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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373323

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently emerged pandemic caused by a novel virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This disease is communicable and mainly affects the respiratory tract. The outbreak of this disease has greatly influenced human health and economic activities worldwide. The absence of any medication for this infection highlights the urgent need for the development of alternative methods for managing the spread of the disease. Our immune system operates based on a complex array of cells, processes, and chemicals that continuously protect our body from invading pathogens, including viruses, toxins, and bacteria. The present study was conducted to perform a comprehensive review of all dietary treatments for boosting immunity against viral infections. No study was found to explicitly support the use of any healthy foods or supplements to protect against COVID-19. However, this study offers details on well-researched functional foods and supplements that typically improve the immune response, which could be helpful against this newly emerged pandemic.

2.
Int J Phytoremediation ; : 1-13, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232176

RESUMO

Current study explored the effects of municipal sewage (MS) irrigation on heavy metal phyto-accretion, biochemical responses and human health risks of diverse wheat genotypes along with recycled municipal sewage (RMS). Mean concentrations of PO4 3-, NO3 --N, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, K, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni were found higher in MS than irrigation criteria. This led to significant increase in heavy metal contents in roots, stem and grains of MS irrigated wheat genotypes compared to RMS and control treatments. No adverse health risk effects for individual or multiple metals were recorded in RMS irrigated wheat genotypes on grounds of lowest heavy metal accumulation. Multivariate techniques i.e. principal component analyses (PCA) and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analyses (HACA) identified tolerant (inefficient metal accumulators) and sensitive (efficient metal accumulators) wheat genotypes in MS and RMS. Tolerant wheat genotypes showed lowest accumulation of heavy metals, efficient biochemical mechanisms to combat oxidative stress and lower health risks to adults/children. Cultivation of identified tolerant wheat genotypes is recommended in areas receiving municipal wastes to reduce human and environmental health risks. Moreover, genetic potential of identified tolerant wheat genotypes from MS and RMS can be utilized in breeding heavy metal tolerant wheat germplasm worldwide.

3.
Plant Genome ; 13(2): e20030, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016603

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a serious threat to future food security and health safety. To identify genetic factors contributing to Cd uptake in wheat, we conducted a genome-wide association study with genotyping from 90K SNP array. A spring wheat diversity panel was planted under normal conditions and Cd stress (50 mg Cd/kg soil). The impact of Cd stress on agronomic traits ranged from a reduction of 16% in plant height to 93% in grain iron content. Individual genotypes showed a considerable variation for Cd uptake and translocation subdividing the panel into three groups: (1) hyper-accumulators (i.e. high Leaf_Cd and low Seed_Cd ), (2) hyper-translocators (i.e. low Leaf_Cd and high Seed_Cd ), and (3) moderate lines (i.e. low Leaf_Cd and low Seed_Cd ). Two lines (SKD-1 and TD-1) maintained an optimum grain yield under Cd stress and were therefore considered as Cd resistant lines. Genome-wide association identified 179 SNP-trait associations for various traits including 16 for Cd uptake at a significance level of P < .001. However, only five SNPs were significant after applying multiple testing correction. These loci were associated with seed-cadmium, grain-iron, and grain-zinc: qSCd-1A, qSCd-1D, qZn-2B1, qZn-2B2, and qFe-6D. These five loci had not been identified in the previously reported studies for Cd uptake in wheat. These loci and the underlying genes should be further investigated using molecular biology techniques to identify Cd resistant genes in wheat.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Triticum , Cádmio , Grão Comestível/genética , Fenótipo , Triticum/genética
4.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 21(5): 1333-1338, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate P. Aeruginosa isolates from cancer patients for the phenotypic pattern of antibiotic resistance and to detect the gene responsible for virulence as well as antibiotic resistance. METHODS: A total of 227 P. aeruginosa isolates were studied and 11 antibiotics were applied for susceptibility testing. PCR detection of the genes BIC, TEM, IMP, SPM, AIM, KPC, NDM, GIM, VIM, OXA, toxA and oprI was done. Finally, the carbapenem resistant isolates were tested for phenotypic identification of carbapenemase enzyme by Modified Hodge test. RESULTS: The results showed that the isolates were resistant to imipenem (95%), cefipime (93%), meropenem (90%), polymixin B (71%), gentamicin (65%), ciprofloxacin (48%), ceftazidime (40%), levofloxacin (39%), amikacin (32%), tobramycin (28%) and tazobactum (24%). The PCR detection of the carbapenem resistant genes showed 51% isolates were positive for IMP, GIM and VIM, 38% for AIM and SPM, 30% for BIC, 20% for TEM and NDM, 17% for KPC and 15% for OXA. However, toxA and oprI genes were not detected. 154 carbapenem resistant isolates were found positive phenotypically for carbapenemase enzyme identification by Modified Hodge test. CONCLUSION: The co-existence of multiple drug-resistant bodies and virulent genes has important implications for the treatment of patients. This study provides information about treating drug-resistant P. Aeruginosa and the relationship of virulent genes with phenotypic resistance patterns.
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6.
J Food Biochem ; 43(4): e12809, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353587

RESUMO

The study aims to determine drying of sweet potatoes using multifrequency ultrasound (US) pretreatments (20, 40, and 60 kHz) at three different infrared (IR) drying temperatures (60, 70, and 80°C) and evaluate the phytochemical and textural quality of the dried product. Drying time was significantly decreased in moderate US frequency (40 kHz) at 70°C with the increasing drying temperature. Comparing to the fresh samples, the dried samples showed the highest amount of phytochemical contents. The antioxidant activity of the samples increased especially at 60 kHz and 80°C, while US-IR treatments shown a positive impact on total carotenoids contents and ß-carotene. For phenolic compounds, Ellagic acid and Rutin were quantified in higher amount while Quercetin-3-rhamnoside and Quercetin 3-ß-D-glucoside were two new compounds identified for the first time in sweet potatoes. FTIR spectra showed the successful synthesis of OH group and phenolics in samples treated with the US at 20 kHz. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This study investigated the effects of multifrequency ultrasound with different infrared drying temperatures. The study provides evidence that infrared drying application in synergy with ultrasonic pretreatments can improve drying efficiency and food quality much better than using each method alone. Total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents remained stable at US 40 kHz and 60°C conditions. The findings showed that moderate ultrasound frequency (40 kHz) at 60°C improved phytochemical properties while antioxidant activities showed better preservation response at 80°C with 60 kHz. In addition, the samples treated with the same US treatment at 40 kHz showed less cell breakage in SEM analysis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Ipomoea batatas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Tubérculos/química , Carotenoides/química , Flavonoides , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Raios Infravermelhos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tubérculos/efeitos da radiação , Controle de Qualidade , Temperatura , Ultrassom
7.
Food Sci Nutr ; 7(6): 1976-1985, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289645

RESUMO

Antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids, carotenoids, pH, and total titratable acidity of red and black date's vinegar were analyzed. The extraction method was designed and optimized for this purpose with respect to the variety and solvent concentrations along with the time of ultrasonication. The results showed that red dates' vinegar has significantly (p < 0.05) higher total phenols (3.38 ± 0.13 mg GAE/ml) and antioxidant activity as compared to black dates' vinegar, which had a higher amount of carotenoids (3.43 ± 0.11 mg/100 ml). Similarly, red dates' vinegar has more flavonoids as compared to commercially available Zhenjiang vinegar. In terms of physiochemical properties, both red and black date's vinegar were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Use of 50% and 80% methanol with 25 min of ultrasonication for extraction seemed more effective. The total phenols, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, carotenoids, and physiochemical analysis of the red and black date's vinegar indicated that vinegar from dates (red or black dates) is a competitive product in the marketplace.

8.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 21(2): 170-179, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656964

RESUMO

In this study, heavy metal phyto-accumulation potential of selected cultivars of two leafy vegetables on irrigation with municipal wastewater and human health risks were investigated. Municipal wastewater chemistry was recorded significantly different from groundwater control and led to the two-fold high enrichment of soil heavy metal contents (Ni, 19.46; Pb, 23.94; Co, 4.68; Cd, 1.4 in mg/kg, respectively). Interactive effects for phyto-accumulation of most heavy metals were also recorded significant at p < 0.001 in four vegetable cultivars. Heatmap revealed higher accumulation of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Co) in spinach cultivars than lettuce cultivars creating elevated health risk index (HRI) and hazard index (HI) values for adults and children. Highest HI was recorded for Lahori palak (adults, 1.42; children, 2.58) and lowest for iceberg (adults, 0.04; children, 0.07). The NPK supplementation improved mineral composition of leafy vegetables within safer human health limits in control treatments. However, in municipal wastewater treatments, NPK fertilization decreased heavy metal uptake and phyto-accumulation in S2 (Lahori palak) than remaining vegetable cultivars leading to reduced health risk values. Because of higher heavy metal phyto-accumulation and health risks, cultivation of spinach cultivars must be discouraged in agro-ecologies receiving municipal wastes, whereas lettuce cultivars should be promoted.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adulto , Biodegradação Ambiental , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Verduras/química , Águas Residuárias/análise
9.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 20(11): 1152-1161, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156922

RESUMO

Design and implementation of wastewater treatment is inevitable due to toxic effects of wastewater irrigation on crops, soil and human health. Current investigation is the pioneer attempt on full-scale hybrid constructed wetland system (HCWS) built for municipal wastewater treatment from Pakistan. HCWS was comprised of vertical sub-surface flow constructed wetland (VSSF-CW) and five phyto-treatment ponds connected in series. Higher environmental risk was associated with untreated municipal wastewater usage in irrigation as estimated through discharge of metals to recipient soils. Treatment efficiency percentages recorded for HCWS reclaimed water quality parameters were, i.e., EC (56.68), TDS (56.86), alkalinity (39.67), chloride (39.68), sulfate (46.73), Na (28.80), Mn (65.24), Cr (78.07), Ni (81.02), BOD (68.74), total hardness (19.56), Fe (70.09), phosphate (55.40), Pb (80.48), COD (63.64), Mg (17.24), K (60.05), Co (100), Cu (67.73), Zn (59.97), Cd (100), and Ca (21.47) respectively. Wastewater treatment in HCWS was due to aquatic plants [Phragmites australis Cav. Trin. ex Steud., Canna indica L. Typha latifolia L., and Hydrocotyle umbellata L.], microbial activities and substrate based wetland processes. The HCWS treated water was well under irrigation standards and recommended for safer crop production in water scarce regions.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Irrigação Agrícola , Biodegradação Ambiental , Paquistão , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Áreas Alagadas
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(19): 18462-18475, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696543

RESUMO

The current study provides one of the first attempts to identify tolerant, moderately sensitive, and highly sensitive wheat genotypes on the basis of heavy metal accumulation, biochemical attributes, and human health risk assessments on urban wastewater (UW) irrigation. Mean heavy metals (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn) and macro-nutrients (Na, K, Ca, Mg) levels increased in the roots, stem, and grains of studied genotypes. Except K (stem > root > grain), all metals were accumulated in highest concentrations in roots followed by stem and grains. Principal component analyses (PCA) identified three groups of UW-irrigated genotypes which were confirmed by hierarchical agglomerative cluster analyses (HACA). Wheat genotypes with the lowest metal accumulation were regarded as tolerant, whereas those with maximum accumulation were considered highly sensitive. Tolerant genotypes showed the lowest hazard quotient for heavy metals, i.e., Co, Mn, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Cr, and hazard index (HI) values (adults, 2.04; children, 2.27) than moderately and highly sensitive genotypes. Higher health risks (HI) associated with moderate (adults 2.26; children 2.53) and highly sensitive (adults 2.52; children 2.82) genotypes revealed maximum uptake of heavy metals. The heatmap showed higher mean biochemical levels of chlorophyll, carotenoids, membrane stability index (MSI%), sugars, proteins, proline, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in tolerant genotypes than remaining genotypes. With the lowest metal accumulation and advanced biochemical mechanisms to cope with the adverse effects of heavy metals in their plant bodies, tolerant genotypes present a better option for cultivation in areas receiving UW or similar type of wastewater.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/química , Adulto , Criança , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cidades , Genótipo , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
11.
J Food Sci Technol ; 55(3): 1037-1046, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487446

RESUMO

The effect of ultrasound pretreatment using Single Frequency Counter Current Ultrasound (SFCCU) on the enzymolysis of tea residue protein (TRP) extracted with sodium hydroxide was investigated. The concentration of TRP hydrolysate, enzymolysis kinetics and thermodynamic parameters after SFCCU pretreatment were determined and compared with traditional enzymolysis. The results indicated that both ultrasound assisted and traditional enzymolysis conformed to first-order kinetics within the limits of the studied parameters. Temperature and sonication had affirmative effect on the enzymolysis of TRP with temperature yielding greater impact. Michaelis constant (KM ) in ultrasonic pretreated enzymolysis decreased by 32.7% over the traditional enzymolysis. The highest polypeptide concentration of 24.12 mg ml-1 was obtained with the lowest energy requirement at improved conditions of 50 g L-1 of TRP, alcalase concentration of 2000 U g-1, time of 10 min and temperature of 50 °C for the ultrasonic treated enzymolysis. The values of reaction rate constant (k) for TRP enzymolysis increased by 78, 40, 82 and 60% at 20, 30, 40 and 50 °C, respectively. The thermodynamic properties comprising activation energy (Ea), change in enthalpy (∆H) and entropy (∆S) were reduced by ultrasound pretreatment whereas Gibbs free energy (∆G) was increased.

12.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 19(12): 1077-1084, 2017 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678606

RESUMO

Municipal effluent of three rural settings of Islamabad was assessed for physicochemical and microbiological parameters by collecting wastewater from inlet and center of ponds. Results showed that water quality was comparatively better at the center as Typha latifolia plants were growing toward the center of ponds. In another study, the wastewater treatment ability of T. latifolia was investigated by growing them in industrial and municipal effluent under greenhouse conditions. Water and plant samples were collected periodically (3rd, 10th, 17th, 24th, and 31st day after transplanting) for the measurement of Pb, Cu, and Cd concentrations. A decrease in heavy metal concentration of both effluents was observed as the experiment progressed and metal removal percentages ranged between 81% and 96%. Complementary the increase in metal concentration in plant tissues was observed over experimental period. Among plant tissues, metal concentration of Pb was highest i.e. 362 mg kg-1 in roots and 313 mg kg-1 in shoots at end of experiment. Pb, Cu, and Cd concentrations were higher in roots than shoots and hence translocation factors were less than 1.0. Metal removal efficiency was better from industrial wastewater and was in order of Pb > Cu > Cd. T. latifolia can be used for remediation of heavy metal-polluted wastewater.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Typhaceae , Águas Residuárias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Raízes de Plantas , Tanques , Qualidade da Água
13.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 71(1): 97-112, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27000830

RESUMO

The present study was designed to determine the spatiotemporal patterns in water quality of River Soan using multivariate statistics. A total of 26 sites were surveyed along River Soan and its associated tributaries during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in 2008. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) classified sampling sites into three groups according to their degree of pollution, which ranged from least to high degradation of water quality. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) revealed that alkalinity, orthophosphates, nitrates, ammonia, salinity, and Cd were variables that significantly discriminate among three groups identified by HACA. Temporal trends as identified through DFA revealed that COD, DO, pH, Cu, Cd, and Cr could be attributed for major seasonal variations in water quality. PCA/FA identified six factors as potential sources of pollution of River Soan. Absolute principal component scores using multiple regression method (APCS-MLR) further explained the percent contribution from each source. Heavy metals were largely added through industrial activities (28 %) and sewage waste (28 %), nutrients through agriculture runoff (35 %) and sewage waste (28 %), organic pollution through sewage waste (27 %) and urban runoff (17 %) and macroelements through urban runoff (39 %), and mineralization and sewage waste (30 %). The present study showed that anthropogenic activities are the major source of variations in River Soan. In order to address the water quality issues, implementation of effective waste management measures are needed.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Paquistão , Qualidade da Água
14.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; 86(3-4): 127-151, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580192

RESUMO

While the use of vinegar to fi ght against infections and other crucial conditions dates back to Hippocrates, recent research has found that vinegar consumption has a positive effect on biomarkers for diabetes, cancer, and heart diseases. Different types of vinegar have been used in the world during different time periods. Vinegar is produced by a fermentation process. Foods with a high content of carbohydrates are a good source of vinegar. Review of the results of different studies performed on vinegar components reveals that the daily use of these components has a healthy impact on the physiological and chemical structure of the human body. During the era of Hippocrates, people used vinegar as a medicine to treat wounds, which means that vinegar is one of the ancient foods used as folk medicine. The purpose of the current review paper is to provide a detailed summary of the outcome of previous studies emphasizing the role of vinegar in treatment of different diseases both in acute and chronic conditions, its in vivo mechanism and the active role of different bacteria.

15.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 16(6): 572-81, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24912243

RESUMO

Phytoremediation is a promising cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost. The objective of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of phytoremediation on municipal wastewater (MWW). For this purpose, a phytoremediation garden was established using different aquatic plants species [Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipess, Hydrocotyle umbellatta, Lemna minor, Tyhpa latifolia, and Scirpus acutus] in seven earthen pond systems (P1-P7) for the cyclic treatment of MWW. The physico-chemical analysis of MWW was carried out before and after the cyclic phytoremediation. Results showed that pH, EC and turbidity of MWW were reduced by 5.5%, 33.7%, and 93.1%, respectively after treatment (from P1 to P7). Treatment system also reduced total dissolved solids (TDS) by 35.2%, Cl by 61%, HCO3 by 29.2%, hardness by 45.7%, Ca by 32.3% and Mg by 55.9%. Nitrate concentration was reduced by 77.6% but SO4 was enhanced slightly. An ameliorative combined effect of wetland plants namely L. minor, T. latifolia, and S. acutus on MWW was noticed. Sequential phytoremediation with a mixture of plants was more effective than that relying only on a single plant species.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Araceae/metabolismo , Araliaceae/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cyperaceae/metabolismo , Eichhornia/metabolismo , Tanques , Typhaceae/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Áreas Alagadas
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