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2.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 55(10): 823-829, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617932

RESUMO

Climate change has been described as the greatest public health threat of the 21st century. It has significant implications for digestive health. A multinational team with representation from all continents, excluding Antarctica and covering 18 countries, has formulated a commentary which outlines both the implications for digestive health and ways in which this challenge can be faced.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578921

RESUMO

Dynamic interactions among gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gut microbiota, inflammation, oxidative stress, and probiotics are increasingly acknowledged. This meta-analysis aimed to summarize the effects of probiotics in GDM, focusing on lifestyle intervention and pre-intervention washout, in addition to metabolic, inflammation, oxidative stress, and pregnancy outcomes. Three electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, Scopus, and CENTRAL) were searched from inception until October 2020. A meta-analysis was performed, and the effect sizes were reported as either mean differences or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Altogether, 10 randomized controlled trials enrolling 594 participants were included. The meta-analysis indicated that probiotics supplementation effectively reduced fasting plasma glucose by 3.10 mg/dL, and subgroup analyses suggested that the duration of intervention, number of species, pre-intervention washout period, and dietary intervention may determine the effects of probiotics. Probiotics also reduced the level of inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and malondialdehyde), incidence of macrosomia, and newborn hospitalization. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that probiotics may have positive effects on metabolic, inflammation, oxidative stress, and neonatal outcomes in women with GDM. Additionally, diet and pre-intervention washout may modify the effects of probiotics. Future studies are warranted on a larger scale to ascertain the clinical significance.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578939

RESUMO

Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are increasingly presenting with a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as deterioration in gastroenteric physiology, including visceral hypersensitivity, altered intestinal membrane permeability, and gastrointestinal motor dysfunction. Functional imaging of IBS patients has revealed several abnormalities in various brain regions, such as significant activation of amygdala, thinning of insular and anterior cingulate cortex, and increase in hypothalamic gray matter, which results in poor psychiatric and cognitive outcomes. Interrelations between the enteric and central events in IBS-related gastrointestinal, neurological, and psychiatric pathologies have compelled researchers to study the gut-brain axis-a bidirectional communication that maintains the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal and central nervous system with gut microbiota as the protagonist. Thus, it can be disrupted by any alteration owing to the gut dysbiosis or loss of diversity in microbial composition. Available evidence indicates that the use of probiotics as a part of a balanced diet is effective in the management of IBS and IBS-associated neurodegenerative and psychiatric comorbidities. In this review, we delineate the pathogenesis and complications of IBS from gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric standpoints while also discussing the neurodegenerative events in enteric and central nervous systems of IBS patients and the therapeutic potential of gut microbiota-based therapy established on clinical and preclinical data.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579068

RESUMO

Treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) currently consists of lifestyle modifications such as a low-fat diet, weight loss, and exercise. The gut microbiota forms part of the gut-liver axis and serves as a potential target for NAFLD treatment. We investigated the effect of probiotics on hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and biochemical blood tests in patients with NAFLD. At the small intestinal mucosal level, we examined the effect of probiotics on the expression of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as the tight junction protein zona occluden-1 (ZO-1). This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD patients (n = 39) who were supplemented with either a probiotics sachet (MCP® BCMC® strains) or a placebo for a total of 6 months. Multi-strain probiotics (MCP® BCMC® strains) containing six different Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species at a concentration of 30 billion CFU were used. There were no significant changes at the end of the study in terms of hepatic steatosis (probiotics: -21.70 ± 42.6 dB/m, p = 0.052 vs. placebo: -10.72 ± 46.6 dB/m, p = 0.29) and fibrosis levels (probiotics: -0.25 ± 1.77 kPa, p = 0.55 vs. placebo: -0.62 ± 2.37 kPa, p = 0.23) as measured by transient elastography. Likewise, no significant changes were found for both groups for the following parameters: LiverFAST analysis (steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation scores), alanine aminotransferase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose. In the immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis, no significant expression changes were seen for CD4+ T lymphocytes in either group (probiotics: -0.33 ± 1.67, p = 0.35 vs. placebo: 0.35 ± 3.25, p = 0.63). However, significant reductions in the expression of CD8+ T lymphocytes (-7.0 ± 13.73, p = 0.04) and ZO-1 (Z-score = -2.86, p = 0.04) were found in the placebo group, but no significant changes in the probiotics group. In this pilot study, the use of probiotics did not result in any significant clinical improvement in NAFLD patients. However, at the microenvironment level (i.e., the small intestinal mucosa), probiotics seemed to be able to stabilize the mucosal immune function and to protect NAFLD patients against increased intestinal permeability. Therefore, probiotics might have a complementary role in treating NAFLD. Further studies with larger sample sizes, a longer duration, and different probiotic strains are needed to evaluate the real benefit of probiotics in NAFLD.

8.
Mol Cell ; 81(16): 3323-3338.e14, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352207

RESUMO

The emerging "epitranscriptomics" field is providing insights into the biological and pathological roles of different RNA modifications. The RNA methyltransferase METTL1 catalyzes N7-methylguanosine (m7G) modification of tRNAs. Here we find METTL1 is frequently amplified and overexpressed in cancers and is associated with poor patient survival. METTL1 depletion causes decreased abundance of m7G-modified tRNAs and altered cell cycle and inhibits oncogenicity. Conversely, METTL1 overexpression induces oncogenic cell transformation and cancer. Mechanistically, we find increased abundance of m7G-modified tRNAs, in particular Arg-TCT-4-1, and increased translation of mRNAs, including cell cycle regulators that are enriched in the corresponding AGA codon. Accordingly, Arg-TCT expression is elevated in many tumor types and is associated with patient survival, and strikingly, overexpression of this individual tRNA induces oncogenic transformation. Thus, METTL1-mediated tRNA modification drives oncogenic transformation through a remodeling of the mRNA "translatome" to increase expression of growth-promoting proteins and represents a promising anti-cancer target.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Neoplasias/genética , tRNA Metiltransferases/genética , Guanosina/análogos & derivados , Guanosina/genética , Humanos , Metilação , Neoplasias/patologia , Oncogenes/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071861

RESUMO

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is the most common ovarian cancer with highly metastatic properties. A small non-coding RNA, microRNA (miRNA) was discovered to be a major regulator in many types of cancers through binding at the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR), leading to degradation of the mRNA. In this study, we sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in the dysregulation of miR-200c-3p in HGSC progression and metastasis. We identified the upregulation of miR-200c-3p expression in different stages of HGSC clinical samples and the downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene, Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (DLC1), expression. Over expression of miR-200c-3p in HGSC cell lines downregulated DLC1 but upregulated the epithelial marker, E-cadherin (CDH1). Based on in silico analysis, two putative binding sites were found within the 3'UTR of DLC1, and we confirmed the direct binding of miR-200c-3p to the target binding motif at position 1488-1495 bp of 3'UTR of DLC1 by luciferase reporter assay in a SKOV3 cell line co-transfected with vectors and miR-200c-3p mimic. These data showed that miR-200c-3p regulated the progression of HGSC by regulating DLC1 expression post-transcription and can be considered as a promising target for therapeutic purposes.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135477

RESUMO

Hearing impairment (HI) is a common disorder of sensorineural function with a highly heterogeneous genetic background. Although substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the genetic etiology of hereditary HI, many genes implicated in HI remain undiscovered. Via exome and Sanger sequencing of DNA samples obtained from consanguineous Pakistani families that segregate profound prelingual sensorineural HI, we identified rare homozygous missense variants in four genes (ADAMTS1, MPDZ, MVD, and SEZ6) that are likely the underlying cause of HI. Linkage analysis provided statistical evidence that these variants are associated with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic HI. In silico analysis of the mutant proteins encoded by these genes predicted structural, conformational or interaction changes. RNAseq data analysis revealed expression of these genes in the sensory epithelium of the mouse inner ear during embryonic, postnatal, and adult stages. Immunohistochemistry of the mouse cochlear tissue, further confirmed the expression of ADAMTS1, SEZ6, and MPDZ in the neurosensory hair cells of the organ of Corti, while MVD expression was more prominent in the spiral ganglion cells. Overall, supported by in silico mutant protein analysis, animal models, linkage analysis, and spatiotemporal expression profiling in the mouse inner ear, we propose four new candidate genes for HI and expand our understanding of the etiology of HI.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2925, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536501

RESUMO

Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome has been associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We profiled the microbiome of gut mucosal tissues from 18 CRC patients and 18 non-CRC controls of the UKM Medical Centre (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The results were then validated using a species-specific quantitative PCR in 40 CRC and 20 non-CRC tissues samples from the UMBI-UKMMC Biobank. Parvimonas micra, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus stomatis and Akkermansia muciniphila were found to be over-represented in our CRC patients compared to non-CRC controls. These four bacteria markers distinguished CRC from controls (AUROC = 0.925) in our validation cohort. We identified bacteria species significantly associated (cut-off value of > 5 fold abundance) with various CRC demographics such as ethnicity, gender and CRC staging; however, due to small sample size of the discovery cohort, these results could not be further verified in our validation cohort. In summary, Parvimonas micra, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus stomatis and Akkermansia muciniphila were enriched in our local CRC patients. Nevertheless, the roles of these bacteria in CRC initiation and progression remains to be investigated.

12.
Intest Res ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525858

RESUMO

Current treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes the application of anti-inflammatory agents for the induction and remission of IBD. However, prolonged use of anti-inflammatory agents can exert adverse effects on patients. Recently, formulated dietary approach in treating IBD patients is utilized to improve clinical activity scores. An alteration of gastrointestinal microbiota through dietary therapy was found to reduce IBD and is recognized as a promising therapeutic strategy for IBD. One of the recommended formulated diets is an anti-inflammatory diet (AID) that restricts the intake of carbohydrates with modified fatty acids. This diet also contains probiotics and prebiotics that can promote balanced intestinal microbiota composition. However, scientific evidences are limited to support this specific dietary regime in maintaining the remission and prevention relapse of IBD. Therefore, this review aimed to summarize available data from various studies to evaluate the AID diet effectiveness which will be useful for clinicians to manage their IBD patients by application of improved dietary therapy.

14.
Intest Res ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472341

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Substantial proportions of patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) linked their symptoms with particular intake of foods. However, there is lack of current data regarding the intake among IBS-C patients before any dietary interventions. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the dietary adequacy among IBS-C against the standard recommended nutrient intake (RNI) and healthy controls. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted involving IBS-C patients and healthy control subjects. A validated 126-food items frequency questionnaire was administered to all the subjects to assess their dietary intake, guided by dietitians. The calculated nutrients intake for IBS-C patients was then compared against the standard RNI and healthy controls. Results: A total of 306 subjects were recruited, among which 218 were diagnosed with IBS-C and 88 were included as healthy controls. IBS-C patients had significantly lower intake of wholegrain products, fried foods, dairy products, fruits, and vegetables compared to healthy controls. The daily intake of energy, certain macronutrients, and micronutrients among IBS-C patients was significantly lower than the healthy subjects. Less than 5% of IBS-C patients and healthy subjects achieved the standard recommendation for dietary fiber. Also, various vitamin intake (B1, B2, B6, folate, B12, E, K, and potassium) among IBS-C patients did not meet the standard RNI. Conclusions: Dietary intakes of IBS-C patients did not meet the recommended intake for Malaysian and showed the nutritional inadequacies compared to the control subjects. Our study highlighted the importance of dietary evaluation prior to planning strategies for dietary intervention targeting IBS-C patients.

15.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(5): 1244-1252, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Variations in the Chicago 3.0 normative metrics may exist with different postures and with different provocative swallow materials in a healthy Asian population. METHOD: Eligible healthy Malay volunteers were invited to undergo the high-resolution esophageal manometry (inSIGHT Ultima, Diversatek Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA). In recumbent and standing positions, test swallows were performed using liquid, viscous, and solid materials. Metrics including integrated relaxation pressure 4 s (IRP-4 s, mmHg), distal contractile integral (DCI, mmHg s cm), distal latency (DL, s), and peristaltic break (PB, cm) were reported in median and 95th percentile. RESULTS: Fifty of 57 screened participants were recruited, and 586 saline, 265 viscous, and 261 solid swallows were analyzed. Per-patient wise, in the recumbent position, 95th percentile for IRP-4 s, DCI, DL, and PB were 16.5 mmHg, 2431 mmHg s cm, 8.5 s, and 7.2 cm, respectively. We observed that with each posture, the use of viscous swallows led to changes in DL, but the use of solid swallows led to more changes in the metrics including DCI and length of PB. Compared with a recumbent posture, anupright posture led to lower IRP-4 s and DCI values. Both per-patient analysis and per-swallow analyses yielded almost similar results when comparing the different postures and types of swallows. No major motility disorders were observed in this cohort of asymptomatic population. However, more motility disorders were reported in the upright position. CONCLUSIONS: Variations in metrics can be observed in different postures and with different provocative swallow materials in a healthy population. The normative Chicago 3.0 metrics are also determined for the Malay population.

16.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244680, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We determined the effectiveness of a multi-strain probiotic (Hexbio®) containing microbial cell preparation MCP®BCMC® on constipation symptoms and gut motility in PD patients with constipation. METHODS: PD patients with constipation (ROME III criteria) were randomized to receive a multi-strain probiotic (Lactobacillus sp and Bifidobacterium sp at 30 X 109 CFU) with fructo-oligosaccaride or placebo (fermented milk) twice daily for 8 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in the presence of constipation symptoms using 9 items of Garrigues Questionnaire (GQ), which included an item on bowel opening frequency. Secondary outcomes were gut transit time (GTT), quality of life (PDQ39-SI), motor (MDS-UPDRS) and non-motor symptoms (NMSS). RESULTS: Of 55 recruited, 48 patients completed the study: 22 received probiotic and 26 received placebo. At 8 weeks, there was a significantly higher mean weekly BOF in the probiotic group compared to placebo [SD 4.18 (1.44) vs SD 2.81(1.06); (mean difference 1.37, 95% CI 0.68, 2.07, uncorrected p<0.001)]. Patients in the probiotic group reported five times higher odds (odds ratio = 5.48, 95% CI 1.57, 19.12, uncorrected p = 0.008) for having higher BOF (< 3 to 3-5 to >5 times/week) compared to the placebo group. The GTT in the probiotic group [77.32 (SD55.35) hours] reduced significantly compared to placebo [113.54 (SD 61.54) hours]; mean difference -36.22, 95% CI -68.90, -3.54, uncorrected p = 0.030). The mean change in GTT was 58.04 (SD59.04) hour vs 20.73 (SD60.48) hours respectively (mean difference 37.32, 95% CI 4.00, 70.63, uncorrected p = 0.028). No between-groups differences were observed in the NMSS, PDQ39-SI, MDS-UPDRS II and MDS-UPDRS III scores. Four patients in the probiotics group experienced mild reversible side effects. CONCLUSION: This study showed that consumption of a multi-strain probiotic (Hexbio®) over 8 weeks improved bowel opening frequency and whole gut transit time in PD patients with constipation.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Gut Liver ; 14(6): 685-698, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191310

RESUMO

The advent of biologics and biologic therapy has transformed the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with enhanced early and adequate responses to treatment, fewer hospitalizations, a reduced need for surgery, and unprecedented outcomes including complete mucosal and histologic healing. However, an important issue with the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents in IBD is the increased risk of tuberculosis (TB). This is compounded by the diagnostic dilemma when differentiating between Crohn's disease and gastrointestinal TB, and the potentially serious consequences of initiating an incorrect treatment in the case of misdiagnosis. The interplay between IBD and TB is most relevant in Asia, where more than 60% of the 10.4 million new TB cases in 2016 were reported. A number of studies have reported an increased risk of TB with anti-TNF agents, including in patients who had tested negative for TB prior to treatment initiation. The limited evidence currently available regarding adhesion molecule antagonists such as vedolizumab suggests a comparatively lower risk of TB, thus making them a promising option for IBD management in TBendemic regions. This comprehensive review examines the available literature on the risk of TB with the use of biologics in the TB-endemic regions of Asia, focusing on the diagnostic dilemma, the risk of reactivation, and the optimized management algorithms for latent and active disease.

18.
J Mol Evol ; 88(8-9): 674-688, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001284

RESUMO

Presenilin proteins make the catalytic component of γ-secretase, a multiprotein transmembrane protease, and are type II transmembrane proteins. Amyloid protein, Notch, and beta catenin are among more than 90 substrates of Presenilins. Mutations in Presenilins lead to defects in proteolytic cleavage of its substrate resulting in some of the most devastating pathological conditions including Alzheimer disease (AD), developmental disorders, and cancer. In addition to catalytic roles, Presenilin protein is also shown to be involved in many non-catalytic roles, i.e., calcium homeostasis, regulation of autophagy, and protein trafficking, etc. These proteolytic proteins are highly conserved and are present in almost all the major eukaryotic groups. Studies, performed on a wide variety of organisms ranging from human to unicellular dictyostelium, have shown the important catalytic and non-catalytic roles of Presenilins. In this study, we infer the evolutionary patterns and history of Presenilins as well as of other γ-secretase proteins. We show that Presenilins are the most ancient of the γ-secretase proteins and that Presenilins may have their origin in the last common ancestor (LCA) of Eukaryotes. We also demonstrate that Presenilin proteins generally lack diversifying selection during the course of their evolution. Through evolutionary trace analysis, we show that Presenilin protein sites that undergo mutations in Familial Alzheimer disease, are highly conserved in metazoans. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary, physiological, and pathological implications of our findings and propose that the evolutionary profile of Presenilins supports the loss of function hypothesis of AD pathogenesis.

19.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 54(10): 833-840, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909973

RESUMO

Performance of endoscopic procedures is associated with a risk of infection from COVID-19. This risk can be reduced by the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). However, shortage of PPE has emerged as an important issue in managing the pandemic in both traditionally high and low-resource areas. A group of clinicians and researchers from thirteen countries representing low, middle, and high-income areas has developed recommendations for optimal utilization of PPE before, during, and after gastrointestinal endoscopy with particular reference to low-resource situations. We determined that there is limited flexibility with regard to the utilization of PPE between ideal and low-resource settings. Some compromises are possible, especially with regard to PPE use, during endoscopic procedures. We have, therefore, also stressed the need to prevent transmission of COVID-19 by measures other than PPE and to conserve PPE by reduction of patient volume, limiting procedures to urgent or emergent, and reducing the number of staff and trainees involved in procedures. This guidance aims to optimize utilization of PPE and protection of health care providers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/economia , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gastroenterologia/normas , Saúde Global , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Sociedades Médicas
20.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 12: 377-409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753991

RESUMO

Introduction: Self-reported sleep instruments remain the most practical methods for the assessment of insomnia in clinical practice. This systematic review aims to identify, describe and summarize the psychometric properties of questionnaires available for the assessment of insomnia in the adult population. In addition, the review also aimed to identify sleep instruments available in the Arabic language. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using the following electronic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, ProQuest Central, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar. The quality assessment of the instruments was conducted using two established international criteria. Results: One hundred and seven articles were selected for inclusion, from which 31 instruments were identified and categorized based on the constructs they assess as: (1) screening for insomnia (n=14); (2) measuring the consequences of insomnia (n=8); (3) assessing the cognitive aspects of insomnia (n= 5); and (4) assessing sleep hygiene (n= 4). The review of the psychometric properties showed that the Insomnia Severity Index and the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire were the most extensively evaluated instrument. Criterion validity and reliability measures were the most commonly reported properties. Only four of the identified instruments were available in Arabic. Discussion: Overall, the findings of this study indicate ample availability of sleep instruments. However, psychometric testing for several of the available sleep instruments remains incomplete, particularly responsiveness and interpretability. Our findings suggest that future studies should focus on reporting more psychometric measures to ensure the trustworthiness of these instruments.

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