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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278537

RESUMO

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246568, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259781

RESUMO

Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas , Ácido Cítrico , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Nutrientes
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditionally, Portulaca oleracea Linn for treating abscesses, dysentery, and also for the treatment of liver diseases. Recent studies have reported its efficacy as neuroprotective, analgesic and anti-inflammatory, a bronchodilator, anticancer, antioxidant, wound healing, besides other important pharmacological actions. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: For curing liver diseases, Chinese use juice from the fresh leaves of Portulaca oleracea Linn, hence to prove this claim an in-vivo hepatoprotective study of extracts from Portulaca oleracea Linn. against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxic rats. METHODS: The in-vitro antioxidant activity by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and hepatoprotective activity of extracts of Portulaca oleracea Linn. was assessed against the carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity rat model. RESULTS: The extracts of Portulaca oleracea Linn produced concentration-dependent percentage inhibition of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and most significantly by methanol extract. Among the extracts, methanol extract showed a significant decrease in Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, and a significant increase in total protein (TP) levels against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity. CONCLUSION: The results obtained showed that methanol extract of Portulaca oleracea Linn. possesses significant DPPH free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective potential.

4.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224366

RESUMO

BRAFV600E mutation is the most frequent genetic alteration in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). ß-catenin (Ctnnb1) is a key downstream component of canonical Wnt signaling pathway and is frequently over-expressed in PTC. BRAFV600E-driven tumors have been speculated to rely on Wnt/ß-catenin signaling to sustain its growth, although many details remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of ß-catenin in BrafV600E-driven thyroid cancer in a transgenic mouse model. In BrafV600E mice with wild-type (wt) Ctnnb1 (BVE-Ctnnb1wt or BVE), over-expression of ß-catenin was observed in thyroid tumors. In BrafV600E mice with Ctnnb1 knockout (BVE-Ctnnb1null), thyroid tumor growth was slowed with significant reduction in papillary architecture. This was associated with increased expression of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis, elevated 124Iodine uptake and serum T4. The survival of BVE-Ctnnb1null mice was increased by more than 50% during 14-month observation. Mechanistically, down-regulation of MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and TGF-ß pathways and loss of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were demonstrated in the BVE-Ctnnb1null tumors. Treatment with dual ß-catenin/KDM4A inhibitor PKF118-310 dramatically improved the sensitivity of BVE-Ctnnb1wt tumor cells to BRAFV600E inhibitor PLX4720, resulting in significant growth arrest and apoptosis in vitro, and tumor regression and differentiation in vivo. These findings indicate that ß-catenin signaling plays an important role in thyroid cancer growth and resistance to BRAFV600E inhibitors. Simultaneously targeting both Wnt/ß-catenin and MAPK signaling pathways may achieve better therapeutic outcome in BRAFV600E inhibitor-resistant and/or radioiodine-refractory thyroid cancer.

5.
World Neurosurg ; 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Blood blister aneurysms are small, thin-walled, rapidly growing side-wall aneurysms that have proven particularly difficult to treat, and evidence-based guidance for treatment strategies is lacking. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to aggregate the available data and compare the three primary treatment modalities. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature search according to PRISMA guidelines followed by an indirect meta-analysis that compares the safety and efficacy of surgical, flow-diverting stents (FDS), and other endovascular approaches for the treatment of ruptured blood blister aneurysms. RESULTS: A total of 102 studies were included for quantitative synthesis with sample sizes of 687 treated surgically, 704 treated endovascularly without FDS, and 125 treated via flow-diversion. Comparatively, FDS achieved significantly reduced rates of perioperative retreatment compared to both surgical (P=0.025) and non-FDS endovascular (P<0.001). The FDS subgroup also achieved a significantly lower incidence of perioperative rebleed (P<0.001), perioperative hydrocephalus (P=0.012), postoperative infarction (P=0.002), postoperative hydrocephalus (P<0.001), and postoperative vasospasm (P=0.002) when compared to those patients in the open surgical subgroup. While no significant differences were found between groups on the basis of functional outcomes, angiographic outcomes detailed by rates of radiographic complete occlusion were highest for surgical (90.7%, 262/289) and FDS (89.1%, 98/110) subgroups versus the non-FDS endovascular subgroup at (82.7%, 268/324). CONCLUSION: Flow-diversion appears to be an effective treatment strategy for ruptured BBAs with lower rates of perioperative complications when compared to surgical and other endovascular techniques but studies investigating long-term outcomes following flow-diversion warrant further study.

6.
Am J Med Qual ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225276

RESUMO

COVID-19 continues to challenge bed capacity and the ability of hospitals to provide quality care for patients around the country. However, the COVID-19 pandemic at a given point in time does not impact all hospitals equally-even within a single healthcare system, one hospital may be caring for patients in the hallways, while another has available inpatient beds. Here, we demonstrate a program to level-load COVID-19 patients between 2 academic medical centers in a healthcare system by transferring patients at the time of admission from the emergency department of one institution directly to an inpatient bed of the other institution. Over 42 days, 50 patients were transferred which saved 432 bed-days at the home academic medical center without any adverse events during transfer or upgrades to the ICU within the first 24 hours of admission. Programs like this can expand a healthcare system's ability to allocate personnel and resources efficiently for patients and maximize the quality of care delivered even during a pandemic.

7.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272762

RESUMO

Whether affecting children or adults, SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) can have multi-organ involvement mediated by an inflammatory cascade. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is one of the key components of the inflammatory cascade that can lead to endothelial injury and inflammation. IgA vasculitis or Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) has been rarely reported in the context of COVID-19. In this report, we highlight a case of HSP occurring 2 days after diagnosis of COVID-19 in a 16-year-old boy, who presented with palpable purpura of the lower extremities and buttocks, diffuse abdominal pain, hemoptysis, and hematochezia. He was treated with oral prednisolone with rapid clinical improvement.

8.
ESMO Open ; 6(4): 100172, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 80% of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) patients harbor the (nucleophosmin) NPM1-ALK fusion gene t(2;5) chromosomal translocation. We evaluated the preclinical and clinical efficacy of ceritinib treatment of this aggressive lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the effects of ceritinib treatment in NPM1-ALK+ T-cell lymphoma cell lines in vitro and on tumor size and survival advantage in vivo utilizing tumor xenografts. We treated an NPM1-ALK+ ALCL patient with ceritinib. We reviewed all hematologic malignancies profiled by a large hybrid-capture next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based comprehensive genomic profiling assay for ALK alterations. RESULTS: In our in vitro experiments, ceritinib inhibited constitutive activation of the fusion kinase NPM1-ALK and downstream effector molecules STAT3, AKT, and ERK1/2, and induced apoptosis of these lymphoma cell lines. Cell cycle analysis following ceritinib treatment showed G0/G1 arrest with a concomitant decrease in the percentage of cells in S and G2/M phases. Further, treatment with ceritinib in the NPM1-ALK+ ALCL xenograft model resulted in tumor regression and improved survival. Of 19 272 patients with hematopoietic diseases sequenced, 58 patients (0.30%) harbored ALK fusions that include histiocytic disorders, multiple myeloma, B-cell neoplasms, Castleman's disease, and juvenile xanthogranuloma. A multiple relapsed NPM1-ALK+ ALCL patient treated with ceritinib achieved complete remission with ongoing clinical benefit to date, 5 years after initiation of therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This ceritinib translational study in NPM1-ALK+ ALCL provides a strong rationale for a prospective study of ceritinib in ALK+ T-cell lymphomas and other ALK+ hematologic malignancies.

9.
Am J Emerg Med ; 50: 10-13, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271230

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the association of imaging features of acute pancreatitis (AP) with the magnitude of lipase elevation in Emergency Department (ED) patients. METHODS: This Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study included 509 consecutive patients presenting from 9/1/13-8/31/15 to a large academic ED with serum lipase levels ≥3× the upper limit of normal (ULN) (≥180 U/L). Patients were excluded if they did not have imaging (n = 131) or had a history of trauma, abdominal metastases, altered mental status, or transfer from an outside hospital (n = 190); the final study population was 188 patients. Imaging exams were retrospectively evaluated, and a consensus opinion of two subspecialty-trained abdominal radiologists was used to diagnose AP. Primary outcome was presence of imaging features of AP stratified by lipase level (≥3×-10× ULN and > 10× ULN). Secondary outcome was rate of discordant consensus evaluation compared to original radiologist's report. RESULTS: 25.0% of patients (47/188) had imaging features of AP. When lipase was >10× ULN (n = 94), patients were more likely to have imaging features of AP (34%) vs. those with mild elevation (16%) (p = 0.0042). There was moderately strong correlation between lipase level and presence of imaging features of AP (r = 0.48, p < 0.0001). Consensus review of CT and MRI images was discordant with the original report in 14.9% (28/188) of cases. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of imaging signs of AP in an ED population with lipase ≥3× ULN undergoing imaging is low. However, the probability of imaging features of AP increases as lipase value increases.

10.
Ann Emerg Med ; 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272104

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Emergency departments (EDs) often serve vulnerable populations who may lack primary care and have suffered disproportionate COVID-19 pandemic effects. Comparing patients having and lacking a regular source of medical care and other ED patient characteristics, we assessed COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, reasons for not wanting the vaccine, perceived access to vaccine sites, and willingness to get the vaccine as part of ED care. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted from December 10, 2020, to March 7, 2021, at 15 safety net US EDs. Primary outcomes were COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, reasons for vaccine hesitancy, and sites (including EDs) for potential COVID-19 vaccine receipt. RESULTS: Of 2,575 patients approached, 2,301 (89.4%) participated. Of the 18.4% of respondents who lacked a regular source of medical care, 65% used the ED as their usual source of health care. The overall rate of vaccine hesitancy was 39%; the range among the 15 sites was 28% to 58%. Respondents who lacked a regular source of medical care were more commonly vaccine hesitant than those who had a regular source of medical care (47% versus 38%, 9% difference, 95% confidence interval 4% to 14%). Other characteristics associated with greater vaccine hesitancy were younger age, female sex, Black race, Latinx ethnicity, and not having received an influenza vaccine in the past 5 years. Of the 61% who would accept a COVID-19 vaccine, 21% stated that they lacked a primary physician or clinic at which to receive it; the vast majority (95%) of these respondents would accept the COVID-19 vaccine as part of their care in the ED. CONCLUSION: ED patients who lack a regular source of medical care are particularly hesitant regarding COVID-19 vaccination. Most COVID-19 vaccine acceptors would accept it as part of their care in the ED. EDs may play pivotal roles in COVID-19 vaccine messaging and delivery to highly vulnerable populations.

11.
Int J Pharm ; 606: 120867, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242629

RESUMO

Jatropha pelargoniifolia (JP) is a medicinal plant that is widely used in traditional medicine owing to its broad range of therapeutic activities. Despite its promising pharmacological activities, the use of plant extracts has several limitations which can be overcome using pharmaceutical nanotechnology. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the effect of nanoencapsulation on the antimicrobial and anticancer activities of JP extract. JP-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (JP-CSNPs) were prepared using the ionic gelation method and characterized in terms of size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, and release profile. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the morphology of the nanoparticles. The mean particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency of optimized JP-CSNPs were 185.5 nm, 44 mV, and 78.5%, respectively. The release profile of the JP-CSNPs was mainly dependent on the pH of the surrounding medium, and the JP extract was released in a controlled manner over time. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents in JP extract were 191.8 mg GAE/g extract and 51.4 mg of QE/g extract, respectively. The results of a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that JP-CSNPs retained the antioxidant activity of unencapsulated JP extract. JP-CSNPs also exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria than against gram-negative bacteria, and their minimum inhibitory concentration was 1.6-fold lower than that of blank nanoparticles, indicating the synergy between JP extract and nanoparticles. In vitro cytotoxicity studies using A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells revealed that JP-CSNPs had a 2-fold lower half-maximal inhibitory concentration than free extract. Molecular docking analyses revealed that the active phytoconstituent of JP extract, linarin, binds strongly to the active sites of bacterial DNA gyrase B and human DNA topoisomerase IIα and thus, may inhibit their activities. Computational analysis results supported the in vitro finding that JP-CSNPs act as an anticancer and antimicrobial agent. Taken together, the results of this study highlighted the advantages of using CSNPs as a nanocarrier for herbal extracts, thus providing a potential strategy for improving plant-based therapeutics.

12.
Clin Imaging ; 80: 77-82, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274685

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has resulted in decreases in absolute imaging volumes, however imaging utilization on a per-patient basis has not been reported. Here we compare per-patient imaging utilization, characterized by imaging studies and work relative value units (wRVUs), in an emergency department (ED) during a COVID-19 surge to the same period in 2019. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients presenting to the ED from April 1-May 1, 2020 and 2019. Patients were stratified into three primary subgroups: all patients (n = 9580, n = 5686), patients presenting with respiratory complaints (n = 1373, n = 2193), and patients presenting without respiratory complaints (n = 8207, n = 3493). The primary outcome was imaging studies/patient and wRVU/patient. Secondary analysis was by disposition and COVID status. Comparisons were via the Wilcoxon rank-sum or Chi-squared tests. RESULTS: The total patients, imaging exams, and wRVUs during the 2020 and 2019 periods were 5686 and 9580 (-41%), 6624 and 8765 (-24%), and 4988 and 7818 (-36%), respectively, and the percentage patients receiving any imaging was 67% and 51%, respectively (p < .0001). In 2020 there was a 170% relative increase in patients presenting with respiratory complaints. In 2020, patients without respiratory complaints generated 24% more wRVU/patient (p < .0001) and 33% more studies/patient (p < .0001), highlighted by 38% more CTs/patient. CONCLUSION: We report increased per-patient imaging utilization in an emergency department during COVID-19, particularly in patients without respiratory complaints.

13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 269: 118346, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294353

RESUMO

In the present study, the novel Ag/cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-doped CeO2 quantum dots (QDs) with highly efficient catalytic performance were synthesized using one pot co-precipitation technique, which were then applied in the degradation of methylene blue and ciprofloxacin (MBCF) in wastewater. Catalytic activity against MBCF dye was significantly reduced (99.3%) for (4%) Ag dopant concentration in acidic medium. For Ag/CNC-doped CeO2 vast inhibition domain of G-ve was significantly confirmed as (5.25-11.70 mm) and (7.15-13.60 mm), while medium- to high-concentration of CNC levels were calculated for G + ve (0.95 nm, 1.65 mm), respectively. Overall, (4%) Ag/CNC-doped CeO2 revealed significant antimicrobial activity against G-ve relative to G + ve at both concentrations, respectively. Furthermore, in silico molecular docking studies were performed against selected enzyme targets dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), and DNA gyrase belonging to folate and nucleic acid biosynthetic pathway, respectively to rationalize possible mechanism behind bactericidal potential of CNC-CeO2 and Ag/CNC-CeO2.

14.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(2): 201-209, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250773

RESUMO

Theileriosis is a significant hemoprotozoal disease of domestic and wild ruminants in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Ovines are mainly infected by T. ovis and T. lestoquardi, causing economic losses. Due to data scarceness in the Sulaymaniyah governorate, north of Iraq, this study was conducted to investigate subclinical theileriosis using microscopic examination and PCR. A total of 450 blood samples were collected from eight districts in Sulaymaniyah. The samples were randomly taken from clinically healthy sheep in 40 farms from April to Octo- ber 2017. Following the organism verification, PCR products were sequenced and aligned. The study results revealed that 76.0% (n=342) and 58.0% (n=261) of the examined samples were positive for Theileria spp. by PCR and microscopic examination. T. ovis was reported in 76.0% (n=342) of all tested samples, while T. lestoquardi was present in 28.4% (n=97) of the positive specimens. Higher infection rates were observed during July and August. Analysis of the 18S rRNA gene partial sequence of the studied isolates with corresponding sequences in GenBank showed high degrees of identities with T. ovis and T. lestoquardi isolates reported from Iraq and other countries. T. uilenbergi and T. sp. OT3 were detected only through analysis of obtained partial sequences from Theileria-positive samples. Following analysis, T. uilenbergi isolates represented a high homology degree with Theileria isolates from Iraq and China. The newly identified T. sp. OT3 showed >99% identity with T. sp. OT3 isolates of Chinese and Spanish origin.

15.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(2): 287-292, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250783

RESUMO

Viral diseases have caused devastating effect on poultry industry leading to significant losses in economy of world. In the presented study, the ability of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) to grow in two cell lines was evaluated. Both chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) and DF-1 cells were used and cytopathic effects (CPE) produced by these viruses were observed. The titer of virus in terms of TCID was determined after 24h up to four days for each virus. The same type of CPE was observed for all virus- es used in the study in both DF-1 and CEF cells. IBDV showed CPE causing rounding of cells while NDV caused formation of multicellular large nuclei, cell fusion and rounding of cells. Giant cells with inclusions and aggregation of cells with intact monolayer was observed for AIV. In growth kinetic study, higher titer of IBDV and NDV was observed in CEF cells than DF-1 cells while for AIV, DF-1 cells showed higher titer than CEF cells. These results would be useful for furthers comparative studies on growth of different cell lines of various viruses to find a suitability for vaccine production.

16.
Mar Drugs ; 19(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200759

RESUMO

The new asperorlactone (1), along with the known illudalane sesquiterpene echinolactone D (2), two known pyrones, 4-(hydroxymethyl)-5-hydroxy-2H-pyran-2-one (3) and its acetate 4, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (5), were isolated from a culture of Aspergillus oryzae, collected from Red Sea marine sediments. The structure of asperorlactone (1) was elucidated by HR-ESIMS, 1D, and 2D NMR, and a comparison between experimental and DFT calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. This is the first report of illudalane sesquiterpenoids from Aspergillus fungi and, more in general, from ascomycetes. Asperorlactone (1) exhibited antiproliferative activity against human lung, liver, and breast carcinoma cell lines, with IC50 values < 100 µM. All the isolated compounds were also evaluated for their toxicity using the zebrafish embryo model.

17.
J Neurooncol ; 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218396

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiation necrosis (RN) represents a serious post-radiotherapy complication in patients with brain metastases. Bevacizumab and laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) are viable treatment options, but direct comparative data is scarce. We reviewed the literature to compare the two treatment strategies. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane databases were searched. All studies of patients with RN from brain metastases treated with bevacizumab or LITT were included. Treatment outcomes were analyzed using indirect meta-analysis with random-effect modeling. RESULTS: Among the 18 studies included, 143 patients received bevacizumab and 148 underwent LITT. Both strategies were equally effective in providing post-treatment symptomatic improvement (P = 0.187, I2 = 54.8%), weaning off steroids (P = 0.614, I2 = 25.5%), and local lesion control (P = 0.5, I2 = 0%). Mean number of lesions per patient was not statistically significant among groups (P = 0.624). Similarly, mean T1-contrast-enhancing pre-treatment volumes were not statistically different (P = 0.582). Patterns of radiological responses differed at 6-month follow-ups, with rates of partial regression significantly higher in the bevacizumab group (P = 0.001, I2 = 88.9%), and stable disease significantly higher in the LITT group (P = 0.002, I2 = 81.9%). Survival rates were superior in the LITT cohort, and statistical significance was reached at 18 months (P = 0.038, I2 = 73.7%). Low rates of adverse events were reported in both groups (14.7% for bevacizumab and 12.2% for LITT). CONCLUSION: Bevacizumab and LITT can be safe and effective treatments for RN from brain metastases. Clinical and radiological outcomes are mostly comparable, but LITT may relate with superior survival benefits in select patients. Further studies are required to identify the best patient candidates for each treatment group.

18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013321, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many women experience fear of childbirth (FOC). While fears about childbirth may be normal during pregnancy, some women experience high to severe FOC. At the extreme end of the fear spectrum is tocophobia, which is considered a specific condition that may cause distress, affect well-being during pregnancy and impede the transition to parenthood. Various interventions have been trialled, which support women to reduce and manage high to severe FOC, including tocophobia. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for reducing fear of childbirth (FOC) compared with standard maternity care in pregnant women with high to severe FOC, including tocophobia. SEARCH METHODS: In July 2020, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and reference lists of retrieved studies. We contacted researchers of trials which were registered and appeared to be ongoing. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised clinical trials which recruited pregnant women with high or severe FOC (as defined by the individual trial), for treatment intended to reduce FOC. Two review authors independently screened and selected titles and abstracts for inclusion. We excluded quasi-randomised and cross-over trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological approaches as recommended by Cochrane. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the studies for risk of bias. A third review author checked the data analysis for accuracy. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. The primary outcome was a reduction in FOC. Secondary outcomes were caesarean section, depression, birth preference for caesarean section or spontaneous vaginal delivery, and epidural use. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven trials with a total of 1357 participants. The interventions included psychoeducation, cognitive behavioural therapy, group discussion, peer education and art therapy. We judged four studies as high or unclear risk of bias in terms of allocation concealment; we judged three studies as high risk in terms of incomplete outcome data; and in all studies, there was a high risk of bias due to lack of blinding. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence due to concerns about risk of bias, imprecision and inconsistency. None of the studies reported data about women's anxiety. Participating in non-pharmacological interventions may reduce levels of fear of childbirth, as measured by the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (W-DEQ), but the reduction may not be clinically meaningful (mean difference (MD) -7.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) -12.19 to -1.97; 7 studies, 828 women; low-certainty evidence). The W-DEQ tool is scored from 0 to 165 (higher score = greater fear). Non-pharmacological interventions probably reduce the number of women having a caesarean section (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.89; 5 studies, 557 women; moderate-certainty evidence). There may be little to no difference between non-pharmacological interventions and usual care in depression scores measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (MD 0.09, 95% CI -1.23 to 1.40; 2 studies, 399 women; low-certainty evidence). The EPDS tool is scored from 0 to 30 (higher score = greater depression). Non-pharmacological interventions probably lead to fewer women preferring a caesarean section (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.89; 3 studies, 276 women; moderate-certainty evidence).  Non-pharmacological interventions may increase epidural use compared with usual care, but the 95% CI includes the possibility of a slight reduction in epidural use (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.48; 2 studies, 380 women; low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effect of non-pharmacological interventions for women with high to severe fear of childbirth in terms of reducing fear is uncertain. Fear of childbirth, as measured by W-DEQ, may be reduced but it is not certain if this represents a meaningful clinical reduction of fear. There may be little or no difference in depression, but there may be a reduction in caesarean section delivery. Future trials should recruit adequate numbers of women and measure birth satisfaction and anxiety.

19.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(6): 1170-1183, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167630

RESUMO

Exosomes, a component of extracellular vesicles, are shown to carry important small RNAs, mRNAs, protein, and bioactive lipid from parent cells and are found in most biological fluids. Investigators have demonstrated the importance of mesenchymal stem cells derived exosomes in repairing stroke lesions. However, exosomes from endothelial progenitor cells have not been tested in any stroke model, nor has there been an evaluation of whether these exosomes target/home to areas of pathology. Targeted delivery of intravenous administered exosomes has been a great challenge, and a targeted delivery system is lacking to deliver naïve (unmodified) exosomes from endothelial progenitor cells to the site of interest. Pulsed focused ultrasound is being used for therapeutic and experimental purposes. There has not been any report showing the use of low-intensity pulsed focused ultrasound to deliver exosomes to the site of interest in stroke models. In this proof of principle study, we have shown different parameters of pulsed focused ultrasound to deliver exosomes in the intact and stroke brain with or without intravenous administration of nanobubbles. The study results showed that administration of nanobubbles is detrimental to the brain structures (micro bleeding and white matter destruction) at peak negative pressure of >0.25 megapascal, despite enhanced delivery of intravenous administered exosomes. However, without nanobubbles, pulsed focused ultrasound enhances the delivery of exosomes in the stroke area without altering the brain structures.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Ondas Ultrassônicas
20.
Surg Oncol ; 38: 101618, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153905

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the analgesic efficacy, safety, and local tumor control of iodine-125 (125I) seed brachytherapy (BT) for the management of spine and bone metastases. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases. Data regarding patient demographics, tumor characteristics, procedural parameters, and clinical outcomes were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: Fourteen studies (7 prospective, 7 retrospective) were included, accounting for 689 patients, in our review. Analgesic efficacy was assessed at baseline and various postoperative time points. Significant improvement in pain was noted at 4- and 24-week follow-ups (p < 0.01). Interestingly, all studies that combined 125I seed BT with cement augmentation reported relatively higher levels of pain reduction (mean pain reduction ≥4 points) as compared to the studies which applied 125I seed BT as a stand-alone therapy (mean pain reduction ≥2 points), at the last follow-up. Local tumor control rates ranged widely from 14% to 100% at varying follow-ups. Median overall survival ranged between 10 months and 25 months. The overall complication rate was 19% (130/689) and mainly included minor subcutaneous hemorrhage, fever, myelosuppression, and seed displacement. Metrics assessing performance and quality of life demonstrated significant improvements from baseline to posttreatment. CONCLUSION: 125I seed BT, alone or in conjunction with cement augmentation, may be a viable salvage therapy in appropriately selected patients. However, further studies are needed to analyze the long-term efficacy of this intervention as a palliative and curative modality.

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