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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247374, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285623


Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.

Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos d'água, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em diversos habitats e em todas as estações do ano. Isso ajudará os cientistas que trabalham em vários campos relacionados com a epidemiologia, entomologia médica e veterinária, ecologia e áreas afins das ciências biológicas.

Methods Mol Biol ; 2257: 211-233, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432281


MicroRNAs are important regulators in many eukaryotic lineages. Typical miRNAs have a length of about 22nt and are processed from precursors that form a characteristic hairpin structure. Once they appear in a genome, miRNAs are among the best-conserved elements in both animal and plant genomes. Functionally, they play an important role in particular in development. In contrast to protein-coding genes, miRNAs frequently emerge de novo. The genomes of animals and plants harbor hundreds of mutually unrelated families of homologous miRNAs that tend to be persistent throughout evolution. The evolution of their genomic miRNA complement closely correlates with important morphological innovation. In addition, miRNAs have been used as valuable characters in phylogenetic studies. An accurate and comprehensive annotation of miRNAs is required as a basis to understand their impact on phenotypic evolution. Since experimental data on miRNA expression are limited to relatively few species and are subject to unavoidable ascertainment biases, it is inevitable to complement miRNA sequencing by homology based annotation methods. This chapter reviews the state of the art workflows for homology based miRNA annotation, with an emphasis on their limitations and open problems.

Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246116, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249222


Abstract The main objective of the current study was to assess the impact of the water taken from the 'Tunisian Refining Industries Company' on meiobenthic nematodes, before and after a series of treatments in decantation basins followed by its discharge in Bizerte bay, Tunisia. The comparison of environmental parameters of the two types of water was clearly indicative of an improvement in the quality of treated waters after a significant reduction in their loads in hydrocarbons. Overall, the water retained a good quality after being treated by 'Tunisian Refining Industries Company' before discharge in the sea. At the end of the experiment, differential responses were observed according to the richness of sediment in organic matter and hydrocarbons. Thus, it was apparent that the nematode assemblage exposed to the treated waters was closer to controls and associated to higher values of abundance, than that under untreated ones. It was also assumed that the species Microlaimus honestus De Man, 1922, Paramonohystera proteus Wieser, 1956 and Cyartonema germanicum Juario, 1972 are sensitive bioindicators of bad environmental statues and of hydrocarbon presence in the environment. On the other hand, Metoncholaimus pristiurus (Zur Strassen, 1894) Filipjev, 1918 would rather be classified as a positive bioindicative species of this type of pollutants.

Resumo O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o impacto da água retirada da "Tunisian Refining Industries Company" sobre os nematoides meiobentônicos, antes e depois de uma série de tratamentos em bacias de decantação seguidos de seu descarte na baía de Bizerte, Tunísia. A comparação dos parâmetros ambientais dos dois tipos de água foi claramente indicativa de uma melhoria na qualidade das águas tratadas após uma redução significativa das suas cargas em hidrocarbonetos. No geral, a água reteve uma boa qualidade após ser tratada pela "Tunisian Refining Industries Company" antes da descarga no mar. Ao final do experimento, foram observadas respostas diferenciais de acordo com a riqueza de sedimentos em matéria orgânica e hidrocarbonetos. Assim, ficou claro que a assembleia de nematoides exposta às águas tratadas estava mais próxima dos controles e associada a maiores valores de abundância do que nas não tratadas. Também foi assumido que as espécies Microlaimus honestus De Man, 1922, Paramonohystera proteus Wieser, 1956 e Cyartonema germanicum Juario, 1972 são bioindicadores sensíveis de más estátuas ambientais e da presença de hidrocarbonetos no meio ambiente. Por outro lado, Metoncholaimus pristiurus (Zur Strassen, 1894) Filipjev, 1918 preferiria ser classificado como uma espécie bioindicativa positiva deste tipo de poluentes.

Braz. j. biol ; 82: e247073, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249224


Abstract In Northern Tunisia, seasonal streams, called wadi, are characterized by extreme hydrological and thermal conditions. These freshwater systems have very particular features as a result of their strong irregularity of flow due to limited precipitation runoff regime, leading to strong seasonal hydrologic fluctuations. The current study focused on the spatio-temporal distribution of chironomids in 28 sampling sites spread across the Northern Tunisia. By emplying PERMANOVA, the results indicated a significant spatio-temporal variation along various environmental gradients. The main abiotic factors responsible for noted differences in the spatial distribution of chironomids in wadi were the conductivity and temperature, closely followed by altitude, pH, salinity, talweg slope and dissolved oxygen, identified as such by employing distance-based linear models' procedure. The Distance-based redundancy analysis ordination showed two main groups: the first clustered the Bizerte sites, which were characterized by high water conductivity, sodium concentration and salinity. The second main group comprised sites from the Tell zone and was characterized by low temperatures, neutral pH, low conductivity and nutrients content. The subfamily TANYPODIINAE (e.g., Prochladius sp., Prochladius choerus (Meigen, 1804) and Macropelopia sp.) was the dominant group at Tell zone, whereas species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970) and Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838) were found only in Tell Wadis. In contrast, chironomid species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970), Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838), Procladius choreus (Meigen, 1804) were specific for Tell Mountain. Cap Bon wadis region was dominated by genus Cladotanytarsus sp. The results of this survey liked the taxonomic composition of chironomid assemblages to the variation of hydromorphological and physic-chemical gradients across the northern Tunisia wadis.

Resumo No norte da Tunísia, riachos sazonais chamados wadi são caracterizados por condições hidrológicas e térmicas extremas. Esses sistemas de água doce têm características muito particulares como resultado de sua forte irregularidade de fluxo devido ao regime de escoamento de precipitação limitado, levando a fortes flutuações hidrológicas sazonais. O estudo atual enfocou a distribuição espaço-temporal dos quironomídeos em 28 locais de amostragem espalhados pelo norte da Tunísia. Ao aplicar PERMANOVA, os resultados indicaram uma variação espaço-temporal significativa ao longo de vários gradientes ambientais. Os principais fatores abióticos responsáveis ​​pelas diferenças observadas na distribuição espacial dos quironomídeos no wadi foram a condutividade e a temperatura, seguidos de perto por altitude, pH, salinidade, declive do talvegue e oxigênio dissolvido, identificados como tais empregando o procedimento de modelos lineares baseados na distância. A ordenação da análise de redundância baseada em distância mostrou dois grupos principais: o primeiro agrupou os sítios Bizerte, que foram caracterizados por alta condutividade da água, concentração de sódio e salinidade. O segundo grupo principal compreendia locais da zona de Tell e era caracterizado por baixas temperaturas, pH neutro, baixa condutividade e conteúdo de nutrientes. A subfamília Tanypodiinae (por exemplo, Prochladius sp., Prochladius choerus [Meigen, 1804] e Macropelopia sp.) era o grupo dominante na zona de Tell, enquanto espécies como Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970) e Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838) foram encontradas apenas em Tell Wadis. Em contraste, espécies de quironomídeos, como Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970), Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838), Procladius choreus (Meigen, 1804), eram específicas para Tell Mountain. A região de Cap Bon wadis foi dominada pelo gênero Cladotanytarsus sp. Os resultados desta pesquisa gostaram da composição taxonômica das assembleias de quironomídeos com a variação dos gradientes hidromorfológicos e físico-químicos nos wadis do norte da Tunísia.

Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246316, 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249248


Abstract Several endemic species of Blaps occur in Tunisia, and the species Blaps nefrauensis nefrauensis has been reported in Moulares (urban zone in west-central Tunisia), where it lives and reproduces in home gardens and old buildings. The aim of this work is to study the life cycle of the darkling beetle, considering both field and laboratory rearing conditions. As a result, the beetle species has different developmental stages (egg, larva, prepupa, pupa, and adult) that last about 15 months. Each year during the same period, adults emerge (early summer) and expire (late autumn), larvae hatch (late summer) and pupate (early summer). There is only one generation per year. Females began laying eggs in late July. The eggs were ovoid, white, and about 2.7 mm in length and 1.5 mm in width. Embryogenesis took an average of nine days. The first instar larvae were at initially only 4.5 mm long and ivory white in color. A brief description of the newly egg hatched larva was provided; thus, the nerve fibers innervating the apical setae in the antennae and ligula were detected. Further light microscopic examination of the embryo before hatching from the egg pointed out that the antennal sensilla are protected during the embryogenesis stage.

Resumo Várias espécies endêmicas de Blaps ocorrem na Tunísia, e a espécie Blaps nefrauensis nefrauensis foi relatada em Moulares (zona urbana no centro-oeste da Tunísia), onde vive e se reproduz em jardins domésticos e prédios antigos. O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar o ciclo de vida do besouro escuro, considerando as condições de criação em campo e em laboratório. Como resultado, a espécie de besouro tem diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento (ovo, larva, prepupa, pupa e adulto) que duram cerca de 15 meses. Todos os anos, durante o mesmo período, os adultos emergem (início do verão) e expiram (final do outono), as larvas eclodem (final do verão) e se tornam pupas (início do verão). Existe apenas uma geração por ano. As fêmeas começaram a botar ovos no final de julho. Os ovos eram ovóides, brancos, com cerca de 2,7 mm de comprimento e 1,5 mm de largura. A embriogênese demorou em média nove dias. As larvas de primeiro instar tinham inicialmente apenas 4,5 mm de comprimento e uma cor branca marfim. Foi fornecida uma breve descrição da larva recém-eclodida; assim, as fibras nervosas que inervam as cerdas apicais nas antenas e ligulas foram detectadas. Um exame microscópico de luz posterior do embrião antes da eclosão do ovo mostrou que as sensilas antenais são protegidas durante o estágio de embriogênese.

Braz. j. biol ; 82: e247035, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249265


Abstract The cockle Cerastoderma edule was exposed to four concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 70 μg L-1) of carbamazepine (CBZ). This anticonvulsant was found to alter the mussel behavior of by reducing its clearance rate (CR). Analysis of CBZ accumulation in tissues of C. edule was carried out using HPLC-UV after 48 or 96 hours of exposure. In addition, an overproduction of H2O2 by the bivalves was detected following exposure to CBZ but nitrite levels remained unchanged. Moreover, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities showed a significant increase in relation to their contact with CBZ. The activity of the biotransformation enzyme gluthatione-S-transferase did not change during exposure. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicating cellular damage, increased when bivalves were exposed to 20 and 70 μg l-1 of carbamazepine for 96 h CBZ. The results also indicate that acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) was inhibited in all CBZ concentrations during the 48 h exposure period. However, during the 96 h exposure period, AChE was only inhibited at the highest concentration. Further studies are needed now for more exploration of the toxicity of CBZ since it could be bioaccumulable throughout the food web and may affect non-target organisms.

Resumo O berbigão Cerastoderma edule foi exposto a quatro concentrações (5, 10, 20 e 70 μg L-1) de carbamazepina (CBZ). Este anticonvulsivante alterou o comportamento do mexilhão, reduzindo sua taxa de depuração (CR). A análise do acúmulo de CBZ nos tecidos de C. edule foi realizada por HPLC-UV após 48 ou 96 horas de exposição. Além disso, uma superprodução de H2O2 pelos bivalves foi detectada após a exposição à CBZ, mas os níveis de nitrito permaneceram inalterados. Além disso, as atividades de superóxido dismutase e catalase apresentaram aumento significativo em relação ao contato com CBZ. A atividade da enzima de biotransformação glutationa-S-transferase não se alterou durante a exposição. Os níveis de malondialdeído (MDA), indicando dano celular, aumentaram quando os bivalves foram expostos a 20 e 70 μg l-1 de carbamazepina por 96 h CBZ. Os resultados também indicam que a atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) foi inibida em todas as concentrações de CBZ durante o período de exposição de 48 horas. No entanto, durante o período de exposição de 96 horas, a AChE foi inibida apenas na concentração mais alta. Mais estudos são necessários agora para uma maior exploração da toxicidade da CBZ, uma vez que pode ser bioacumulável em toda a cadeia alimentar e pode afetar organismos não alvo.

Braz. j. biol ; 82: e247102, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278491


Abstract The current investigation was carried out to estimate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Cheatomorpha gracilis (AEC) against High fat Diet (HFD) induced liver damage in mice. The results of the in vitro study showed that AEC have higher antioxidant capacities in the DPPH and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. Indeed, many phenolic compounds (gallic acid, quercetin, naringenin, apigenin, kaempferol and rutin) were identified in the AEC. In the animal studies, during 6 weeks, HFD promoted oxidative stress with a rise level of malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PCOs) levels and a significant decrease of the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Interestingly, the treatment with AEC (250 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced the effects of HFD disorders on some plasmatic liver biomarkers (AST, ALT and ALP) in addition to, plasmatic proteins inflammatory biomarkers (α2 and β1 decreases / β2 and γ globulins increases). It can be suggest that supplementation of MECG displays high potential to quench free radicals and attenuates high fat diet promoted liver oxidative stress and related disturbances.

Resumo A presente investigação foi realizada para estimar o efeito protetor do extrato aquoso de Cheatomorpha gracilis (AEC) contra o dano hepático induzido por dieta rica em gordura (HFD) em camundongos. Os resultados do estudo in vitro mostraram que os AEC têm maiores capacidades antioxidantes nos ensaios DPPH e de eliminação de radicais hidroxila. De fato, muitos compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, quercetina, naringenina, apigenina, kaempferol e rutina) foram identificados no AEC. Nos estudos em animais, durante 6 semanas, HFD promoveu estresse oxidativo com aumento do nível de malonaldeído (MDA), níveis de proteína carbonil (PCOs) e diminuição significativa das atividades de enzimas antioxidantes como superóxido dismutase, catalase e glutationa peroxidase. Curiosamente, o tratamento com AEC (250 mg / kg de peso corporal) reduziu significativamente os efeitos dos distúrbios de HFD em alguns biomarcadores hepáticos plasmáticos (AST, ALT e ALP), além de biomarcadores inflamatórios de proteínas plasmáticas (reduções α2 e β1 / β2 e γ aumenta as globulinas). Pode-se sugerir que a suplementação de MECG apresenta alto potencial para extinguir os radicais livres e atenua o estresse oxidativo do fígado promovido pela dieta rica em gordura e distúrbios relacionados.

J Ethnopharmacol ; : 114588, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480997


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Liver disease is a major cause of illness and death worldwide which accounts for approximately 2 million deaths per year worldwide, 1 million due to complications of cirrhosis and 1 million due to viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. That's why it is seeking the researchers' attention to find out the effective treatment strategies. Phytochemicals from natural resources are the main leads for the development of noble hepatoprotective drugs. The majority of the natural sources whose active compounds are currently employed actually have an ethnomedical use. Ethnopharmacological research is essential for the development of these bioactive compounds. These studies not only provide scientific evidence on medicinal plants utilized for particular therapeutic purposes, but they also ensure cultural heritage preservation. Plenty of experimental studies have been well-documented that the ethnomedicinal plants are of therapeutics' interest for the advanced pharmacological intervention in terms of hepatic disorders. AIM OF THE STUD: This study summarizes the processes of hepatotoxicity induced by various toxins and explores identified hepatoprotective plants and their phytoconstituents, which can guide the extraction of novel phytochemical constituents from plants to treat liver injury. This review aimed to summarize the hepatoprotective activity of Bangladeshi medicinal plants where the bioactive compounds may be leads for the drug discovery in future. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature searches in electronic databases, such as Web of Science, Science Direct, SpringerLink, PubMed, Google Scholar, Semantic Scholar, Scopus, BanglaJOL, and so on, were performed using the keywords 'Bangladesh', 'ethnomedicinal plants', 'Hepatoprotective agents' as for primary searches, and secondary search terms were used as follows, either alone or in combination: traditional medicine, medicinal plants, folk medicine, liver, hepatitis, therapeutic uses, and anti-inflammatory. Besides, several books, including the book entitled "Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses" authored by Abdul Ghani was carefully considered, which contained pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of 449 medicinal plants growing and traditionally available in Bangladesh. Among them, the most promising plant species with their latest therapeutic effects against hepatic disorders were deeply considered in this review. RESULTS: The results of this study revealed that in most cases, therapy using plant extracts stabilized altered hepatic biochemical markers induced by hepatotoxins. Initially, we investigated 32 plant species for hepatoprotective activity, however after extensive literature searching; we observed that 20 plants offer good pharmacological evidence of hepatoprotective function. Consequently, most bioactive compounds derived from the herbs including berberine, thymoquinone, andrographolide, ursolic acid, luteolin, naringenin, genistein, quercetin, troxerutin, morin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, chlorogenic acid, emodin, curcumin, resveratrol, capsaicin, ellagic acid, etc. are appeared to be effective against hepatic disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoids, phenolic acids, monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, chromenes, capsaicinoids, curcuminoids, and anthraquinones are among the phytoconstituents were appraised to have hepatoprotective activities. All the actions displayed by these ethnomedicinal plants could make them serve as leads in the formulation of drugs with higher efficacy to treat hepatic disorders.

Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(8): 895-904, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486357


<b>Background and Objective:</b> <i>Moringa peregrina</i> (family Moringaceae) is a common flowering plant found in the Arabian Peninsula, Horn of Africa and Southern Sinai, Egypt. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective activity of MP-SeNPs against BaP-induced mammal tissue injury in rats. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> MP-SeNPs were prepared and characterized in terms of particle size and zeta potential. Furthermore, the IC<sub>50</sub> of MP-SeNPs against the Mcf7 breast carcinoma cell line and LD<sub>50</sub> was evaluated. Adult albino rats weighing approximately 187±10 g was used to assess the lung protective activity of MP-SeNPs (28.7 and 71.75 mg kg<sup>1</sup> b.wt.) against BaP-induced mammal tissue injury in rats. <b>Results:</b> The mean particle size of MP-SeNPs was 134.69±8.24 nm with negative zeta potential of +26.04 with the observed shapes of nano particle was spherical. Also, IC<sub>50</sub> of MP-SeNPs against Mcf7 breast carcinoma cell line = 89.57 µg mL<sup>1</sup> and LD<sub>50</sub> equals and 1435 mg kg<sup>1</sup> b.wt., respectively. The daily oral administration of MP-SeNPs at concentrations of 28.7 and 71.75 mg kg<sup>1</sup> b.wt. for 30 days to rats treated with BaP (20 mg kg<sup>1</sup> b.wt.) resulted in a significant improvement of IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10. Oral administration of MP-SeNPs, on the other hand, increased the levels of SOD, GPx, TNF-α, iNOs and GSH as well as decreased the level of MDA in mammal tissue of BaP-treated rats. Furthermore, MP-SeNPs almost normalized these effects in mammal tissue histoarchitecture and MRI examination. <b>Conclusion:</b> The biochemical, histological and MRI findings incurrent study demonstrated that MP-SeNPs have protective activity against BaP-induced mammal tissue injury in rats.

BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489239


BACKGROUND: Dietary nitrate supplementation, usually in the form of beetroot juice, may improve exercise performance and endothelial function. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to establish whether this approach has beneficial effects in people with respiratory disease. METHODS: A systematic search of records up to March 2021 was performed on PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE (Ovid), Cochrane and Embase to retrieve clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of dietary nitrate supplementation on cardiovascular parameters and exercise capacity in chronic respiratory conditions. Two authors independently screened titles, abstracts and full texts of potential studies and performed the data extraction. RESULTS: After full-text review of 67 papers, eleven (two randomised controlled trials and nine crossover trials) involving 282 participants met the inclusion criteria. Three were single dose; seven short term; and one, the largest (n=122), done in the context of pulmonary rehabilitation. Pooled analysis showed that dietary nitrate supplementation reduced systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP and mean arterial pressure (mean difference (95% CI), -3.39 mm Hg (-6.79 to 0.01); p=0.05 and -2.20 mm Hg (-4.36 to -0.03); p=0.05 and -4.40 mm Hg (-7.49 to -1.30); p=0.005, respectively). It was associated with increased walk distance in the context of pulmonary rehabilitation (standardised mean difference (95% CI), 0.47 (0.11 to 0.83), p=0.01), but no effect was identified in short-term studies (0.08 (-0.32 to 0.49). CONCLUSION: Dietary nitrate supplementation may have a beneficial effect on BP and augment the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on exercise capacity. Short-term studies do not suggest a consistent benefit on exercise capacity. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019130123.

Braz J Biol ; 83: e248022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468531


Previous studies have suggested that arsenic crosses the placenta and affects the fetus development. The study under consideration aims to show comparative ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced fetus toxicity of mice. Pregnant mice (N=44) were kept in lab and divided into eleven group from (A to K) and were orally administered the doses 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg for sodium arsenate, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (MOLE) and 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera flower extracts (MOFE) comparing with control. The investigation revealed evident reduction in the fetuses weight, hind limb, fore limb, tail and snout length, crown rump and head circumferences well as malformations in tail, feet, arms, legs, skin and eyes in the negative control group (only administered with sodium arsenate). Co-administration of sodium arsenate with MOLE and MOFE ameliorate the reversed effect of sodium arsenate on the shape, length, body weight and DNA damage of fetus significantly at 95% confidence interval. However, Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed more significant results in comparison to Moringa oleifera flower extract. Hence concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorated the embryo toxic effects of sodium arsenate and can be used against environmental teratogens.

Moringa oleifera , Animais , Arseniatos , Dano ao DNA , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 403, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488630


BACKGROUND: Winter freezing temperature impacts alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) persistence and seasonal yield and can lead to the death of the plant. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of alfalfa freezing tolerance (FT) using high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping is crucial to select suitable germplasm and develop winter-hardy cultivars. Several clones of an alfalfa F1 mapping population (3010 x CW 1010) were tested for FT using a cold chamber. The population was genotyped with SNP markers identified using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with FT were mapped on the parent-specific linkage maps. The ultimate goal is to develop non-dormant and winter-hardy alfalfa cultivars that can produce extended growth in the areas where winters are often mild. RESULTS: Alfalfa FT screening method optimized in this experiment comprises three major steps: clone preparation, acclimation, and freezing test. Twenty clones of each genotype were tested, where 10 samples were treated with freezing temperature, and 10 were used as controls. A moderate positive correlation (r ~ 0.36, P < 0.01) was observed between indoor FT and field-based winter hardiness (WH), suggesting that the indoor FT test is a useful indirect selection method for winter hardiness of alfalfa germplasm. We detected a total of 20 QTL associated with four traits; nine for visual rating-based FT, five for percentage survival (PS), four for treated to control regrowth ratio (RR), and two for treated to control biomass ratio (BR). Some QTL positions overlapped with WH QTL reported previously, suggesting a genetic relationship between FT and WH. Some favorable QTL from the winter-hardy parent (3010) were from the potential genic region for a cold tolerance gene CBF. The BLAST alignment of a CBF sequence of M. truncatula, a close relative of alfalfa, against the alfalfa reference showed that the gene's ortholog resides around 75 Mb on chromosome 6. CONCLUSIONS: The indoor freezing tolerance selection method reported is useful for alfalfa breeders to accelerate breeding cycles through indirect selection. The QTL and associated markers add to the genomic resources for the research community and can be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for alfalfa cold tolerance improvement.

Mapeamento Cromossômico , Congelamento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Medicago sativa/genética , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 264, 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538270


BACKGROUND: The study purpose is to examine survival prognostic and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) application outcomes at our tertiary care center. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis, January 2014 to September 2019. We analyzed 60 patients who underwent cardiac surgery and required peri-operative ECMO. All inpatients with demographic and intervention data was examined. 52 patients (86.6%) had refractory cardiogenic shock, 7 patients (11.6%) had pulmonary insufficiency, and 1 patient (1.6%) had hemorrhagic shock, all patients required either venous-arterial (VA) (n = 53, 88.3%), venous-venous (VV) (n = 5, 8.3%) or venous-arterial-venous (VAV) (n = 2, 3.3%) ECMO for hemodynamic support. ECMO parameters were analyzed and common postoperative complications were examined in the setting of survival with comorbidities. RESULTS: In-hospital mortality was 60.7% (n = 37). Patients who survived were younger (52 ± 3.3 vs 66 ± 1.5, p < 0.001) with longer hospital stays (35 ± 4.0 vs 20 ± 1.5, p < 0.03). Survivors required fewer blood products (13 ± 2.3 vs 25 ± 2.3, p = 0.02) with a net negative fluid balance (- 3.5 ± 1.6 vs 3.4 ± 1.6, p = 0.01). Cardiac re-operations worsened survival. CONCLUSION: ECMO is a viable rescue strategy for cardiac surgery patients with a 40% survival to discharge rate. Careful attention to volume management and blood transfusion are important markers for potential survival.

JSLS ; 25(3)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552319


Background: The gastric bypass is a commonly performed bariatric procedure. The stomach is divided into a small pouch as well as leaving a larger remnant that is bypassed by the gastrojejunal anastomosis. This makes access to the biliary system difficult as an endoscope cannot transverse the esophagus, roux limb, and biliopancreatic limb. Therefore, a transgastric approach (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography [t-ERCP]) through the abdominal wall and remnant stomach is necessary. This involves the surgical team providing access to the remnant stomach for the gastroenterologist to perform the t-ERCP. We have performed a number of these for biliary pathology that ranges from cancer to retained gallstones. We evaluated these patients with at least a 3-year follow-up to determine long term outcomes. Methods: We conducted a chart review of patients who underwent a t-ERCP with at least a 3-year follow-up. We collected de-identified data including demographics, operative details, complications, and postoperative courses. Results: There were 12 patients who underwent t-ERCP. Eleven patients had at least a 3-year follow-up with a mean follow-up of 68.1 months (excluding one death from pancreatic cancer). The most common pathology was benign biliary stricture (n = 6), followed by retained gallstones (n = 4), with one pancreatic cancer, and one normal examination. Two patients still had epigastric pain at long term follow-up after 3 years. Conclusion: T-ERCP is safe and efficacious with good long-term results.

Andrology ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435470


BACKGROUND: Testicular torsion, which causes ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, is a serious urological emergency that can lead to testicular dysfunction, including infertility, primarily among newborn and pubertal males; thus, effective drugs should be administered during or after ischemia. OBJECTIVES: Using a rat model of testicular IR injury, the present study investigated the protective effects of relaxin (RLN) against oxidative stress, testicular dysfunction, inflammation, histological damage, arrested spermatogenesis, and germ cell apoptosis as well as explored the usefulness of RLN as a potential protective drug for IR injury combined with surgical treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left testicular ischemia for 2 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. They were subsequently divided into three groups: sham, IR, and IR + RLN groups. Porcine RLN (500 ng/h) or saline was infused using an implanted osmotic mini-pump 90 min after inducing ischemia. The RLN dose used herein was that which resulted in serum RLN levels comparable to those in mid-pregnant rats based on previous studies. RESULTS: Testicular IR increased germ cell apoptosis and histological damage as well as promoted disorganized and arrested spermatogenesis, accompanied by a significant increase in oxidative stress and inflammation. However, RLN administration ameliorated the adverse consequences associated with IR injury by attenuating oxidative stress and mitigating apoptosis and inflammation. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The study findings clearly demonstrated that RLN exerts a protective effect against IR-induced testicular injury by attenuating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation, suggesting that RLN together with surgical treatment is a potentially efficacious approach toward ameliorating testicular dysfunction following testicular torsion.

Braz J Biol ; 83: e247374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431916


The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.

Culicidae , Animais , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Estações do Ano
Vet Res Commun ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435308


OBJECTIVES: In the current study, we are investigating the viral causes of some respiratory clinical signs in some animals belongs to the family Equidae in eastern Saudi Arabia (ESA) during winter- 2019. We observed the progression of severe respiratory clinical signs among some horses, donkeys, and ponies in the ESA. Animals showed rapid respiration, fever, nasal discharges (started as serous then changed into mucopurulent with the progression of the infection per some animals). We conducted a longitudinal study to monitor the progression of this outbreak. We conducted molecular surveillance for the influenza virus Type-A using real-time PCR and regular RT-PCR. We also conducted a serosurveillance of the virus in sera of the tested animals using the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The molecular detection of the Influenza virus type-A virus from nasal swabs of the affected animals using the real-time PCR results clearly showing that 35.1% of the tested horses, donkeys, and ponies were positives. Further confirmation was achieved by reporting the seroconversion of some of the affected animals. Several attempts were conducted to isolate the circulating influenza strains using the embryonated chicken eggs were unsuccessful. This was based on the absence of any amplicons in the harvested embryonated egg fluids using some oligonucleotides for the common influenza virus genes (HA, NA, M, and N). Meanwhile, ELISA results revealed the detection of the antibodies in sera of horses and donkeys 72.9%. Seroconversion was reported in many animals several weeks after the onset of the outbreak. Taken together all these pieces of evidence, we confirm an influenza virus type-A outbreak among the tested animals during winter 2019.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463438


During our exploring the anticancer activity of some medicinal plants and their major metabolites, the aerial parts of the Egyptian Matricaria chamomilla (flowers and stems) were studied. GC-MS analysis of the organic soluble extracts of the flowers and stems fractions revealed the presence of 43 and 45 compounds, respectively. Individual chromatographic purification of the flowers and stems' extracts afforded three major compounds. Structures of these compounds were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR and HRESI-MS spectroscopic data as bisabolol oxide A (1) and (E)-tonghaosu (2) (as mixture of ratio 2:1) from the flowers extract, meanwhile apigenin-7-ß-d-glucoside (3) from the stems fraction. Biologically, the chamomile extracts announced significant antiproliferative activities exceeded in potency by ∼1.5 fold in case of the stem, recording GI50 13.16 and 17.04 µg/mL against Caco-2 and MCF-7, respectively. Both fractions were approximately equipotent against the migration of the same cell type down to 10 µg/mL together, compounds 1, 2 but not 3, showed considerable growth inhibition of the same cells at GI50 13.36 and 11.83 µg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, they were able to suppress Caco-2 colon cancer cells migration at 5.8 µg/mL and potently inactivate the VEGFR2 angiogenic enzyme (1.5-fold relative to sorafenib. The obtained compounds and corresponding chamomile extracts were evaluated against Adeno-7 virus, revealing that both chamomiles' extracts (flowers and stems) and their corresponding obtained compounds (1-3) were potent in their depletion to the Adeno 7 infectivity titer, however, the flower extract and compounds 1-2 were more effective than those of the stem extract and its end-product (3).

Int Orthop ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414486


PURPOSE: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of Malerba osteotomy in comparison to the standardized combined Evans/Medial Displacement Calcaneal Osteotomy (MDCO) in the management of symptomatic flexible pes planus in young adults. METHODS: Prospective randomized control trial included 34 feet (33 patients), 17 cases in each group. Functionally, patients were assessed by AOFAS and FADI scores. Radiographic evaluation included calcaneal pitch, lateral talo-1st metatarsal, AP talo-first metatarsal, AP talo-calcaneal angles, and the talar coverage percentage. RESULTS: Pre-operative and three years follow-up scores and angles were compared between both groups. No statistically significant difference could be detected between both groups (P value 0.87). However, the data showed statistically significant difference in each group when comparing (pre-operative and third year follow-up scores and angles) (P value < 0.001). The mean union rate was eight weeks in Malerba group and nine weeks in Evans/MDCO group. No incidence of nonunion. Complications like calcaneocuboid subluxation, calcaneal anterior process fracture, and lateral column pain were exclusively reported in Evans/MDCO group. CONCLUSION: Malerba osteotomy is a strong valid option for the operative management of flexible pes planus in young adults. Authors recommend Malerba osteotomy in all mild and moderate deformities due to lower complication rate while the combined Evans/MDCO is preferred in severe deformity due to relatively higher corrective power with consideration of possible complications.