and risk-associated human leucocyte antigens (HLA) were assessed by multivariate regression. RESULTS: The fraction of patients with pSS having ever smoked prior to diagnosis was lower than in controls (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.81). Current smoking at diagnosis was also less prevalent in cases (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.53). However, period prevalence of smoking during early adulthood was not statistically different from controls (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.22) but markedly decreased over time. This was partly due to patients being more prone to stop smoking, starting already 30 years prior to diagnosis (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.30). Smoking patterns were also stratified by autoantibody status, yielding similar estimates. No interaction effects between HLA-DRB1 haplotypes and smoking were observed. CONCLUSION: The observed smoking patterns indicate that individuals who develop pSS smoke equally much as the general population during early life but are then more prone to stop. The data can be interpreted as smoking conferring protective effects, or reflecting early symptoms of pSS that affect smoking habits, emphasising the slow, progressive development of the disease.

11.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand the association between obesity-related traits and risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we conducted genetic correlation analysis and two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study, using genome-wide genetic data based on >850,000 individuals of European ancestry. METHODS: We collected summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS conducted for body mass index (BMI, N=806,810), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, N=697,734), WHR adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI, N=694,649) and RA (Ncase =14,361, Ncontrol =43,923). We conducted cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regression and ρ-HESS to quantify genetic correlation between pairs of traits (causal overlap). For each obesity-related exposure, we utilized independent, genome-wide significant SNPs (p<5×10-9 ) as instruments to perform MR analysis (causal relationship). We interrogated the causal relationship in both the general population and in a sex-specific manner. We also performed sensitivity analyses to validify MR model assumptions. RESULTS: Despite a negligible overall genetic correlation between the three obesity-related traits and RA, we found significant local genetic correlation from several regions on chromosome 6 (positions 28-29M, 30-35M, 50-52M), highlighting a shared genetic basis. We further observed an increased risk of RA per SD increment (4.8 kg/m2 ) in genetically predicted BMI (OR=1.22; 95%CI: 1.09-1.37). The effect was consistent across sensitivity analyses and comparable between sexes (male: OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.04-1.44; female: OR=1.19, 95%CI: 1.04-1.36). However, we did not find evidence supporting a causal role of either WHR (OR=0.98; 95%CI: 0.84-1.14) or WHRadjBMI (OR=0.90; 95%CI: 0.79-1.04) in RA. CONCLUSIONS: Genetically predicted BMI significantly increases RA risk. Future studies are needed to understand the biological mechanisms underlying such a link.

12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2016084, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902651

RESUMO

Importance: Evidence on alcohol consumption as a risk factor for dementia usually relates to overall consumption. The role of alcohol-induced loss of consciousness is uncertain. Objective: To examine the risk of future dementia associated with overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced loss of consciousness in a population of current drinkers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Seven cohort studies from the UK, France, Sweden, and Finland (IPD-Work consortium) including 131 415 participants were examined. At baseline (1986-2012), participants were aged 18 to 77 years, reported alcohol consumption, and were free of diagnosed dementia. Dementia was examined during a mean follow-up of 14.4 years (range, 12.3-30.1). Data analysis was conducted from November 17, 2019, to May 23, 2020. Exposures: Self-reported overall consumption and loss of consciousness due to alcohol consumption were assessed at baseline. Two thresholds were used to define heavy overall consumption: greater than 14 units (U) (UK definition) and greater than 21 U (US definition) per week. Main Outcomes and Measures: Dementia and alcohol-related disorders to 2016 were ascertained from linked electronic health records. Results: Of the 131 415 participants (mean [SD] age, 43.0 [10.4] years; 80 344 [61.1%] women), 1081 individuals (0.8%) developed dementia. After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.16 (95% CI, 0.98-1.37) for consuming greater than 14 vs 1 to 14 U of alcohol per week and 1.22 (95% CI, 1.01-1.48) for greater than 21 vs 1 to 21 U/wk. Of the 96 591 participants with data on loss of consciousness, 10 004 individuals (10.4%) reported having lost consciousness due to alcohol consumption in the past 12 months. The association between loss of consciousness and dementia was observed in men (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.77-4.63) and women (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.34-3.25) during the first 10 years of follow-up (HR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.78-4.15), after excluding the first 10 years of follow-up (HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.16-2.99), and for early-onset (<65 y: HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.46-3.34) and late-onset (≥65 y: HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.38-3.66) dementia, Alzheimer disease (HR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.28-3.07), and dementia with features of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (HR, 4.18; 95% CI, 1.86-9.37). The association with dementia was not explained by 14 other alcohol-related conditions. With moderate drinkers (1-14 U/wk) who had not lost consciousness as the reference group, the HR for dementia was twice as high in participants who reported having lost consciousness, whether their mean weekly consumption was moderate (HR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.42-3.37) or heavy (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.57-3.54). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that alcohol-induced loss of consciousness, irrespective of overall alcohol consumption, is associated with a subsequent increase in the risk of dementia.

13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The link and interplay between different airway exposures and RA risk are unclear. Our aim was to determine whether respiratory disease is associated with development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and specifically to examine this relationship by RA serostatus and smoking exposure. METHODS: Using data from the Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis study, this analysis included 1,631 incident RA cases and 3,283 matched controls recruited from 2006 to 2016. Linking these individuals to the National Patient Register provided information on past acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory disease diagnoses. For each disease group, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for RA, using logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, residential area, body mass index, and education both overall and stratified by anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA)/rheumatoid factor (RF) and by smoking status. RESULTS: Respiratory disease diagnoses were associated with risk of RA, with aOR for acute upper respiratory disease 1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.7, chronic upper 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9, acute lower 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-3.6, and chronic lower 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.3. These associations were present irrespective of RF or ACPA status, though somewhat stronger for ACPA/RF+ than ACPA/RF- RA. The association between any respiratory disease and RA was stronger for nonsmokers (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9) than smokers (aOR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.5). CONCLUSION: Respiratory diseases increase the risk for both seropositive and seronegative RA, but only among nonsmokers. These findings raise the hypothesis that smoking and airway disease are associated with RA development through partly different mechanisms.

14.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 45: 102410, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential relationship between perceived cognitive impairment (PCI) and sexual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and sexual dysfunction over 2.5 years in people with MS. METHODS: Data were derived from the Health Outcomes and Lifestyle In a Sample of people with Multiple sclerosis (HOLISM) international cohort over 2.5 years' follow-up. Cognitive function and sexual function were assessed by sub-scores of the MS Quality of Life-54. The impact of perceived cognitive impairment on sexual dysfunction was assessed by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) and relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using log-binomial regression models. RESULTS: 1958 participants were included at baseline, of whom 555 without perceived cognitive impairment at baseline comprised the longitudinal cohort. The prevalence of perceived cognitive impairment at baseline was 45.6%. At baseline, cognitive impairment was associated with increased frequency of self-reported sexual dysfunction (aPR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.17-1.48). Among the sample without sexual dysfunction at baseline, incident sexual dysfunction was more common among participants with persistent (aRR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.06-3.18) and newly reported cognitive impairment (aRR=1.89, 95% CI: 1.14-3.14). CONCLUSION: Results suggest PCI may be an independent risk factor for sexual dysfunction in PwMS, which may represent an additional dimension whereby MS may adversely affect quality of life.

15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(11)2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835373

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA) has been linked to a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes by reducing weight and improving insulin sensitivity. We investigated whether PA is associated with a lower incidence of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and whether the association is modified by genotypes of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2)-rs7903146, or the fat mass and obesity-associated gene, FTO-rs9939609. METHODS: We combined data from a Swedish case-control study and a Norwegian prospective study including 621 incident cases of LADA and 3596 cases of type 2 diabetes. We estimated adjusted pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI of diabetes in relation to high (≥ 30 minutes of moderate activity 3 times/week) self-reported leisure time PA, compared to sedentariness. RESULTS: High PA was associated with a reduced risk of LADA (RR 0.61; CI, 0.43-0.86), which was attenuated after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (RR 0.90; CI, 0.63-1.29). The reduced risk applied only to noncarriers of HLA-DQB1 and -DRB1 (RR 0.49; CI, 0.33-0.72), TCF7L2 (RR 0.62; CI, 0.45-0.87), and FTO (RR 0.51; CI, 0.32-0.79) risk genotypes. Adjustment for BMI attenuated but did not eliminate these associations. For type 2 diabetes, there was an inverse association with PA (RR 0.49; CI, 0.42-0.56), irrespective of genotype. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that high PA is associated with a reduced risk of LADA in individuals without genetic susceptibility.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10960, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620875

RESUMO

It is unclear whether smoking interacts with different aspects of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection with regard to multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. We aimed to investigate whether smoking acts synergistically with elevated EBNA-1 antibody levels or infectious mononucleosis (IM) history regarding MS risk. Two Swedish population-based case-control studies were used (6,340 cases and 6,219 matched controls). Subjects with different smoking, EBNA-1 and IM status were compared regarding MS risk, by calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) employing logistic regression. Potential interaction on the additive scale was evaluated by calculating the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP). Current and past smokers had higher EBNA-1 antibody levels than never smokers (p < 0.0001). There was an additive interaction between current smoking and high EBNA-1 antibody levels (AP 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.4), but not between past smoking and high EBNA-1 antibody levels (AP 0.01, 95% CI - 0.1 to 0.1), with regard to MS risk. An interaction also occurred between current smoking and IM history (AP 0.2, 95% CI 0.004-0.4), but not between past smoking and IM history (AP - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.4 to 0.3). Current smoking increases EBNA-1 antibody levels and acts synergistically with both aspects of EBV infection to increase MS risk, indicating that there is at least one pathway to disease in which both risk factors are involved.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668607

RESUMO

This article aims to alert the medical community and public health authorities to accumulating evidence on health benefits from sun exposure, which suggests that insufficient sun exposure is a significant public health problem. Studies in the past decade indicate that insufficient sun exposure may be responsible for 340,000 deaths in the United States and 480,000 deaths in Europe per year, and an increased incidence of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, autism, asthma, type 1 diabetes and myopia. Vitamin D has long been considered the principal mediator of beneficial effects of sun exposure. However, oral vitamin D supplementation has not been convincingly shown to prevent the above conditions; thus, serum 25(OH)D as an indicator of vitamin D status may be a proxy for and not a mediator of beneficial effects of sun exposure. New candidate mechanisms include the release of nitric oxide from the skin and direct effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on peripheral blood cells. Collectively, this evidence indicates it would be wise for people living outside the tropics to ensure they expose their skin sufficiently to the sun. To minimize the harms of excessive sun exposure, great care must be taken to avoid sunburn, and sun exposure during high ambient UVR seasons should be obtained incrementally at not more than 5-30 min a day (depending on skin type and UV index), in season-appropriate clothing and with eyes closed or protected by sunglasses that filter UVR.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Luz Solar , Raios Ultravioleta , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Queimadura Solar , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D
18.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 170, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is classified as seropositive or seronegative, depending on the presence/absence of rheumatoid factor (RF), primarily IgM RF, and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), commonly detected using anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) assays. Known risk factors associate with the more severe seropositive form of RA; less is known about seronegative RA. Here, we examine risk factors and clinical phenotypes in relation to presence of autoantibodies in the RA subset that is traditionally defined as seronegative. METHODS: Anti-CCP2 IgG, 19 ACPA fine-specificities, IgM/IgG/IgA RF, anti-carbamylated-protein (CarP) antibodies, and 17 other autoantibodies, were analysed in 2755 RA patients and 370 controls. Antibody prevalence, levels, and co-occurrence were examined, and associations with risk factors and disease activity during 5 years were investigated for different antibody-defined RA subsets. RESULTS: Autoantibodies were detected in a substantial proportion of the traditionally defined seronegative RA subset, with ACPA fine-specificities found in 30%, IgA/IgG RF in 9.4%, and anti-CarP antibodies in 16%, with a 9.6% co-occurrence of at least two types of RA-associated autoantibodies. HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) associated with the presence of ACPA in anti-CCP2-negative RA; in anti-CCP2-positive RA, the SE association was defined by six ACPA fine-specificities with high co-occurrence. Smoking associated with RF, but not with ACPA, in anti-CCP2-negative RA. Presence of ACPA and RF, but not anti-CarP antibodies, in conventionally defined "seronegative" RA, associated with worse clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: "Seronegative" RA is not truly a seronegative disease subset. Additional screening for ACPA fine-specificities and IgA/IgG RF defines a group of patients that resembles seropositive patients with respect to risk factors and clinical picture and may contribute to earlier diagnosis for a subset of anti-CCP2-/IgM RF- patients with a high need for active treatment.

19.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 154, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571398

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial chronic autoimmune disease, which involves a complex interplay of environmental triggers and genetic components in its etiology. It has been shown that genetics only explain about half of the liability to develop RA, leaving a large room for non-genetic factors. Indeed, several environmental exposures including smoking, drinking, obesity, and dietary patterns (and more) have been identified to be associated with RA risk, yet the observational nature of conventional epidemiological investigation hampers causal inference, as the validity of results could be plagued by measurement error, confounding, and/or reverse causality. Mendelian randomization (MR) is a novel statistical approach that uses genetic variants as instrumental variables (IV) to make causal inferences from observational data. The current genetic discoveries in the many heritable and modifiable human complex traits have provided an exceptional opportunity to evaluate a putative causal relationship between exposure and outcome in the absence of high-quality experimental or intervention studies, through a MR design. In the current review, we detail the contribution of MR studies hitherto conducted for modifiable environmental exposures with the risk of RA to understand the role of these factors in RA pathogenesis. We start with a brief introduction of each study, follow by a summarization of shortcomings and conclude by highlighting future directions. The application of MR design in the field of rheumatology remains limited. Only a few MR studies have examined the causal roles of vitamin D, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, and levels of education in RA, where, no consistent evidence for a causal relationship has been found. Most studies lacked sensitivity analyses to verify MR model assumptions and to guarantee the validity of results. Almost all studies are likely to bias the strength of association towards a null value, since they used IVs from earlier GWAS(s) of exposures with a small sample size (i.e., few genetic markers). As the magnitudes of GWAS expand rapidly, additional trait-associated loci have been discovered. Incorporating these loci would greatly improve the strength of genetic instruments, as well as both the accuracy and precision of MR estimates. To conclude, there is a need for an update and a huge space for improvement of future MR studies in RA.

20.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(10): 1658-1667, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs), specific ACPA subspecificities, rheumatoid factor (RF) isotypes, and incident cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Serum samples from Swedish patients with new-onset RA (diagnosed within 1 year of symptom onset between 1996 and 2009) were centrally typed for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide 2 (anti-CCP2) antibodies, 20 ACPA subspecificities, and RF isotypes. Patients were followed up longitudinally in nationwide registers to monitor the occurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), stroke, CV-related death, and major adverse CV events (MACE). The association between each serologic marker and CV outcome, and the impact of adjustment for the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), smoking status, and income at baseline, were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. In addition, associations of serologic markers with all-cause mortality were explored. RESULTS: In total, 2,814 patients with RA were included in the study. The median follow-up was 13 years, during which the CV end points of ACS, stroke, or CV-related death were reported to occur in 375 patients. Occurrence and/or levels of anti-CCP2 were associated with risk of incident ACS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.03-2.06), stroke (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.03-2.10), CV-related death (P = 0.024 for association with anti-CCP2 levels), and MACE (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.70). Similarly, an association with the number of ACPA subspecificities was observed; however, this could not be attributed to any individual or group of ACPA subspecificities. Presence of IgM-RF was associated with all CV end points except ACS, and IgA-RF was exclusively associated with CV-related death. Adjustment for smoking status, income, and DAS28 scores decreased most of the HRs, whereas IgA-RF remained associated with CV-related death (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.05-2.48). All of the assessed serologic makers were associated with all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: RF isotypes and ACPAs are associated with future CV events in patients with RA. ACPA levels and number of subspecificities seem more important than the occurrence of particular subspecificities, and these associations were not explained by a history of ever smoking.

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