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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950512

RESUMO

Streptomyces have been reported as a remarkable source for bioactive secondary metabolites with complex structural and functional diversity. In this study, 35 isolates of genus Streptomyces were purified from rhizospheric and marine soils collected from previously unexplored habitats and screened for antimicrobial activities. One of these isolates, G1, when tested in vitro, was found highly active against wide range of microbes including Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and different fungal pathogens. It was identified as mesophilic, alkaliphilic, and moderately halotolerant as it showed optimum growth at temperature 30 °C, pH 8.0 in casein-starch-peptone-yeast extract-malt extract medium supplemented with 5% NaCl. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated 100% identity of this isolate to Streptomyces fimbriatus. Moreover, maximum antimicrobial activity was achieved in starch nitrate medium supplemented with 1% glycerol as carbon and 0.03% soy meal as nitrogen source. The antimicrobial compounds produced by this isolate were extracted in methanol. Bioassay-guided fractionation through thin layer chromatography of methanolic extract resulted in the separation of a most active fraction with an Rf value of 0.46. This active fraction was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analysis and found similar to streptothricin D like antibiotic with m/z 758.42.

4.
Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; : 10892532211002382, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827348

RESUMO

The introduction of regional analgesia in the past decades have revolutionized postoperative pain management for various types of surgery, particularly orthopedic surgery. Nowadays, they are being constantly introduced into other types of surgeries including cardiac surgeries. Neuraxial and paravertebral plexus blocks for cardiac surgery are considered as deep blocks and have the risk of hematoma formation in the setting of anticoagulation associated with cardiac surgeries. Moreover, hemodynamic compromise resulting from sympathectomy in patients with limited cardiac reserve further limits the use of neuraxial techniques. A multitude of fascial plane blocks involving chest wall have been developed, which have been shown the potential to be included in the regional analgesia armamentarium for cardiac surgery. In myofascial plane blocks, the local anesthetic spreads passively and targets the intermediate and terminal branches of intercostal nerves. They are useful as important adjuncts for providing analgesia and are likely to be included in "Enhanced Recovery after Cardiac Surgery (ERACS)" protocols. There are several small studies and case reports that have shown efficacy of the regional blocks in reducing opioid requirements and improving patient satisfaction. This review article discusses the anatomy of various fascial plane blocks, mechanism of their efficacy, and available evidence on outcomes after cardiac surgery.

5.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to examine the impact of daily self-weighing via remote monitoring on postpartum weight loss. STUDY DESIGN: This was a secondary analysis of a nonrandomized controlled trial comprised of postpartum women with diagnosed hypertensive-related disorders in pregnancy who received a tablet device linked to Bluetooth-enabled equipment including a scale and blood pressure cuff. In addition to blood pressure monitoring, participants were instructed to perform daily self-weighing. The primary outcome of this study was to determine whether postpartum women who performed daily self-weighing lost more weight than those who did not, with a 42-day endpoint based on a 6-week postpartum visit weight. RESULTS: Overall, 214 women participated in this program and 214 received usual care. Median weight loss for women participating in the remote blood pressure monitoring system was 23.0 (interquartile range [IQR]: 17-30) pounds versus 23.0 (IQR: 17-29) pounds among controls. Weight loss did not vary by prepregnancy obesity (median: 20 pounds [IQR: 17-28 pounds] for nonobese and 23 [IQR: 17-30] pounds for women with obesity, p = 0.16). Women who weighed themselves more than half of follow-up days lost a median of 24 pounds (IQR: 17-30 pounds) compared with 20.5 pounds (IQR: 14-29 pounds), p = 0.06. Women who weighed themselves more than half of follow-up days lost a mean of 11.4% (standard deviation [SD] = 0.41%) of body weight compared with 9.1% (SD = 0.74%; p = 0.01). The amount of weight loss in the telehealth group was correlated with the number of daily weights performed (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.164, p = 0.025). Postpartum weight loss for daily self-weighing participants was most notable in the first 2 weeks with ongoing weight loss up to the 42-day (6-week) endpoint of this secondary analysis. CONCLUSION: Daily self-weighing alone may be insufficient to promote postpartum weight loss. However, there was a slight trend toward more weight loss with more frequent weighing. KEY POINTS: · Daily self-weighing is insufficient for postpartum weight loss.. · Women who weighed themselves more lost slightly more weight.. · Weight loss was the most notable in the first 2 weeks.. · Its use as one part of a program may be worth studying..

7.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 105: 106400, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The net treatment effect (∆) is a new method to assess the treatment benefit that combines multiple time-to-event, binary and continuous endpoints according to a pre-specified sequence. It represents the net probability for a random patient treated in the experimental arm to have a better overall outcome than a random patient from the control arm does. We aimed at characterizing the impact of follow-up on ∆ estimated from both time-to-event and binary toxicity endpoints, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of irinotecan-based regimen in advanced/metastatic gastric cancer (AGC). STUDY DESIGN: Three RCTs are reanalysed. The net treatment effect using from one to three outcomes (i.e. overall survival, time to progression and toxicity in this order) and the hazard ratio (HR) were estimated after various cut-off dates and compared to the values obtained after complete follow-up were reported. RESULTS: In all three RCTs (897 patients), the irinotecan-based regimen was superior to the non-irinotecan containing regimen in terms of HR and ∆. This superiority was lower when the net treatment effect also accounted for toxicity. The HR was slightly less influenced by an incomplete follow-up than ∆ was, but correction proposed by Péron to account for censored observations showed quite robust results. CONCLUSIONS: The net treatment effect using Péron's correction can be used in case of interim analyses or high censoring rates. In addition to relative measures such as the hazard ratio, it provides a simple mean to evaluate the net treatment effect with and without toxicity outcomes.

8.
Oncologist ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851477

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: Staphylococcus aureus infection in CTCL is thought to contribute to disease progression; thus, adjunctive treatment with antibiotics warrants further investigation. This trial of antibiotic therapy followed by imiquimod in early stage CTCL was not completed due to difficulties with patient accrual. BACKGROUND: Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), a form of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is a heterogeneous group of malignancies of mature memory T lymphocytes. It has an annual age-adjusted incidence of 7.5 per million persons in the U.S. population [1]. The etiology of CTCL is unknown, but epidemiological studies have reported potential associations with environmental and occupational factors [2]. Both topical and systemic therapies have been identified as effective in CTCL; the choice of treatment is dependent on disease stage with the overall goal of improving symptoms given the chronic and recurrent nature of the disease. Several studies have suggested that CTCL is exacerbated by the presence of S. aureus in the skin and can be ameliorated by treatment with antibiotics [3]. METHODS: Our study was designed to assess the effects of antibiotics and imiquimod on early stage CTCL. Patients between the ages of 30-89 years with Stage I and II CTCL were eligible for enrollment. They could not be receiving concurrent therapy and the study design included a 14-day washout period after discontinuation of CTCL therapy. The washout period was followed by doxycycline 100 mg PO BID for 14 days and then two packets (250 mg per packet) of imiquimod 5% cream topically to the most clinically active lesions three days a week (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) for 28 days. Skin lesions were measured using the modified Severity Weighted Assessment Tool (mSWAT). RESULTS: Our study enrolled only two patients with early stage CTCL due to difficulty locating patients with active CTCL able to discontinue all therapy. Patients were managed as shown in Figure 1. The two enrolled patients completed all therapy. One patient had a complete response after imiquimod, while the other patient had stable disease. CONCLUSION: Antibiotics and imiquimod have reported activity as single agents in CTCL; we did not enroll enough patients to assess value in the sequence of antibiotic therapy followed by imiquimod.

9.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825759

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
10.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; : 9603271211002884, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754881

RESUMO

Colon cancer is a life-threatening disease all over the world and is linked to constant oxidative stress and inflammation. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), is a naturally occurring flavone possessing health benefiting pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties. Our study investigates the role of EGCG on N,N'-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), a toxic environmental pollutant, induced colon toxicity. To investigate the effect of EGCG, Wistar rats were given EGCG for 7 days at the two doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight and DMH was injected on the seventh day in all the group rats except the control. Our results indicate that DMH administration increased the oxidative stress (MDA) and depleted the glutathione and antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GR, GST and GPx) which was significantly ameliorated by EGCG treatment. Additionally DMH treatment upregulated inflammatory markers expression (NF-κB, COX-2 and IL-6) and enhanced mucosal damage in the colon. EGCG treatment significantly reduced inflammation and restored the normal histoarchitecture of the colon. We can conclude from the present study findings that EGCG protects the colon from DMH toxicity through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential.

11.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737030

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine systemic associations of sarcoid uveitis and association with uveitis clinical phenotype and ethnicity. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: 362 subjects with definite or presumed sarcoid uveitis from Moorfields Eye Hospital, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear and Auckland District Health Board. METHODS: Data was collected from review of clinical notes, imaging and investigations. Sarcoidosis was diagnosed in accordance with the International Workshop on Ocular Sarcoidosis (IWOS) guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Diagnosis of associated systemic disease secondary to sarcoidosis. RESULTS: 362 subjects with sarcoid uveitis were identified. Median age was 46 years and 226 (62.4%) were female. Granulomatous anterior uveitis (47.8%), intermediate uveitis with snowballs (46.4%), and multifocal choroiditis (43.1%) were the most frequent clinical presentations, and disease was bilateral in 313 (86.5%). Periphlebitis was observed in 21.0% and solitary optic nerve or choroidal granuloma in 11.3%. Lung parenchymal disease was diagnosed in 200 (55.2%), cutaneous sarcoid in 98 (27.1%), sarcoid arthritis 57 subjects (15.7%), liver involvement 21 subjects (5.8%), neurosarcoid 49 subjects (13.5%) and cardiac sarcoid 16 subjects (4.4%). Subjects with cardiac sarcoid were less likely to have granulomatous anterior uveitis (p=0.017). Caucasian subjects were older at presentation (48 vs 41 years p=0.009), had less granulomatous anterior uveitis (26.4% vs 51.7% p<0.001) and were less likely to present with cutaneous involvement (23.1% vs 35.4% p=0.040). CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmologists need to be aware of the systemic associations of sarcoid uveitis, in particular potentially life-threatening complications such as cardiac sarcoidosis. Differences observed in uveitis phenotype and between ethnicities require further investigation.

12.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787717

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
13.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 25(2): 85-101, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596144

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) displays a broad spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from lack of symptoms to severe multiorgan system complications and death. Various laboratory assays have been employed in the diagnosis of COVID-19, including: nucleic acid-based tests; antigen tests; and serum testing for anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies. The disease can also be diagnosed based on suggestive clinical features and radiological findings. Until now, remdesivir is the only medication approved for the treatment of COVID-19 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); however, it is anticipated that several anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies will gain soon approval. Other methods of treatment include supportive care directed toward treating the symptoms. Nevertheless, many studies have recently emerged, showing controversial preliminary results with the off-label medication hydroxychloroquine. Given that all results are still preliminary, including those seen by remdesivir, additional evidence and research are required to identify effective medications that are broadly effective and well tolerated. Importantly, two RNA-based vaccines have recently gained approval from Pfizer and Moderna, with many others still in clinical trials. This article reviews various aspects of COVID-19, including its epidemiology; its evolution and mutational spectrum; and its clinical dynamics, symptoms and complications, diagnosis, and treatment.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , /patogenicidade , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , /terapia , /métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Mutação , Uso Off-Label , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , /imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Saf Health Work ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33520326

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is a newly emerging infectious disease worldwide, can be categorized as an occupational disease, because employees, particularly in the healthcare system, can be infected at the workplace. As of December 15, 2020, we summarized the occupational safety and health practices in selected countries on the recognition of COVID-19 as one of the occupational risks. The situation has differed among countries, including the recognition status and whether a specific regulation existed. International organizations, namely the International Labour Organization, World Health Organization, and European Union, should plan and conduct studies on the work-relatedness of COVID-19, propose criteria for recognition, and add the infection to the occupational disease list to provide a basis for specific country regulations. Stakeholders should also act to adjust country-level legislation.

15.
Am Heart J ; 236: 22-36, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with congenital heart defects (CHDs) are recommended to receive all inpatient cardiac and noncardiac care at facilities that can offer specialized care. We describe geographic accessibility to such centers in New York State and determine several factors associated with receiving care there. METHODS: We used inpatient hospitalization data from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) in New York State 2008-2013. In the absence of specific adult CHD care center designations during our study period, we identified pediatric/adult and adult-only cardiac surgery centers through the Cardiac Surgery Reporting System to estimate age-based specialized care. We calculated one-way drive and public transit time (in minutes) from residential address to centers using R gmapsdistance package and the Google Maps Distance Application Programming Interface (API). We calculated prevalence ratios using modified Poisson regression with model-based standard errors, fit with generalized estimating equations clustered at the hospital level and subclustered at the individual level. RESULTS: Individuals with CHDs were more likely to seek care at pediatric/adult or adult-only cardiac surgery centers if they had severe CHDs, private health insurance, higher severity of illness at encounter, a surgical procedure, cardiac encounter, and shorter drive time. These findings can be used to increase care receipt (especially for noncardiac care) at pediatric/adult or adult-only cardiac surgery centers, identify areas with limited access, and reduce disparities in access to specialized care among this high-risk population.

16.
Scand J Immunol ; 93(5): e13030, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576072

RESUMO

T helper 22 (Th22) cell populations are a newly identified subset of CD4+  T cells that primarily mediate biological effects on the epithelial barrier through interleukin (IL)-22. Although, new studies showed that both Th22 and IL-22 are closely associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory, autoimmune and allergic disease as well as malignancies. In this review, we aim to describe the development and characteristics of Th22 cells as well as their roles in the immunopathogenesis of immune-related disorders and cancer.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406369

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fibrotic interstitial lung disease whose underlying mechanisms have been primarily investigated in mice after intratracheal instillation of a single dose of bleomycin. However, the model has significant limitations including the transient fibrosis which spontaneously resolves and its failure to fully recapitulate the epithelial remodeling in the lungs of IPF patients. Thus, there remains an unmet need for a pre-clinical model with features that more closely resemble the human disease. Repetitive intratracheal instillation of bleomycin has previously been shown to recapitulate some of these features, but the instillation procedure is complex and the long-term consequences on epithelial remodeling and fibrosis persistence and progression remain poorly understood. Here, we developed a simplified repetitive bleomycin instillation strategy consisting of three bi-weekly instillations that leads to persistent and progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Lung histology demonstrates increased collagen deposition, fibroblast accumulation, loss of type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC1s and AEC2s) within fibrotic areas, bronchiolization of the lung parenchyma with CCSP+ cells, remodeling of the distal lung into cysts reminiscent of simple honeycombing, and the accumulation of hyperplastic transitional KRT8+ epithelial cells. MicroCT imaging demonstrated significant traction bronchiectasis and subpleural fibrosis. Thus, the simplified repetitive bleomycin instillation strategy leads to progressive fibrosis and recapitulates the histological and radiographic characteristics of IPF. Compared to the single bleomycin instillation model, we suggest that the simplified repetitive instillation model may be better suited to address mechanistic questions about IPF pathogenesis and pre-clinical studies of anti-fibrotic drug candidates.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20543, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239659

RESUMO

Biocides such as quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are potentially important contributors towards bacterial antimicrobial resistance development, however, their contributions are unclear due to a lack of internationally recognized biocide testing standards. Methods to detect QAC tolerance are limited to laborious traditional antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) methods. Here, we developed a rapid fluorescent dye-based membrane impermeant assay (RFDMIA) to discriminate QAC susceptibility among Gram-negative Enterobacterales and Pseudomonadales species. RFDMIA uses a membrane impermeant fluorescent dye, propidium iodide, in a 30-min 96-well fluorescent microplate-based assay where cell suspensions are exposed to increasing QAC concentrations. Our results demonstrate that RFDMIA can discriminate between QAC-susceptible and QAC-adapted Escherichia coli tolerant phenotypes and predict benzalkonium and cetrimide tolerance in all species tested except for intrinsically fluorescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa. RFDMIA identified a close association to minimum inhibitory concentration values determined by broth microdilution AST and increasing fluorescent dye emission values. RFDMIA emission values and scanning electron microscopy results also suggest that CET-adapted E. coli isolates have a CET dependence, where cells require sub-inhibitory CET concentrations to maintain bacilliform cell integrity. Overall, this study generates a new, rapid, sensitive fluorescent assay capable of detecting QAC-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria phenotypes and cell membrane perturbations.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200702

RESUMO

Within the pathophysiology of epilepsy, as a chronic brain disorder, neuroinflammation has been extensively implied. Recurrent seizures of epilepsy have been associated with elevated levels of immune mediators that seem to play a pivotal role in triggering them. Neurons, glia, and endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) take part in such inflammatory processes by expressing receptors of associated mediators through autocrine and paracrine stimulation of intracellular signaling pathways. In this milieu, elevated cytokine levels in serum and brain tissue have been reported in patients with an epileptic profile. Noteworthy, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are the proinflammatory cytokines mostly associated, in literature, with the pathogenesis of epilepsies. In this review, we examine the function of these cytokines in connection with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß), IL-8, IL-12, IL-18, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) as potential proinflammatory mediators in the neuropathology of epilepsy.

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