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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246322, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285614

RESUMO

Abstract A total of 10 specimens were captured from selected sites of Bajaur Agency FATA, Pakistan using mist nets. The captured specimens were morphologically identified and various morphometric measurements were taken. The head and Body length (HB) of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n=10) was 43±0.11 mm and 45±1.1 respectively. Morphologically identified Pipistrellus kuhlii confirmed as Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus based on 16S rRNA sequences. The DNA sequences were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MN 719478 and MT430902). The available 16S rRNA gene sequences of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were retrieved from NCBI and incorporated in N-J tree analysis. Overall, the interspecific genetic variations among Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were 8% and 1% respectively. In our recommendation, a comprehensive molecular identification of bats is need of hour to report more cryptic and new species from Pakistan.


Resumo Um total de 10 espécimes foi capturado em locais selecionados da Bajaur Agency FATA, Paquistão, usando redes de neblina. Os espécimes capturados foram identificados morfologicamente e várias medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento da cabeça e do corpo (HB) de Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n = 10) foi de 43 ± 0,11 mm e 45 ± 1,1, respectivamente. Pipistrellus kuhlii identificado morfologicamente e confirmado como Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus com base em sequências de rRNA 16S. As sequências de DNA foram submetidas ao GenBank e os números de acesso foram obtidos (MN 719478 e MT430902). As sequências do gene 16S rRNA disponíveis de Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus foram recuperadas do NCBI e incorporadas na análise da árvore N-J. No geral, as variações genéticas interespecíficas entre Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus foram de 8% e 1%, respectivamente. Em nossa recomendação, uma identificação molecular abrangente de morcegos precisa de uma hora para relatar mais espécies crípticas e novas do Paquistão.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285627

RESUMO

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285638

RESUMO

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e245261, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249221

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was planned to determine variations in external and internal quality egg parameters of different avian species including ostrich Struthio camelus, ducks Anas platyrhynchos, chicken Gallus gallus, turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and grey francolin Francolinus pondicerinus. All the birds were kept under similar rearing conditions. A total of 150 eggs were collected for each species to record external features of these eggs. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations were recorded in egg weight, egg length and egg width between ostrich, ducks, chicken, turkey and quail eggs. Significantly (p<0.05) higher egg weight, egg length and egg width was observed for ostrich eggs while the same was lowest for grey francolin eggs. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) greater shape index and egg volume values were observed for ostrich eggs while lowest shape index values were recorded for turkey eggs and egg volume was lowest for grey francolin. Significantly, higher (p<0.05) values of egg density were noted for eggs of the quail and the same were lowest for ostrich eggs. Non-significant variations in egg density values were observed between eggs of the ducks, chicken, turkey and grey francolin. It has been concluded that the positive correlations between the internal and external egg quality traits indicated that the traits can be improved through selection.


Resumo O presente estudo foi planejado para determinar variações nos parâmetros externos e internos de qualidade dos ovos de diferentes espécies de aves, incluindo avestruz Struthio camelus, patos Anas platyrhynchos, frango Gallus gallus, perus Meleagris gallopavo e francolin cinza Francolinus pondicerinus. Todas as aves foram mantidas em condições de criação semelhantes. Um total de 150 ovos foi coletado para cada espécie para registrar as características externas desses ovos. Variações estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05) foram registradas no peso do ovo, comprimento do ovo e largura do ovo entre os ovos de avestruz, patos, galinha, peru e codorna. Significativamente (p < 0,05) maior peso do ovo, comprimento e largura do ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto o mesmo foi menor para ovos de francolina cinza. Da mesma forma, significativamente (p < 0,05) maiores valores de índice de forma e volume de ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto os menores valores de índice de forma foram registrados para ovos de peru e o volume de ovo foi menor para francolina cinza. Significativamente, maiores (p < 0,05) valores de densidade de ovos foram observados para ovos de codorna e os mesmos foram menores para ovos de avestruz. Variações não significativas nos valores de densidade de ovos foram observadas entre os ovos de pato, frango, peru e francolina cinza. Concluiu-se que as correlações positivas entre as características internas e externas de qualidade do ovo indicaram que as características podem ser melhoradas por meio da seleção.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247181, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495161

RESUMO

The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , China , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468515

RESUMO

During this one year study, blood and fecal samples of doves (Zenaida asiatica), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), pigeons (Columba livia), partridges (Alectoris chukar), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and goose (Chen caerulescens) were collected to assess the parasitic prevalence in these birds. The birds were kept at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. All these avian species were kept in separate cages and their entire body was inspected on regularly basis to record external parasites. For internal parasites, 100 blood and 100 fecal samples for each species were analyzed. During present study, two species of ectoparasites i.e. fowl ticks (Args persicus) and mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) while 17 species of endoparasites; three from blood and 14 from fecal samples were identified. Prevalence of blood parasites was Plasmodium juxtanucleare 29.3%, Aegyptinella pullorum 15% and Leucoctoyzoon simond 13%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 50%, Capillaria anatis 40%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%, Ascardia galli 24% and Allodpa suctoria 2%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 12.1% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 9.1% were also recorded from fecal samples of the birds. Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 27% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having prevalence 20.1%, Histomonas meleagridis 8% and Giardia lamblia 5.3% were recorded. In our recommendation, proper medication and sanitation of the bird's houses and cages is recommended to avoid parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Parasitos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Columbidae , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246243, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468516

RESUMO

The present study reports the existence of cliff racer, Platyceps rhodorachis from the plains of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 10 specimens were captured during the field surveys from June to September, 2018 from different sites of Punjab. Platyceps rhodorachis was identify on the basis of morphology and confirmed through COI gene sequences. The obtained DNA sequences have shown reliable and exact species identification. Newly produced DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MK936174.1, MK941839.1 and MT790210.1). N-J tree based on COI sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis clearly separated as out-group with other members of family Colubridae based on p-distance. The intra-specific genetic variation ranges from 12% to 18%. The DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis kashmirensis, Platyceps rhodorachis ladacensis, Platyceps ventromaculatus, Platyceps ventromaculatus bengalensis and Platyceps ventromaculatus indusai are not available at NCBI to validate their taxonomic positions. In our recommendations, a large scale molecular based identification of Pakistan's herpetofauna is required to report more new or subspecies from country.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Animais , Paquistão , Filogenia , Filogeografia
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468531

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that arsenic crosses the placenta and affects the fetus development. The study under consideration aims to show comparative ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced fetus toxicity of mice. Pregnant mice (N=44) were kept in lab and divided into eleven group from (A to K) and were orally administered the doses 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg for sodium arsenate, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (MOLE) and 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera flower extracts (MOFE) comparing with control. The investigation revealed evident reduction in the fetuses weight, hind limb, fore limb, tail and snout length, crown rump and head circumferences well as malformations in tail, feet, arms, legs, skin and eyes in the negative control group (only administered with sodium arsenate). Co-administration of sodium arsenate with MOLE and MOFE ameliorate the reversed effect of sodium arsenate on the shape, length, body weight and DNA damage of fetus significantly at 95% confidence interval. However, Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed more significant results in comparison to Moringa oleifera flower extract. Hence concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorated the embryo toxic effects of sodium arsenate and can be used against environmental teratogens.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Animais , Arseniatos , Dano ao DNA , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246322, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431908

RESUMO

A total of 10 specimens were captured from selected sites of Bajaur Agency FATA, Pakistan using mist nets. The captured specimens were morphologically identified and various morphometric measurements were taken. The head and Body length (HB) of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n=10) was 43±0.11 mm and 45±1.1 respectively. Morphologically identified Pipistrellus kuhlii confirmed as Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus based on 16S rRNA sequences. The DNA sequences were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MN 719478 and MT430902). The available 16S rRNA gene sequences of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were retrieved from NCBI and incorporated in N-J tree analysis. Overall, the interspecific genetic variations among Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were 8% and 1% respectively. In our recommendation, a comprehensive molecular identification of bats is need of hour to report more cryptic and new species from Pakistan.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Quirópteros/genética , Paquistão , RNA Ribossômico 16S
10.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 237, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian tuberculosis is a chronic and zoonotic disease that affects a wide variety of birds, mammals, and humans. This study aimed to estimate the frequency of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in some domestic birds based on molecular diagnosis, antibiogram profile, and PCR-based detection of inhA, rpoB, rpsL, and otrB antibiotic resistance-related genes. METHODS: A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from small flocks of house-reared domestic birds at Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. The collected samples were processed and subjected to the bacteriological examination. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the recovered isolates was performed using the broth microdilution method for the detection of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The genetic detection of the IS901confirmatory gene, inhA, rpoB, rpsL, and otrB genes was carried out using PCR. RESULTS: The frequency of M. avium subsp. avium was 4.1% (5/120); 10% (4/40) in ducks, and 2.5% (1/10) in geese. The identification of the recovered isolates was confirmed using PCR, where all the tested isolates were positive for IS901confirmatory gene. The results of the broth microdilution method revealed that most of the recovered isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR) to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, oxytetracycline, and doxycycline, and harbored the inhA, rpoB, rpsL, and otrB genes. CONCLUSION: In brief, to the best of our knowledge this is the first report that emphasized the emergence of avian tuberculosis in house-reared domestic birds in Egypt. The emergence of MDR- M. avium subsp. avium is considered a public health threat. Emerging MDR-M. avium subsp. avium in domestic birds are commonly harbored the IS901, inhA, rpoB, rpsL, and otrB genes. Azithromycin and clofazimine revealed a promising in-vitro antibacterial activity against M. avium subsp. avium.

11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378683

RESUMO

The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Assuntos
Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Carboidratos
12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320050

RESUMO

Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Plumas , Animais , Fermentação , Fungos , Resíduos Industriais , Queratinas/metabolismo
13.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e245261, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076170

RESUMO

Present study was planned to determine variations in external and internal quality egg parameters of different avian species including ostrich Struthio camelus, ducks Anas platyrhynchos, chicken Gallus gallus, turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and grey francolin Francolinus pondicerinus. All the birds were kept under similar rearing conditions. A total of 150 eggs were collected for each species to record external features of these eggs. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations were recorded in egg weight, egg length and egg width between ostrich, ducks, chicken, turkey and quail eggs. Significantly (p<0.05) higher egg weight, egg length and egg width was observed for ostrich eggs while the same was lowest for grey francolin eggs. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) greater shape index and egg volume values were observed for ostrich eggs while lowest shape index values were recorded for turkey eggs and egg volume was lowest for grey francolin. Significantly, higher (p<0.05) values of egg density were noted for eggs of the quail and the same were lowest for ostrich eggs. Non-significant variations in egg density values were observed between eggs of the ducks, chicken, turkey and grey francolin. It has been concluded that the positive correlations between the internal and external egg quality traits indicated that the traits can be improved through selection.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Struthioniformes , Animais , Paquistão
15.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(4): 37, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687594

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This systematic review was performed to evaluate the results of transcatheter mitral valve implantation (TMVI) in the native mitral valve. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central register were systematically searched for studies that reported results of TMVI in mitral valve regurgitation and/or stenosis and mitral annular calcification. To improve the sensitivity of the literature search, we performed citation chasing in Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Twelve studies reporting results of TMVI in mitral regurgitation were retrieved and included 347 patients. The transseptal approach represented 28% of cases. Secondary mitral regurgitation was the predominant indication in 63% of cases. Thirty-day mortality was 11% and was lowered with the transseptal approach (7%). Technical success was 92%. Surgical conversion was needed in 5% of patients. Only one patient presented moderate to severe mitral regurgitation. These hemodynamic results were sustainable up to one year of follow-up. Three series focused on results of TMVI in mitral annulus calcification including 167 patients. Only nine patients were treated with TMVI dedicated prosthesis. Eighty-seven patients had their prosthesis delivered through a transseptal approach. Mitral stenosis was present in 63% of cases. Thirty-day mortality was 24%, and none with TMVI prosthesis. Technical success was achieved in 71% of cases and was improved by using TMVI prosthesis (89%). The main complication was left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (20%). Post procedural moderate to severe mitral regurgitation was observed in 4% of cases. CONCLUSION: TMVI seems to be feasible, achieving good technical success and predictable and durable MR reduction.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Humanos , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Br J Surg ; 108(4): 441-447, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with cIAI in a multicentre study and to develop clinical prediction models (CPMs) to help identify patients at risk of mortality or relapse. METHODS: A multicentre observational study was conducted from August 2016 to February 2017 in the UK. Adult patients diagnosed with cIAI were included. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to develop CPMs for mortality and cIAI relapse. The c-statistic was used to test model discrimination. Model calibration was tested using calibration slopes and calibration in the large (CITL). The CPMs were then presented as point scoring systems and validated further. RESULTS: Overall, 417 patients from 31 surgical centres were included in the analysis. At 90 days after diagnosis, 17.3 per cent had a cIAI relapse and the mortality rate was 11.3 per cent. Predictors in the mortality model were age, cIAI aetiology, presence of a perforated viscus and source control procedure. Predictors of cIAI relapse included the presence of collections, outcome of initial management, and duration of antibiotic treatment. The c-statistic adjusted for model optimism was 0.79 (95 per cent c.i. 0.75 to 0.87) and 0.74 (0.73 to 0.85) for mortality and cIAI relapse CPMs. Adjusted calibration slopes were 0.88 (95 per cent c.i. 0.76 to 0.90) for the mortality model and 0.91 (0.88 to 0.94) for the relapse model; CITL was -0.19 (95 per cent c.i. -0.39 to -0.12) and - 0.01 (- 0.17 to -0.03) respectively. CONCLUSION: Relapse of infection and death after complicated intra-abdominal infections are common. Clinical prediction models were developed to identify patients at increased risk of relapse or death after treatment, these now require external validation.


Assuntos
Regras de Decisão Clínica , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/diagnóstico , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco
17.
Microb Pathog ; 150: 104740, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460748

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus is an infectious pathogen affecting thousands of people causing great damage to the liver and consider an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This research was conducted on 30 patients infected with hepatitis C virus and 10 control normal volunteers after taking consent of them in order to evaluate the liver function and antioxidants profile after treatment with combination of Sofosbuvir and Ribaverin in hepatitis C virus patients. The results showed significant reduction of elevated levels of L-Malondialdhyde, Alanine Aminotrasferase, Aspartate Aminotrasferase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Albumin, Total protein, Total bilirubin and α-fetoprotein mean while significant increase in glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activity upon treatment with combination of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin. In conclusion, the present finding suggest that, treatment of hepatitis C virus patient with combination of Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin significantly improve liver function parameters and antioxidant profile.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Hepatite C Crônica , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Genótipo , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 71: 86-97, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532594

RESUMO

Surgical resection for primary and secondary hepatic neoplasms provides the best chance of cure. Advanced surgical techniques such as portal vein embolisation, two-staged hepatectomy and associated liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged-hepatectomy (ALPPS) have facilitated hepatic resection in patients with previously unresectable, bi-lobar disease. These techniques are frequently employed to ensure favourable clinical outcomes and avoid potentially fatal post-operative complications such as small for size syndrome and post-hepatectomy liver failure. However, they rely on the innate ability of the liver to regenerate. As our knowledge of liver organogenesis, liver regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis has expanded in recent decades it has come to light that liver regeneration may also drive tumour recurrence. Clinical studies in patients undergoing portal vein embolisation indicate that tumours may progress following the procedure in concordance with liver regeneration and hypertrophy, however overall survival in these patients has not been shown to be worse. In this article, we delve into the mechanisms underlying liver regeneration to better understand the complex ways in which this may affect tumour behaviour and ultimately inform clinical decisions.

19.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 1548-1559, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309341

RESUMO

Textiles represent promising support materials for enzymes. The goal of the present work was to investigate the immobilization of commercial peroxidase on a polyester needle felt and the repeated use in the gentle degradation of norbixin in whey from dairy cheese as a practical application. High enzyme loads were obtained by a 2-step immobilization procedure. First, the number of functional groups on the textile surface was increased by a modification with amino-functional polyvinylamine. Second, the enzyme was immobilized by using 2 types of crosslinking agents. Due to the iron content of peroxidase, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was used for the quantitative determination of the enzyme load on the textile. The enzyme activity was evaluated using common 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay for peroxidases. By the variation of enzyme input and crosslinker concentration, a maximal enzyme load of 80 mg/g of textile was achieved, and a maximum specific activity of 57 U/g of textile. For the visualization of the enzyme on the fiber surface, fluorescence microscopy as well as scanning probe microscopy were used. The immobilized peroxidase showed significant activity, even after 50 reuse cycles. In addition, the potential of the new support and enzyme combination in commercial whey bleaching was demonstrated successfully on a 10-L scale.


Assuntos
Clareadores/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Queijo , Peroxidase/química , Soro do Leite/química , Clareadores/metabolismo , Cor , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Poliésteres/química , Têxteis
20.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 168: 109507, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317890

RESUMO

Theranostic applications of radiopharmaceuticals have revolutionized present era specially, dealing with cancer diseases. Increase in the uses of radionuclides in nuclear medicine has resulted in the demands of optimized new radionuclides to be produced focussing on the economy, simplicity and maximum yield. Two radionuclides of arsenic offer a well agreed theranostic systems namely 77As and 72As. Some arsenic radionuclides are capable of positron-emission, with range of hour to weeks half-lives and have potential to be used for nuclear medicine. Present work will elucidate the production of 72As on Germanium and Selenium via proton induced nuclear reactions. The experimental results obtained by several nuclear reactions were analyzed. The results of nuclear model codes namely ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-3.2.3 and TALYS-1.9 are compared with the experimental cross sections to generate recommended cross section data. Recommended excitation functions are used to compute the thick target yields (TTY) of 72As. Assessment of radionuclidic impurities are also studied and comparison of several radionuclidic impurities is done. To produce 72As,72Ge (p, n)72As, 73Ge (p, 2n)72As, 74Ge (p, 3n)72As and 76Se (p, x)72As reactions in different energy ranges are discussed. We have identified 72Ge (p, n)72As reaction; gives pre-eminent yield with least impurities mark it as feasible entrant to be applied in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and theranostic applications.

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