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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 134: 111157, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370631

RESUMO

Autoimmune diseases (AUDs) are a multifactorial disease, among which rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis are more prevalent. Several anti-inflammatory, biologics, and AUD-modifying drugs are found effective against them, but their repeated use are associated with various adverse effects. In this review article, we have focused on the regulation of inflammatory molecules, molecular signaling pathways, immune cells, and epigenetics by natural product thymoquinone on AUDs. Studies indicate that thymoquinone can regulate inflammatory molecules including interferons, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), oxidative stress, regulatory T cells, and various signaling pathways such as nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κß), janus kinase/signal transduction and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) at the molecular level and epigenetic alteration. As these molecules and signaling pathways with defective immune function play an important role in AUD development, controlling these molecules and deregulated molecular mechanism is a significant feature of AUD therapeutics. Interestingly thymoquinone is reported to possess all these potential. This article reviewed the deregulated mechanism of AUDs, and the action of thymoquinone on inflammatory molecules, immune cells, signaling pathways, and epigenetic machinery. Thymoquinone can be regarded as a potential drug candidate for AUD treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Doenças Autoimunes/fisiopatologia , Benzoquinonas/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/fisiopatologia , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899427

RESUMO

Ionizing radiation is a common and effective therapeutic option for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). Unfortunately, some GBMs are relatively radioresistant and patients have worse outcomes after radiation treatment. The mechanisms underlying intrinsic radioresistance in GBM has been rigorously investigated over the past several years, but the complex interaction of the cellular molecules and signaling pathways involved in radioresistance remains incompletely defined. A clinically effective radiosensitizer that overcomes radioresistance has yet to be identified. In this review, we discuss the current status of radiation treatment in GBM, including advances in imaging techniques that have facilitated more accurate diagnosis, and the identified mechanisms of GBM radioresistance. In addition, we provide a summary of the candidate GBM radiosensitizers being investigated, including an update of subjects enrolled in clinical trials. Overall, this review highlights the importance of understanding the mechanisms of GBM radioresistance to facilitate the development of effective radiosensitizers.

3.
J Toxicol ; 2019: 2529569, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281355

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant potentials, subacute toxicity, and beneficiary effects of methanolic extract of pomelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) in rats. Long Evans rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. The rats were orally treated with three doses of pomelo (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) once daily for 21 days. Pomelo extract contained high concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid while exhibiting high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. There was no significant change in the body weight, percentage water content, and relative organ weight at any administered doses. In addition, no significant alterations in the hematological parameters were also observed. However, rats which received 1000 mg/kg dose had a significant reduction in some serum parameters, including alanine transaminase (15.29%), alkaline phosphatase (2.5%), lactate dehydrogenase (15.5%), γ-glutamyltransferase (20%), creatinine (14.47%), urea (18.50%), uric acid (27.14%), total cholesterol (5.78%), triglyceride (21.44%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (40.74%), glucose (2.48%), and all atherogenic indices including cardiac risk ratio (24.30%), Castelli's risk index-2 (45.71%), atherogenic coefficient (42%), and atherogenic index of plasma (25%) compared to control. In addition, the highest dose (1000 mg/kg) caused a significant increase in iron (12.07%) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (8.87%) levels. Histopathological findings of the vital organs did not indicate any pathological changes indicating that pomelo is nontoxic, safe, and serves as an important source of natural antioxidants. In addition, the fruit extract has the potential to ameliorate hepato- and nephrotoxicities and cardiovascular diseases as well as iron deficiency anemia.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861774

RESUMO

The current study aimed to investigate the ameliorative effects of two types of mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum (GL) and Auricularia polytricha (AP), against carbofuran- (CF) induced toxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 42) were divided into six equal groups. The rats in the negative control group received oral administration of CF at 1 mg/kg with the normal diet for 28 days. The treatment groups received oral administration of ethanolic extract of GL or AP at 100 mg/kg followed by coadministration of CF at 1 mg/kg with the normal diet for the same experimental period, respectively. In the CF alone treated group, there were significant decreases in the erythrocytic and thrombocytic indices but increases in the concentrations of the total leukocytes, including the agranulocytes. A significant increase in all of the liver function biomarkers except albumin, in lipid profiles except high-density lipoprotein, and in the kidney function markers occurred in the negative control group compared to the rats of the normal control and positive control groups. The coadministration of mushroom extracts significantly ameliorated the toxic effects of the CF. The GL mushroom extract was more efficacious than that of the AP mushroom, possibly due to the presence of high levels of phenolic compounds and other antioxidants in the GL mushroom.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29234381

RESUMO

The antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic, and antioxidant potentials of the methanolic extract of Garcinia pedunculata (GP) fruit in rats were investigated. The acute antihyperglycemic effect of different doses of GP was studied in normal male Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection in another cohort of male Wistar rats and they showed significantly higher blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, altered lipid profiles, and lower insulin levels compared to nondiabetic control animals. There were increased lipid peroxidation and reduced levels of cellular antioxidant enzymes in different tissues of diabetic rats. However, oral administration of GP extracts, especially the highest dose (1000 mg/kg), significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia (42%); elevated insulin levels (165%); decreased HbA1c (29.4%); restored lipid levels (reduction in TG by 25%, TC by 15%, and LDL-C by 75% and increase in HDL-C by 4%), liver and renal function markers, and lipid peroxidation (reduction by 52% in the liver, 39% in the kidney, 44% in the heart, and 46% in the pancreas); and stimulated tissue antioxidant enzymes to near normalcy. Overall, the findings suggest that GP fruit is effective against hyperglycemia and could be used in the treatment of diabetes and its complications and other oxidative stress-mediated pathological conditions.

6.
Pharmacol Rep ; 69(6): 1194-1205, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29128800

RESUMO

Honey contains many active constituents and antioxidants such as polyphenols. Polyphenols are phytochemicals, a generic term for the several thousand plant-based molecules with antioxidant properties. Many in vitro studies in human cell cultures as well as many animal studies confirm the protective effect of polyphenols on a number of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, pulmonary diseases, liver diseases and so on. Nevertheless, it is challenging to identify the specific biological mechanism underlying individual polyphenols and to determine how polyphenols impact human health. To date, several studies have attempted to elucidate the molecular pathway for specific polyphenols acting against particular diseases. In this review, we report on the various polyphenols present in different types of honey according to their classification, source, and specific functions and discuss several of the honey polyphenols with the most therapeutic potential to exert an effect on the various pathologies of some major diseases including CVD, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Mel , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação
7.
Pharm Biol ; 55(1): 1937-1945, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28675957

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. [Zingiberaceae]) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including pesticide-induced toxicity. OBJECTIVE: The study reports the antioxidant properties and the protective effects of turmeric against carbofuran (CF)-induced toxicity in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antioxidant potential was determined by using free radicals scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, designated as control, turmeric (100 mg/kg/day), CF (1 mg/kg/day) and turmeric (100 mg/kg/day) + CF (1 mg/kg/day) treatments. All of the doses were administered orally for 28 consecutive days. The biological activity of the turmeric and CF was determined by using several standard biochemical methods. RESULTS: Turmeric contains high concentrations of polyphenols (8.97 ± 0.15 g GAEs), flavonoids (5.46 ± 0.29 g CEs), ascorbic acid (0.06 ± 0.00 mg AEs) and FRAP value (1972.66 ± 104.78 µM Fe2+) per 100 g of sample. Oral administration of CF caused significant changes in some of the blood indices, such as, mean corpuscular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet distribution width and induced severe hepatic injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by the significantly higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels when compared to control, while the activities of cellular antioxidant enzymes (including superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) were significantly suppressed in the liver tissue. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Turmeric supplementation could protect against CF-induced hematological perturbations and hepatic injuries in rats, plausibly by the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of LPO to confer the protective effect.


Assuntos
Células Sanguíneas/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Curcuma , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Células Sanguíneas/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28243309

RESUMO

This study was undertaken to investigate the toxicological profile of a methanolic extract of Garcinia pedunculata fruit in rats by conducting hematological, biochemical, and histopathological examinations. Long Evans rats were divided into four groups, each with 6 animals, and were treated with three oral doses (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) once daily for 21 days. The extract did not cause significant changes in body and relative organ weight, percent water content, or hematological parameters at any administered doses. However, a significant dose-dependent positive effect in serum lipid profile and all atherogenic indices including the cardiac risk ratio, Castelli's risk index-2, and the atherogenic coefficient were observed. Significant increases in the levels of iron and decreases in serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities and the levels of serum glucose were noted when the extract was administered at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg). Histopathological examination of the target tissues further confirmed that the extract was safe and had no observed toxicological features. Our study indicates that G. pedunculata fruit is nontoxic, has the potential to be effective against atherosclerosis, and may be used as a hepatoprotectant. The fruit extract is also beneficial to those with iron deficiency and hyperglycemia.

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