Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 4 de 4
Mais filtros

Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 132, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527148


Introduction: rubella is vaccine-preventable and vaccination is the most cost-effective approach to control the disease and avoid the management of congenital rubella syndrome cases. Ghana introduced the rubella vaccine into the routine immunization program in 2013. Since then there have not been any evaluation of the epidemiology of rubella. We determined the disease trends and the population demographics of rubella cases, in the Ghana national measles case-based surveillance system. Methods: we reviewed the measles case-based surveillance data from 2007 to 2017. Descriptive data statistics was done and expressed as frequencies and proportions. Chi-square test was used to establish associations. Results: a total of 11,483 suspected cases for measles received and tested for measles IgM antibodies and 1,137(12.98%) confirmed positive for the period. Of these 10,077 were negative and 250 indeterminate for measles and tested for rubella and 2,090 (20.23%) confirmed positive for rubella IgM antibodies. More females (21.45%) were affected than males (19.48%). Majority of the confirmed positives were recorded in the urban areas. Children aged 15 years or less were mostly affected. There was a statistical difference between incidence cases and sex (χ2=6.03, p-value = 0.014), or age (χ2=283.56, p-value < 0.001) or area (χ2= 6.17, p-value = 0.013). Most infections occurred during the dry season. Conclusion: children less than 15 years were mostly affected with majority being females. The highest incidence of cases was before the rains and occurred mostly in urban areas. The incidence of cases has declined significantly with the introduction of the rubella vaccine.

Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Incidência , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 731, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340689


BACKGROUND: Children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection require lifelong effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The goal of ART in HIV-infected persons is sustained viral suppression. There is limited information on virological non-suppression or failure and its associated factors in children in resource limited countries, particularly Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 250 children aged 8 months to 15 years who had been on ART for at least 6 months attending the Paediatric HIV clinic at Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Ghana was performed. Socio-demographic, clinical, laboratory and ART Adherence related data were collected using questionnaires as well as medical records review. Blood samples were obtained for viral load and CD4+ count determination. Viral load levels > 1000 copies/ml on ART was considered virological non-suppression. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with virological non-suppression. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) age of the study participants was 11.4 ± 2.4 years and the proportion of males was 53.2%. Of the 250 study participants, 96 (38.4%) had virological non-suppression. After adjustment for significant variables, the factors associated with non-suppressed viral load were female gender (AOR 2.51 [95% CI 1.04-6.07], p = 0.041), having a previous history of treatment of tuberculosis (AOR 4.95 [95% CI 1.58-15.5], p = 0.006), severe CD4 immune suppression status at study recruitment (AOR 24.93 [95% CI 4.92-126.31], p < 0.001) and being on a nevirapine (NVP) based regimen (AOR 7.93 [95% CI 1.58-1.15], p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The prevelance of virological non-suppression was high. Virological non-suppression was associated with a previous history of TB treatment, female gender, severe CD4 immune suppression status at study recruitment and being on a NVP based regimen. Early initiation of ART and phasing out NVP-based regimen might improve viral load suppression in children. In addition, children with a history of TB may need focused measures to maximize virological suppression.

Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Falha de Tratamento , Tuberculose/complicações , Carga Viral
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-13, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782039


OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to describe outcomes of children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) attending community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) treatment centres in Accra Metropolitan Area (AMA) and explore factors associated with non-adherence to clinic visits and defaulting from the treatment programme. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study analysing routinely collected data on children with uncomplicated SAM enrolled into CMAM in 2017 was conducted. SETTING: Study was conducted at seven sites comprising Princess Marie Louise Children's Hospital, three sub-metropolitan health facilities and three community centres, located in five sub-metropolitan areas in AMA. PARTICIPANTS: Children with uncomplicated SAM aged 6-59 months, enrolled from community-level facilities (pure uncomplicated SAM, PUSAM) or transferred after completing inpatient care (post-stabilisation uncomplicated SAM, PSSAM), participated in the study. RESULTS: Out of 174 cases studied (105 PUSAM, sixty-nine PSSAM), 56·3 % defaulted, 34·5 % recovered and 8·6 % were not cured by 16 weeks. No deaths were recorded. Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) increased by 2·2 (95 % CI 1·8, 2·5) mm/week with full compliance and 0·9 (95 % CI 0·6, 1·2) mm/week with more than two missed visits. In breast-feeding children, MUAC increased at a slower rate than in other children by 1·3 (95 % CI 1·0, 1·5) mm/week. Independent predictors of subsequent missed visits were diarrhoea and fever, while children with MUAC < 110 mm on enrolment were at increased risk of defaulting. CONCLUSION: A high default rate and a long time to recovery are challenges for CMAM in AMA. Efforts must be made to improve adherence to treatment to improve outcomes.

BMJ Glob Health ; 4(4): e001658, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354977


Introduction: Despite the decline in infant and under-five mortality rates since the last decade, Ghana did not meet the millennium development goal (MDG) 4 target. To implement effective interventions that could fast-track progress towards achieving the sustainable development goal 3 in 2030, factors contributing to the decline in child mortality throughout the MDG period and which factor(s) has/have been consistent in affecting child survival in the last decade need to be understood. Methods: This study used Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 2003, 2008 and 2014 and data from World Bank Development Indicators (2000-2018). We employed modified Poisson with robust SE and multivariate decomposition approach to assess risk factors of child mortality using DHS data from 2003, 2008 and 2014. Penalised regression was used assess the effect of 25 country-level contextual factors on child survival. Results: The risk of infant mortality is approximately five times higher among mothers who had multiple births compared with mothers who had single birth over the last decade (adjusted relative risk 4.6, 95% CI 3.2 to 6.6, p<0.001). An increase in the annual percentage of female labour force participation (FLFP) is associated with the reduction of approximately 10 and 18 infant and under-five annual deaths per 1000 live births, respectively. Conclusions: This study found that multiple births and shorter birth spacing are associated with increased risk of infant and under-five deaths over the last decade. Increased in FLFP, and the proportion of children sleeping under bed-net are associated with reduced risk of both infants and under-five deaths.