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1.
Environ Res ; 186: 109563, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353789

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to improve methane generation from corn stalk (CS) through alkaline hydrogen peroxide and lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide (AHP-LiCl/DMAc) pretreatment. Changes in the structures of treated and untreated CSs were investigated, and biomass components, including cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, were analysed. Our findings revealed that AHP-LiCl/DMAc pretreatment improved accumulative methane yield by forceful delignification and effectively destroyed the structure of cellulose. The AHP-LiCl/DMAc-treated group had a maximum methane yield of 318.6 ± 17.85 mL/g volatile solid, which was 40.08% and 10.10% higher than the maximum methane yields of the untreated and AHP-treated group, respectively. This result showed enhanced cellulose dissolution by the ionic solvent of LiCl/DMAc and improved enzymatic saccharification in fermentative bacteria without structural modifications. The AHP-LiCl/DMAc treated group had higher glucose level, acetate followed by biomethanation process. Furthermore, the decrease in crystallinity indexes for AHP-LiCl/DMAc treated group was reported. Overall, this investigation proved a promising pretreatment approach for enhancing the degradation of CS into reducing sugars and improving methane generation.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344770

RESUMO

Although social presence plays an essential role under general conditions, its role becomes significant for societal protection during the quarantine period in epidemic outbreak. In this study, we attempted to identify the role of E-government and COVID-19 word of mouth in terms of their direct impact on online social presence during the outbreak as well as their impacts mediated by epidemic protection and attitudes toward epidemic outbreaks. For this purpose, a unique multi-mediation model is proposed to provide a new direction for research in the field of epidemic outbreaks and their control. Through random sampling, an online survey was conducted and data from 683participants were analyzed. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships between the variables of interest. The study results revealed that the roles of E-government and COVID-19 word of mouth are positively related to online social presence during the outbreak. Epidemic protection and attitude toward epidemic outbreak were found to positively moderate the impact of the role of E-government and COVID-19 word of mouth on online social presence during the outbreak. The key findings of this study have both practical and academic implications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus , Governo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(11): 5159, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337629

RESUMO

This corrects the article "Emerging technologies for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for bio-based products" in volume 104, with page no 455-473, (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-019-10158-w).

4.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 120: 101902, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090863

RESUMO

Despite the availability of potent antitubercular drugs, tuberculosis (TB) still remains one of the world's leading causes of death. The current antitubercular therapy (ATT) suffers from a drawback of longer duration that imposes a major challenge of patient non compliance and resistance development. The current scenario necessitates alternative strategies with potential to shorten treatment duration that could pave the way for improved clinical outcomes. In recent years, host directed adjunctive therapies have raised considerable attention and emerged as a promising intervention which targets clinically relevant biological pathways in hosts to modulate pathological immune responses. Few of the approved drugs namely statins, metformin, ibuprofen, aspirin, valproic acid, adalimumab, bevacizumab, zileuton and vitamin D3 have shown promising results in clinical outcomes during their preliminary screening in TB patients and can be potentially repurposed as antitubercular drugs. This review highlights clinical and non clinical evidences of some already existing drug and their targets in hosts that could help in shortening treatment duration and reducing bacterial burden at minimal doses.

5.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 189: 105313, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The swimming mechanism of self-propelling organisms has been imitated by biomedical engineers to design the mechanical micro bots. The interaction of these swimmers with surrounding environment is another important aspect. The present swimming problem integrates Taylor sheet model with couple stress fluid model. The thin passage containing micro-swimmers and mucus is approximated as a rigid (passive) two-dimensional channel. The spermatozoa forms a pack quite similar as a complex wavy sheet. METHODS: Swimming problem with couple stress cervical liquid (at low Reynolds number) leads to a linear sixth order differential equation. The boundary value problem (BVP) is solved analytically with two unknowns i.e. speed of complex wavy sheet and flow rate of couple stress mucus. After utilizing this solution into equilibrium conditions these unknowns can be computed via Newton-Raphson algorithm. Furthermore, the pairs of numerically calculated organism speed and flow rate are utilized in the expression of power dissipation. RESULTS: This work describes that the speed of micro-swimmers can be enhanced by suitable rheology of the surrounding liquid. The usage of couple stress fluid as compared to Newtonian fluid enhances the energy dissipation and reduces the flow rate. On the other hand complex wavy surface also aids the organisms to swim faster.

6.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 31-41, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456050

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion, a recently hot technology to produce biogases especially methane generation for biofuel from wastewater, is considered an effective explanation for energy crisis and global pollution threat. A complex microbiome population is present in sludge, which plays an important role in the digestion of complex polymer into simple monomers. 16S rRNA approaches simply are not enough for amplification due to the involvement of extreme complex population. However, Illumina sequencing is a recent powerful technology to reveal the entire microbiome structure and methane generation pathways in anaerobic digestion. Metagenomic sequencing was tested to reveal the microbial structure of a digested sludge from a local wastewater treatment plant in Beijing. The Illumina HiSeq program was used to extract about 5 GB of data for metagenomic analysis. The classification investigation revealed about 97.64% dominancy of bacteria while 1.78% were detected to be archaea using MG-RAST server. The most abundant bacterial communities were reported to be Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Furthermore, the important microbiome involved in methane generation was revealed. The dominant methanogens were detected (Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina), with affiliation of dominant genes involved in acetoclastic methanogenesis in a digesting sludge. The metagenomic analysis showed that microbial structure and methane generation pathways were successfully dissected in an anaerobic digester.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/microbiologia , Genoma Microbiano/genética , Metagenoma/genética , Metano/metabolismo , Esgotos/microbiologia , Anaerobiose , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(2): 455-473, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686144

RESUMO

Exploring a cheap and clean renewable energy has become a common destination round the world with the depletion of oil resources and the concerns of increasing energy demands. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable resource in the biosphere, and the total biomass formed by plant photosynthesis reached more than 200 billion tons every year. Cellulase and hemicellulose and lignin degradation enzymes, the efficient biocatalyst, could efficiently convert the lignocellulosic biomass into sugars that could be further processed into biofuels, biochemical, and biomaterial for human requirement. The utilization and conversion of cellulosic biomass has great significance to solve the problems such as environmental pollution and energy crisis. Lignocellulosic materials are widely considered as important sources to produce sugar streams that can be fermented into ethanol and other organic chemicals. Pretreatment is a necessary step to overcome its intrinsic recalcitrant nature prior to the production of important biomaterial that has been investigated for nearly 200 years. Emerging research has focused in order of economical, eco-friendly, and time-effective solutions, for large-scale operational approach. These new mentioned technologies are promising for lignocellulosic biomass degradation in a huge scale biorefinery. This review article has briefly explained the emerging technologies especially the consolidated bioprocessing, chemistry, and physical base pretreatment and their importance in the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass conversion.

8.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(4): 825-833, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848653

RESUMO

Continuous observation of wastewater treatment plants is very crucial to keep them safe for proper use and protection from pathogenic contamination. Illumina sequencing technology was used for microbiome structuring from various samples taken from different portions of the wastewater treatment plant, including influent, activated, return sludge and effluent, where different microbial compositions were found. The effluent section was found to have pathogenic microbes such as viruses, Alpha- and deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, clostridia, and bacilli in various concentrations. The presence of viruses, Mycobacterium sp., Mycobacterium fortuitum, bacteroidia, and bacilli was investigated. The species Mycobacterium was found to be higher in quantity in the effluent section. Viruses, including hepatitis A and E, were detected in higher quantity in the effluent part of the sludge in comparison with the influent part of the plant. Our discovery reveals the significance and observation of wastewater treatment plants for the existence of water-borne pathogens in the effluent, principally due to the effect on humans while reusing the water.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Metagenoma , Microbiota , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Esgotos/microbiologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética
9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 20039, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882806

RESUMO

To develop suitable ferromagnetic oxides with Curie temperature (TC) at or above room temperature for spintronic applications, a great deal of research in doping ZnO with magnetic ions is being carried out over last decade. As the experimental results on magnetic ions doped ZnO are highly confused and controversial, we have investigated ferromagnetism in non-magnetic ion, Ag, doped ZnO. When Ag replaces Zn in ZnO, it adopts 4d9 configuration for Ag2+ which has single unpaired spin and suitable exchange interaction among these spins gives rise to ferromagnetism in ZnO with above room temperature TC. Experimentally, we have observed room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in Ag-doped ZnO with Ag concentration varied from 0.03% to 10.0%. It is shown that zinc vacancy (VZn) enhances the ferromagnetic ordering (FMO) while oxygen vacancy (VO) retards the ferromagnetism in Ag-doped ZnO. Furthermore, the theoretical investigation revealed that VZn along with Ag2+ ions play a pivotal role for RTFM in Ag-doped ZnO. The Ag2+-Ag2+ interaction is ferromagnetic in the same Zn plane whereas anti-ferromagnetic in different Zn planes. The presence of VZn changes the anti-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic state with a magnetic coupling energy of 37 meV. Finally, it has been established that the overlapping of bound magnetic polarons is responsible for RTFM in low doping concentration. However, anti-ferromagnetic coupling sets in at higher doping concentrations and hence weakens the FMO to a large extent.

10.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 182: 105040, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Peristaltic is one of the most frequently occurring phenomenon in biological systems. These systems of the human body (especially digestive, reproductive, respiratory, renal system) generally involve effects of curvature, porosity, rheology and heat transfer. Thus, in the present investigation we integrate heat transfer phenomenon with Sisko fluid flowing through porous medium bounded within curved wavy walls. The theoretical analysis presented under long wavelength approximation serves as a model for the creeping non-isothermal flow of blood through a diseased segment of the artery due to vasomotion (peristaltic motion) in the artery. METHODS: The highly nonlinear ordinary differential equation with appropriate boundary conditions is solved using a well-tested implicit finite difference scheme. A comparison of velocity profile for Newtonian, power-law and Sisko fluids is also presented. RESULTS: The Sisko model predict higher values of velocity in the central core region than power-law and Newtonian model. The size of circulating bolus of fluid reduces with increasing permeability parameter. The symmetry in velocity and streamlines pattern is observed when dimensionless radius of curvature becomes very large.

11.
J Biol Inorg Chem ; 24(7): 929-941, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515623

RESUMO

Increasing antimicrobial resistance is a clinical crisis worldwide. Recent progress in the field of green synthesis has fascinated scientists and researchers to explore its potentials against pathogenic microbes. Bioinspired-metal-based nanoparticles (silver, copper, gold, zinc, etc.) have been reported to be tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria such as B. subtilis, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, etc., as well as some pathogenic fungi including A. niger, F. oxysporum, A. fumigatus, etc., and are testified to exhibit inhibitory effects against pathogenic microbes. The possible modes of action of these metal nanoparticles include: (a) excess production of reactive oxygen species inside microbes; (b) disruption of vital enzymes in respiratory chain via damaging microbial plasma membranes; (c) accumulation of metal ions in microbial membranes; (d) electrostatic attraction between metal nanoparticles and microbial cells which disrupt metabolic activities; and (e) inhibition of microbial proteins/enzymes by increased production of H2O2. Although these pathways are interconnected, information on potential mechanism of most of these biogenic nanoparticles is still limited. Further exploration of these mechanisms could help in tackling the burning issue of antibiotics resistance.

12.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124360, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545186

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) uptake and accumulation in plant tissues is affected by physiological stage of a plant and presence of mineral nutrients in soil. We investigate the effect of micronutrient Mo (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ppm) on biomass, Cd accumulation, photosynthetic pigments and endogenous phenolics and soluble proline in Cannabis sativa plant grown in 25 and 50 ppm Cd polluted soil. Molybdenum was applied as seed soaking and soil addition treatments. The plants were harvested in two stages i.e. vegetative (6 weeks) and reproductive stages (12 weeks). It was found that seed soaking treatment of 1.0 ppm Mo most significantly increased biomass, Cd accumulation (1.76 ±â€¯0.19 mg Cd/DBM) and phenolics (104.5 ±â€¯4.46 ppm) concentration in the plant tissues. Molybdenum treatments highly increased Cd bio-concentration at reproductive stage as compared to vegetative stage in plants grown in 50 ppm Cd polluted soil. Translocation of Cd from roots into leaves was significantly increased by Mo treatments at reproductive stage as compared to vegetative stage. Strong inter-correlations existed between total phenolics, Cd accumulation, dry biomass and chlorophyll contents of the plant.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/análise , Cannabis/metabolismo , Molibdênio/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomassa , Cannabis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorofila/análise , Fenóis/análise , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo
13.
J Glob Oncol ; 5: 1-7, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393752

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate and report the frequency of changes in radiation therapy treatment plans after peer review in a simulation review meeting once a week. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 1 and August 31, 2016, the radiation plans of 116 patients were discussed in departmental simulation review meetings. All plans were finalized by the primary radiation oncologist before presenting them in the meeting. A team of radiation oncologists reviewed each plan, and their suggestions were documented as no change, major change, minor change, or missing contour. Changes were further classified as changes in clinical target volume, treatment field, or dose. All recommendations were stratified on the basis of treatment intent, site, and technique. Data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and are presented descriptively. RESULTS: Out of 116 plans, 26 (22.4%) were recommended for changes. Minor changes were suggested in 15 treatment plans (12.9%) and a major change in 10 (8.6%), and only one plan was suggested for missing contour. The frequency of change recommendations was greater in radical radiation plans than in palliative plans (92.3% v 7.7%). The head and neck was the most common treatment site recommended for any changes (42.3%). Most of the changes were recommended in the technique planned with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (50%). Clinical target volume (73.1%) was identified as the most frequent parameter suggested for any change, followed by treatment field (19.2%) and dose (0.08%). CONCLUSION: Peer review is an important tool that can be used to overcome deficiencies in radiation treatment plans, with a goal of improved and individualized patient care. Our study reports changes in up to a quarter of radiotherapy plans.

14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 84: 144-154, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284906

RESUMO

A systemic strategy was proposed to improve aerobic granular sludge (AGS) stability and nitrogen (N) removal efficiency by optimizing feeding mode and substrate aiming at complicated wastewater characteristics. Key functional groups at the genus level identified by high-throughput sequencing were evaluated as well. The results showed that anaerobic feeding mode and acetate promoted the compact AGS formation with excellent total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency (averaging 91.7% ±â€¯4.1%) at various dissolved oxygen conditions. While the aerobic feeding mode led to a loose AGS structure with a vulnerable anaerobic core and poor TN removal efficiency (averaging 58.8% ±â€¯7.4%). Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process played the dominant role in N removal in compact AGS over the alternating nitrification and denitrification process. High-concentration glucose undermined feast-famine condition with filamentous bacteria growth out of granule and decreased TN removal efficiency to 67.3% ±â€¯15.2%. Lower food to microorganism ratio may result in a lower N removal rate attributed to the sharply increased biomass concentration fed by glucose. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, and denitrifying phosphorus accumulation organisms enriched during AGS granulation also contributed to the efficient N removal. The proposed strategy provided insights into the relationship between various factors and stable AGS formation, and systemic operation methods for various complicated wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Nitrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Acetatos , Biomassa , Glucose , Microbiota , Tamanho da Partícula , Esgotos
15.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(6): 788-793, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 over expression in gastric adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemistry and to find the association of its expression with clinicopathological parameters. . METHODS: The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan, from January to December 2016, and comprised consecutive formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples of gastric adenocarcinoma. The cases were scored for Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 expression according to criteria cited in Trastuzumab for Gastric Cancer trial. Correlation of the expression with different clinicopathological parameters was determined. SPSS 23 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the 55 cases, 49(89%) were biopsies and 6(11%) were gastrectomies. Among the patients whose samples were tested, 41(74.5%) were male. The overall mean age was 59.16}12.58 years (range: 38-95 years). Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 overexpression (3+) was present in 19(34.5%) cases.Out of 21(38.2%) cases of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, 10(47.6%) showed overexpression. It was commonest in tumours of the fundus area 7(31.6%). No association of the expression was found with tumour's histological grade and location, or with patient's gender and age (p>0.05 each).. CONCLUSIONS: More than one-third of the sample had overexpression of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Receptor ErbB-2/análise , Neoplasias Gástricas , Adenocarcinoma/química , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Gástricas/química , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
16.
Arch Microbiol ; 201(9): 1163-1171, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172250

RESUMO

Organic acid production including lactate and acetate is an economically attractive technology that has gained momentum worldwide over the past years. These series of action need to be performed by an esoteric and complex microbial community, in which different members have distinct roles in the establishment of a collective organization. In this study, we analyzed the bioma from bioreactors with various pH conditions of 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 (R1, R2 and R3), respectively, involved in acidogenic digestion for stable production of various organic acids by means of high-throughput Illumina sequencing, disclosing thousands of genes and extracting more than 53 microbial genomes. At pH 5.0, the hydrolysis reaction was enhanced and thus the lactic acid fermentation was stably improved to 45.96 mm/L and acetic acid to 73.77 mm/L. R2 was found with the most suitable pH condition for stable organic acids production as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria were the major members. Both the members have the key roles in heterofermentation and produce higher transcripts of key encoding enzymes involved in the dominant heterofermentation pathways.


Assuntos
Acetatos/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/genética , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/genética , Microbiota/genética , Bifidobacterium/classificação , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Fermentação/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Lactobacillus/classificação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Metagenômica
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(24): 24695-24706, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240645

RESUMO

The biotoxicity of heavy metals in sediments toward benthic organisms has evoked great concern for the health of freshwater ecosystems. This study applied a sediment toxicity testing protocol to investigate the single and joint toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) on Bellamya aeruginosa. B. aeruginosa were exposed to different concentrations of Cd (5, 25, and 100 mg/kg), Pb (20, 100, and 400 mg/kg), and their different concentration combinations. A suite of biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), metallothionein (MT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), were measured after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of exposure to evaluate their oxidative stress status. Cell apoptosis of soft tissue was also determined after exposure. Results revealed that these endpoints represented sensitive biomarkers for the characterization of the oxidative stress response induced by these metals. Specifically, a decrease of SOD and GPx and an increase of MDA were indicative of the potential failure of the antioxidant defense system in neutralizing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in the exposure of the Pb-treated group. The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index revealed the most significant sub-lethal toxicity for Pb-spiked sediments, leading to the highest rate of cell apoptosis (70.8%). Exposure to Cd resulted in a time- and dose-dependent effect on MT levels, which suggested active detoxification of this metal. Exposure to the mixture resulted in amelioration of Pb toxicity, likely due to the competitive binding of Cd to active enzyme, with the result of an observed antagonistic interaction. This study indicated that B. aeruginosa represents a good biomonitor for assessing Cd and Pb contamination of sediments, and laid the foundation for their potential risk assessments in freshwater ecosystems.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Gulf J Oncolog ; 1(30): 76-80, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare disease with poor prognosis. Surgery is used as a radical treatment modality but the risk of local relapse is very high. Therefore, radiation therapy is used in postoperative setting to improve local control. However, owing to elliptical shape, treating the entire pleura requires a large radiation field which increases toxicity. Precision radiation is mandatory to optimally irradiate the tumor area while sparing critical neighboring normal organs. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old male presented with history of right sided chest pain and cough for 8 months. On further evaluation, he was diagnosed with malignant pleural mesothelioma. The disease was localized but unresectable, therefore a course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given. Post chemotherapy, he underwent extra pleural pneumonectomy and the tumor was grossly excised. Histopathology revealed a close resection margin with metastasis in the regional lymph nodes. The case was discussed in multidisciplinary team meeting and adjuvant radiation therapy was offered. The patient was planned with a blend of modern intensity modulated radiation therapy technique and conventional three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy technique, to keep doses of adjacent organs within tolerance limits and at the same time deliver the intended dose of radiation to the tumor site. CONCLUSION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a lethal disease. Orthodox methods of radiation delivery encompass the entire involved hemi thorax and result in significant morbidity. Highly conformal radiation techniques are preferred to achieve optimal therapeutic ratio at this site. However, despite advances in radiation techniques, current treatment modalities have not significantly made an impact on survival of these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Mesotelioma/radioterapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Neoplasias Pleurais/radioterapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Mesotelioma/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Adjuvante
19.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100322

RESUMO

Cancer and autoimmune diseases are the two devastating conditions that together constitute a leading health problem worldwide. The rising burden of these disorders in the developing world demands a multifaceted approach to address the challenges it poses. Understanding the root causes and specific molecular mechanisms by which the progression of the diseases takes place is need of the hour. A strong inflammatory background and common developmental pathways, such as activation of immune cells, proliferation, increased cell survival and migration which are controlled by growth factors and inflammatory cytokines have been considered as the critical culprits in the progression and complications of these disorders. Enzymes are the potential immune modulators which regulate various inflammatory events and can break the circulating immune complexes via macrophages production. In the current manuscript, we have uncovered the possible role of proteolytic enzymes in the pathogenesis and progression of cancer and autoimmune diseases. In the light of the available scientific literature, we advocate in-depth comprehensive studies which will shed light towards the role of proteolytic enzymes in the modulation of inflammatory responses in cancer and autoimmune diseases together.

20.
Cureus ; 11(1): e3829, 2019 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868042

RESUMO

Simultaneous diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with pelvic malignancies is rare but a well-documented phenomenon. It is not uncommon to have incidental renal masses on imaging done for investigating other tumors. There are no established guidelines for the treatment of patients with dual malignancies. The management of such patients is challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach. We present a series of three cases with a diagnosed pelvic malignancy but further workup revealed a kidney tumor. Both the malignancies were evaluated individually and diagnosed as two different primary neoplastic lesions. This case series examines each distinct patient's presentation, discusses the diagnosis, and compares and contrasts the findings while discussing the literature on this topic.

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