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1.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973362

RESUMO

Advancements in technology and data collection generated immense amounts of information from various sources such as health records, clinical examination, imaging, medical devices, as well as experimental and biological data. Proper management and analysis of these data via high-end computing solutions, artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches can assist in extracting meaningful information that enhances population health and well-being. Furthermore, the extracted knowledge can provide new avenues for modern healthcare delivery via clinical decision support systems. This manuscript presents a narrative review of data science approaches for clinical decision support systems in orthodontics. We describe the fundamental components of data science approaches including (a) Data collection, storage and management; (b) Data processing; (c) In-depth data analysis; and (d) Data communication. Then, we introduce a web-based data management platform, the Data Storage for Computation and Integration, for temporomandibular joint and dental clinical decision support systems.

2.
Int Orthod ; 19(2): 216-227, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967011

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to three-dimensionally compare the root angulation changes after orthodontic traction of buccally versus palatally maxillary impacted canines (MICs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study included patients from a private dental office of both sexes, older than 12 years, with at least one unilateral or bilateral buccal or palatal MIC, no loss of permanent teeth, with complete apical closure at the beginning of traction, and with CBCTs taken at pretreatment (T0) and after orthodontic traction (T1). The sample was divided in two groups according to their impaction site: buccal versus palatal. In all the scans, the MIC was segmented and the root angulation changes after traction were evaluated. The assessment included the sigma angle (projected on the XZ plane or coronal tomographic view), the delta angle (projected on the XY plane or axial view) and the epsilon angle (projected on the YZ plane, or sagittal view). Intragroup comparisons were performed with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Intergroup comparisons were performed with t-tests or Mann-Whitney U tests. Finally, the influence of MIC characteristics on the measured angles were evaluated with multiple linear regression analyses (α=0.05). RESULTS: Thirty-three patients (16 men, mean age: 20.38; 17 women, mean age 18.37) with forty-five orthodontically treated MIC (19 buccal versus 26 palatal) were finally included. The palatal MICs showed greater mediolateral uprighting than the buccal MICs, root displacement towards the midsagittal plane, as demonstrated by the sigma angle (palatal group: 37.58±15.08°; buccal group: 29.17±31.15°; P=0.164) and delta (palatal group: -76.90±26.55°; buccal group: -30.56±41.67°; P<0.001)angle changes. The buccal MICs showed greater anteroposterior uprighting, anterior root displacement, as demonstrated by the epsilon angle (palatal group: -4.63±12.37°; buccal group: -25.96±17.79°; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Mediolateral and anteroposterior root angulation show significant differences after traction between buccal and palatal MICs. Palatal MICs showed greater medial root displacement while buccal MICs showed greater anterior root displacement. This condition should be considered for better planning of traction and orthodontic finishing.

3.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(6): 714-723.e1, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795189

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This single-center, 2-arm, parallel-group randomized clinical trial aimed to compare the dimensional dental arch changes after anterior open bite (AOB) treatment with bonded spurs associated with posterior build-ups vs bonded spurs alone. METHODS: Patients aged between 7 and 11 years with AOB were recruited at a university clinic and randomly allocated into 2 groups. The experimental group was treated with bonded spurs associated with posterior build-ups (SBU) and the comparison group with bonded spurs alone (S). Digital dental models were obtained at pretreatment and after 12 months of treatment. The overbite change was the primary outcome. The randomization list was obtained at the Web site www.randomization.com. Allocation concealment involved sequentially numbered, sealed, and opaque envelopes. The outcomes' assessment was blinded. Analysis of covariance was used for intergroup comparisons (P <0.05). Mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (mean age, 8.22 ± 1.06 years; 7 males and 17 females) were included in the SBU group, and 25 patients (mean age, 8.30 ± 0.99 years; 11 males and 14 females) were included in the comparison group. After a 12-month follow-up, the overbite increased approximately 4 mm in both groups (MD, -0.11 mm; 95% CI, -1.03 to 0.80). Means of anterior dentoalveolar vertical development ranged from 2.24 mm (S group) to 2.49 mm (SBU group) and from 1.31 mm (SBU group) to 1.55 mm (S group) for the maxilla (MD, -0.24 mm; 95% CI, -0.91 to 0.44) and mandible (MD, 0.29 mm; 95% CI, -0.39 to 0.96), respectively. The maxillary intermolar distance decreased in the SBU group and increased in the S group (MD, -0.48 mm; 95% CI, -0.92 to -0.03). The mandibular intermolar distance increased in the SBU group and decreased in the comparison group (MD, 0.26 mm; 95% CI, 0.004-0.52). Plaque accumulation around the spurs was observed in some patients. CONCLUSIONS: Both protocols demonstrated similar improvements in the AOB with similar effects on the dental arches. The SBU group showed a slight decrease in the maxillary intermolar distance and a slight increase in the mandibular intermolar distance, whereas opposite changes were observed for the S group. REGISTRATION: This trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier NCT03702881). PROTOCOL: The study protocol was not published. FUNDING: This work was supported by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) grants nos. 2017/06440-3, 2018/05238-9, and 2018/24003-2; and financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-Brasil (CAPES), Finance Code 001.


Assuntos
Mordida Aberta , Brasil , Criança , Arco Dental , Dentição Mista , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula , Mordida Aberta/terapia
4.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(3): 258-270, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495062

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the 3-dimensional changes in alveolar bone morphology after traction of buccally vs palatally unilateral maxillary impacted canines (MIC). METHODS: Following a split-mouth model, 27 cone-beam computed tomography images of unilaterally MIC (14 palatally and 13 buccally) and 27 contralateral unimpacted controls were obtained before and after traction using nickel-titanium closed-coil springs and a rigid anchorage appliance. Alveolar bone height and width were measured in the axial, coronal, and sagittal slides by 3 calibrated orthodontists, taking into account the impaction characteristics. A t test was used to compare the 2 groups, and a paired t test was applied for intragroup comparisons (both sides). A multiple linear regression model was used to evaluate the influence of the predictor variables on alveolar bone dimensional changes. RESULTS: The alveolar height showed a significantly greater decrease in palatally MIC (2.09 to 2.79 mm) than buccally MIC (0.28 to 0.57 mm) (P <0.05) for all surfaces. However, the alveolar width increased similarly in both groups up to 1.36 mm. In general, the affected side had a more significant height loss and greater increases in alveolar width than the nonaffected side. Regression analysis indicated that buccally MIC and age decreased alveolar changes, whereas female sex increased alveolar changes (P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MIC traction with nickel-titanium closed-coil springs and heavy anchorage induces significant 3-dimensional changes in alveolar bone characterized by alveolar bone height decreases and cervical alveolar bone width increases. The height decrease is greater in palatally than in buccally MIC.


Assuntos
Dente Impactado , Tração , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Dente Canino/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Incisivo , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dente Impactado/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 25(6): 33-42, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1154050

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Controversial reports suggest a relationship between growth pattern and cortical alveolar bone thickness, and its effect in the use of mini-implants. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the growth pattern on the cortical alveolar bone thickness and on the stability and success rate of mini-implants. Methods: Fifty-six mini-implants were inserted in the buccal region of the maxilla of 30 patients. These patients were allocated into two groups, based on their growth pattern (horizontal group [HG] and vertical group [VG]). Cortical thickness was measured using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Stability of mini-implants, soft tissue in the insertion site, sensitivity during loading and plaque around the mini-implants were evaluated once a month. Intergroup comparisons were performed using t tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and Fisher exact tests. Correlations were evaluated with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The cortical bone thickness was significantly greater in the HG at the maxillary labial anterior region and at the mandibular buccal posterior and labial anterior regions. There was a significant negative correlation between Frankfort-mandibular plane angle (FMA) and the labial cortical thickness of the maxilla, and with the labial and lingual cortical bone thicknesses of the mandible. No significant intergroup difference was found for mini-implant mobility and success rate. No associated factor influenced stability of the mini-implants. Conclusions: Growth pattern affects the alveolar bone cortical thickness in specific areas of the maxilla and mandible, with horizontal patients presenting greater cortical bone thickness. However, this fact may have no influence on the stability and success rate of mini-implants in the maxillary buccal posterior region.


RESUMO Introdução: Relatos controversos sugerem uma relação entre o padrão de crescimento e a espessura do osso alveolar cortical e seu efeito no uso de mini-implantes. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do padrão de crescimento na espessura do osso cortical alveolar e na estabilidade e taxa de sucesso dos mini-implantes. Métodos: Cinquenta e seis mini-implantes foram inseridos na região vestibular da maxila de trinta pacientes. Esses pacientes foram alocados em dois grupos, com base em seu padrão de crescimento (grupo horizontal [GH] e grupo vertical [GV]). As espessuras corticais foram medidas por meio de tomografias computadorizadas de feixe cônico. A estabilidade dos mini-implantes, tecido mole no local de inserção, sensibilidade durante a carga e o acúmulo de placa ao redor dos mini-implantes foram avaliados uma vez por mês. As comparações intergrupos foram realizadas por testes t de Student, testes de Mann-Whitney e testes exatos de Fisher. As correlações foram avaliadas com o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. Resultados: A espessura do osso cortical foi significativamente maior no GH na região vestibular anterior da maxila e nas regiões vestibulares posterior e anterior da mandíbula. Houve uma correlação negativa significativa entre o ângulo do plano mandibular (FMA) e a espessura da cortical vestibular da maxila, e com a espessura das corticais vestibular e lingual da mandíbula. Nenhuma diferença significativa entre os grupos foi encontrada com relação à mobilidade do mini-implante e taxa de sucesso. Nenhum fator associado influenciou a estabilidade dos mini-implantes. Conclusões: O padrão de crescimento afeta a espessura da cortical óssea alveolar em áreas específicas da maxila e mandíbula, com pacientes horizontais apresentando maior espessura da cortical óssea. No entanto, esse fato pode não ter influência na estabilidade e na taxa de sucesso dos mini-implantes na região vestibular posterior da maxila.

6.
Angle Orthod ; 90(5): 627-633, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the stability of maxillary interincisor diastema closure and the relationship between space relapse and interincisor diastema width, overjet, overbite, angulations between adjacent maxillary anterior teeth and presence of intermaxillary osseous cleft after orthodontic treatment with extractions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four individuals with a maxillary interincisor diastema pretreatment, treated with maxillary first premolar extractions were evaluated. Dental casts and panoramic radiographs taken at pretreatment (T1), posttreatment (T2), and posttreatment follow-up (T3) were assessed. Periapical radiographs at T1 and T2 were also evaluated. Diastema relapse was assumed when T3-T2 interincisor space change was greater than zero. Diastema relapse was considered clinically significant when it was at least 0.50 mm. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by post hoc Tukey tests or Friedman followed by Wilcoxon tests. T-test or Mann-Whitney U-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression analyses were also performed. RESULTS: No statistically significant relapse of maxillary interincisor diastemas was found. The percentage of clinically significant relapse of the maxillary interincisor diastemas was 27.78%. Specifically, for the interincisor midline diastema, it was 8.33%. CONCLUSIONS: Maxillary interincisor diastema closure showed no statistically significant relapse after orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions. Clinically significant stability for maxillary interincisor diastema closure was 72.22% and, specifically, for interincisor midline diastema closure, it was 91.67%.


Assuntos
Diastema , Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle , Sobremordida , Diastema/terapia , Humanos , Incisivo , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221096

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This single-center 2-arm parallel randomized clinical trial aimed to compare the dentoskeletal effects of bonded spurs combined with posterior build-ups vs conventional bonded spurs in the treatment of anterior open bite malocclusion in the mixed dentition. METHODS: Patients aged from 7 to 11 years with anterior open bite, recruited at a university orthodontic clinic, were randomly allocated into 2 groups. The experimental group consisted of patients treated with bonded spurs combined with posterior build-ups. The comparison group comprised patients treated with conventional bonded spurs. Lateral headfilms were obtained at pretreatment and after 12 months of treatment. The primary outcome was the change in the overbite. Randomization was performed using the Web site www.randomization.com. Sequentially numbered opaque and sealed envelopes were used for allocation concealment. Blinding was applicable for outcome assessment only. Intergroup comparisons were performed using t or Mann-Whitney U tests (P <0.05). Mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. RESULTS: The experimental group included 24 patients (17 female, 7 male; mean age, 8.22 ± 1.06 years) and the comparison group comprised 25 patients (14 female, 11 male; mean age, 8.30 ± 0.99 years). Baseline demographic and cephalometric characteristics were similar between groups. After 12 months, all patients showed improvements. Both groups showed similar improvements of the overbite (MD, 0.00 mm; 95% CI, -0.92 to 0.91), similar slight decreases of the gonial (MD, 0.02°; 95% CI, -1.11 to 1.15) and mandibular plane (MD, 0.15°; 95% CI, -0.64 to 0.93) angles, and similar mandibular molar extrusion (MD, 0.14 mm; 95% CI, -0.27 to 0.56). The experimental group showed significantly smaller extrusion of the maxillary first molar than the comparison group (MD, -0.70 mm; 95% CI, -0.92 to -0.49). The other dentoskeletal variables showed similar changes without statistically significant intergroup differences. No serious harm was observed other than plaque accumulation around the spurs. CONCLUSIONS: Similar overbite increases and dentoskeletal changes were observed in both groups after 12 months of treatment. Although the experimental group showed significantly smaller extrusion of the maxillary molars, no greater counterclockwise rotation of the mandible than the comparison group was observed. REGISTRATION: This trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier NCT03702881). PROTOCOL: The protocol was not published. FUNDING: This trial was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES), Finance Code 001; and by grants: no. 2017/06440-3, no. 2018/05238-9 and no. 2018/24003-2, São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP).

8.
Odontol. sanmarquina (Impr.) ; 23(04)2020-11-13.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140467

RESUMO

Objetivo. Analizar las tomografías computarizadas de haz cónico (CBCT), de sujetos con diferente biotipo facial y diferente patrón esquelético para comparar el volumen de la vía aérea orofaríngea. Métodos. El estudio fue de carácter descriptivo y transversal. La muestra estuvo formada por 55 tomografías cone beam pertenecientes a sujetos de 15 a 43 años. Las tomografías se agruparon según el biotipo facial, el patrón esquelético y por grupos etarios (15 - 20, 21 - 29, y 30 - 43 años). Se crearon cefalogramas virtuales para hallar el índice de Vert y el ángulo ANB. Los datos fueron analizados mediante las pruebas estadísticas: U de Mann-Whitney, ANOVA y Kruskal-Wallis. Resultados. No se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre el volumen orofaríngeo y el biotipo facial, ni entre el volumen orofaríngeo y el patrón esquelético. Se observó que los volúmenes más bajos fueron registrados en sujetos con patrón esquelético clase II ( =8,70±3,60 cm3) y en sujetos con biotipo braquifacial ( =8,87±2,96 cm3). No hubo diferencia significativa entre el volumen y el sexo de los sujetos (p>0,05). El grupo de 15 a 20 años presentó el mayor volumen orofaríngeo ( =11,16±5,64 cm3). Adicionalmente, se registró una correlación negativa entre el volumen orofaríngeo y el ángulo ANB (r=-0,31, p=0,02). Conclusiones. El volumen orofaríngeo según el biotipo facial y el patrón esquelético no presenta una variación significativa para la muestra analizada. Además, el volumen orofaríngeo no varía de acuerdo al sexo, y es mayor entre los 15 y 20 años.


Objective. To analyze the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of subjects with different facial biotype and different skeletal patterns to compare the volume of the oropharyngeal airway. Methods. The study was descriptive and cross-sectional. The sample consisted of 55 cone-beam scans belonging to subjects aged 15 to 43 years. The cone beam scans were grouped according to facial biotype, skeletal pattern, sex, and age groups (15 - 20, 21 - 29, and 30 - 43 years old). Cephalograms were created from the tomography to find the Vert index and the ANB angle. Data were analyzed using statistical tests: U of Mann-Whitney, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis. Results. No statistically significant difference was found between oropharyngeal volume and facial biotype, nor between oropharyngeal volume and skeletal pattern. The lowest volumes were identified in subjects with class II skeletal pattern ( = 8.70 ± 3.60 cm3), and in subjects with brachyfacial biotype ( = 8.87 ± 2.96 cm3). There was no significant difference between volume and sex (p> 0.05). The 15-20-year-old group presented the highest volume of oropharyngeal ( =11.16 ± 5.64 cm3). Also, a negative correlation was recorded between oropharyngeal volume and the ANB angle (r= -0.31, p= 0.02). Conclusions. Oropharyngeal volume according to facial biotype and the skeletal pattern does not present a significant variation for the analyzed sample. Also, the oropharyngeal volume does not vary according to sex, and the volume is greater between 15 and 20 years.

9.
Eur J Orthod ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To quantify the expected amount of orthodontically induced root resorption (OIRR) after orthodontic intrusion and assess the treatment-related factors. SEARCH METHODS AND ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Six electronic databases and partial grey literature were searched without limitations regarding language or publication year until April 2020. Randomized clinical trials and non-randomized prospective and retrospective studies evaluating root resorption after orthodontic intrusion were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Risk of bias (RoB) assessment was performed with the Cochrane Collaboration's RoB Tool 2.0 and ROBINS-I tool for the randomized and non-randomized studies, respectively. The data were combined into two random-effects meta-analyses estimating OIRR following orthodontic intrusion. One evaluated OIRR in the anterior region, while the other assessed OIRR in the posterior region. Sub-group analyses regarding the type of mechanics applied, duration of intrusion, amount of force, and sensitivity analysis of the study design and imaging examinations were also performed. The certainty of the evidence was assessed through the Grade of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS: The qualitative analysis included 14 studies; however, the meta-analysis was performed with 7 records. The random-effects model assumes that 0.72 mm [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16 to 1.28] and 0.41 mm (95% CI: -0.24 to 1.07) of OIRR should be expected in the incisors and the molars, respectively. Sub-group analyses showed that the assessed treatment-related factors presented minimum impact in OIRR after orthodontic intrusion. The GRADE resulted in moderate and low certainty regarding the meta-analysis. LIMITATIONS: The major limitation of the present meta-analysis is that OIRR can be affected by several factors, some of which are assessed in this review. CONCLUSIONS: Orthodontic intrusion, evaluated as an isolated mechanic, caused less than 1 mm of OIRR, which is within the acceptable limits for clinical implication. Treatment-related factors did not show a significant influence on OIRR. REGISTRATION: This review was registered in PROSPERO, protocol number CRD42018098495.

10.
Eur J Orthod ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840319

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare posterior crossbite correction frequency and dentoalveolar changes of the expander with differential opening (EDO) and the fan-type expander (FE). TRIAL DESIGN: Two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Forty-eight patients from 7 to 11 years of age were allocated into two groups. Twenty-four patients were treated with the EDO and 24 patients were treated with the FE. Block randomization was performed. The study was single blind. Digital dental models were acquired before treatment and 6 months after rapid maxillary expansion. The primary outcomes were crossbite correction rate and maxillary arch width changes. Secondary outcomes were interincisal diastema, arch perimeter, length, size and shape, and mandibular dental arch changes. RESULTS: The final sample comprised 24 patients (13 female and 11 male; mean initial age of 7.62 years) in the EDO group and 24 patients (14 female and 10 male; mean initial age of 7.83 years) in the FE group. The crossbites were corrected in 100 per cent of subjects from EDO group and in 75 per cent of patients in FE group. EDO showed greater increases in maxillary intermolar region (P < 0.001), while the FE demonstrated greater increases in the intercanine distance (P = 0.008). Increase in mandibular inter-first permanent molar distance was slightly greater in the EDO group (mean difference of 0.8 mm). Changes in arch length and perimeter were similar in both groups. Both expanders changed the maxillary arch shape. The post-treatment arch shape was larger in the anterior region for FE and in the posterior region in the EDO group. HARMS: Discomfort during activation was reported by 54 per cent of the participants. A temporary change in the nasal bridge was reported by one patient from FE group. CONCLUSIONS: Maxillary arch width and shape changes were distinct between the EDO and the FE. Greater transversal increases of the anterior and posterior regions were observed for the FE and the EDO, respectively. A slightly greater mandibular spontaneous expansion was observed for the EDO only at the molar region. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03705871.

11.
J Clin Exp Dent ; 12(6): e547-e554, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665813

RESUMO

Background: Root fractures are a diagnostic challenge for dentists in endodontic treatment. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the characteristics of tooth fractures and the presence of root canal posts in endodontically treated teeth using high-resolution cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods: Fifty high-resolution CBCT scans of endodontically treated teeth with a diagnosis of fracture were obtained, of which 30 were from women and 20 were from men. These scans were acquired with three Veraviewepocs 3D units and one 3D Accuitomo 170 unit, with a 40 × 40-mm field of view and 125 µm voxel size. The variables assessed included the type of fracture, extent of fracture, type of retention, post length, cause of endodontic failure, location of the lesion, and time required to detect the fracture (difficulty score). For data analysis, the chi-squared test, Student's t-test, and multiple linear regression (α <0.05) were used. Results: No association was found between the type of fracture and type of retention or between the type of fracture and its extent (P>0.05). On the other hand, the type of fracture significantly influenced the time required for its detection. Additionally, the most difficult plane for detecting the fracture and the difficulty score were associated, with statistically significant results. Conclusions: The type of fracture in endodontically treated teeth was not associated with the type of post used for restoration. All of the CBCT systems used to detect tooth fracture showed the same efficiency. Key words:Cone-Beam CT, Tooth Fracture, Root Canal Post.

12.
Int Orthod ; 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) morphological characteristics in people with Class II versus Class I sagittal skeletal relationship and to identify other factors that influence the TMJ dimensions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional and retrospective study evaluated 188 people divided into two groups, 92 cone-beam computed tomographies (CBCTs) and lateral radiographs (LR) of people with Skeletal class II relationship with Class II division 1 malocclusion versus 96 CBCTs and LR of people with Class I skeletal relationship and Class I malocclusion (controls). The CBCTs included people of both sexes, aged between 15 and 65 years old. The 3D Imaging Carestream Software was used to evaluate the condyle height and neck width, mediolateral and anteroposterior condyle dimensions, the shape of the glenoid fossa and condyle in the CBCTs. Likewise, the ANB angle, the Wits appraisal and other measurements were evaluated on LR. Besides, Mann-Whitney U, Chi2 and multiple linear regression tests were performed. The significance level was set at P˂0.05. RESULTS: The mediolateral and anteroposterior condyle dimensions were smaller in class II people (1.82mm and 0.29mm, respectively) than class I people (P<0.05). Likewise, height and neck width of condyle were smaller in class II people (0.73mm and 0.40mm, respectively) than class I people (P<0.05). Multiple linear regression identified mainly the ANB angle as a factor (P<0.05) that influenced the dimensions, decreasing the condyle dimensions in skeletal class II relationship. CONCLUSIONS: People with skeletal class II relationship showed smaller condyle dimension values than class I people. A decrease in the dimensions of the eminence and the condyle could be expected when the ANB angle increases.

13.
Int Orthod ; 18(3): 490-502, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maxillary impacted canines (MIC) could suffer root changes after canine traction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 3-dimensional root changes in buccal versus palatal MIC after orthodontic traction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This longitudinal and retrospective study included pre-treatment and after traction cone beam computed tomography scans (CBCTs) of 30 subjects with unilateral/bilateral MIC. A total of 43 MIC were divided into 2 groups: buccal (n=17) or palatal (n=26). Root changes in length and area after orthodontic traction were measured at sagittal, coronal and axial sections. Intergroup comparison was carried out by t or U Mann-Whitney tests, depending on normality. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of all predictor variables on root changes (P<0.05). RESULTS: Significant difference between groups was found for root area changes in the upper limit of the cervical third at axial section that showed greater appositional values for the palatal impacted canine group (-1.18mm2) and resorptive values for the buccal impacted canine group (0.62mm2) (P=0.024). Position of impaction palatal influenced the increase of root area in the coronal section and in the upper limit of the cervical third at axial section. Age directly influenced the decrease of total length and root area in sagittal and coronal sections, respectively. CONCLUSION: Orthodontic traction of MIC produced an important appositional root change in the palatal impaction group in the axial root area of the upper limit of the cervical third. Impaction position and age influenced the increase and decrease of root area and length of some specific radicular regions.

15.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348442

RESUMO

Objective Maxillary molar distalization with intraoral distalizer appliances is a non-extraction orthodontic treatment used to correct molar relationship in patients with Class II malocclusion presenting maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion and minor skeletal discrepancies. This study compares the changes caused by three distalizers with different force systems. Methodology 71 patients, divided into three groups, were included. The Jones jig group (JJG, n=30; 16 male, 14 female, 13.17 years mean age) was treated with the Jones jig for 0.8 years. The Distal jet group (DJG, n=25; 8 male, 17 female, 12.57 years mean age) was treated with the Distal jet for 1.06 years. The First Class group (FCG, n=16; 6 male, 10 female, 12.84 years mean age) was treated with the First Class for 0.69 years. Intergroup treatment changes were compared using one-way ANOVA, followed by post-hoc Tukey's tests. Results Intergroup comparisons showed significantly greater maxillary incisor protrusion in DJG than in FCG (2.56±2.24 mm vs. 0.74±1.39mm, p=0.015). The maxillary first premolars showed progressive and significantly smaller mesial angulation in JJG, FCG and DJG, respectively (14.65±6.31º, 8.43±3.99º, 0.97±3.16º; p<0.001). They also showed greater mesialization in JJG than FCG (3.76±1.46 mm vs. 2.27±1.47 mm, p=0.010), and greater extrusion in DJG compared to JJG (0.90±0.77 mm vs 0.11±0.60 mm, p=0.004). The maxillary second premolars showed progressive and significantly smaller mesial angulation and mesialization in JJG, FCG and DJG, respectively (12.77±5.78º, 3.20±3.94º, -2.12±3.71º and 3.87±1.34 mm, 2.25±1.40 mm, 1.24±1.26 mm, respectively; p<0.001). DJG showed smaller distal angulation of maxillary first molars (-2.14±5.09º vs. -7.73±4.28º and -6.05±3.76º, for the JJG and FCG, respectively; p<0.001) and greater maxillary second molars extrusion (1.17±1.41 mm vs -0.02±1.16 mm and 0.16±1.40 mm, for the JJG and FCG, respectively; p=0.003). Overjet change was significantly larger in DJG compared to FCG (1.79±1.67 mm vs 0.68±0.84; p=0.046). Treatment time was smaller in FCG (0.69±0.22 years vs 0.81±0.33 years and 1.06±0.42 years, comparing it with the JJG and DJG, respectively; p=0.005). Conclusion The three appliances corrected the Class II molar relationship by dentoalveolar changes. The Distal jet produced smaller molar distal angulation than the Jones jig and First Class. The First Class appliance showed less anchorage loss, greater percentage of distalization and shorter treatment time than the Jones jig and Distal jet.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle/terapia , Dente Molar/fisiopatologia , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/instrumentação , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Cefalometria , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos de Ancoragem Ortodôntica/instrumentação , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Int Orthod ; 18(3): 480-489, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maxillary canine impaction is directly associated with a narrow maxillary arch, mainly in the inter-premolar widths. This study compared the transverse changes at the level of maxillary premolars after traction of maxillary impacted canines (MICs) in adolescents and young adults through three main goals: to compare unilateral versus bilateral cases, to compare buccally versus palatally MIC cases, and to compare the affected versus non-affected side exclusively in the unilateral group. METHODS: This before and after CBCT study involved 45 MIC orthodontically tractioned until the occlusal plane with a standardized protocol. The sample was classified regarding the impaction type (unilateral versus bilateral), impaction location (palatal versus buccal) and the affected versus unaffected sides in the unilateral cases. MIC characteristics as impaction sector, height, and complexity of the traction, as well as α and ß angles, canine root length and area were measured. Moreover, cephalometric characteristics were also evaluated. Mann-Whitney U or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and multiple regressions were applied (α=0.05). RESULTS: Maxillary inter-premolar widths (first or second) expanded approximately 3mm after traction of unilateral or bilateral MIC (P>0.05). Changes in hemi-arch widths between palatal (1.67mm) versus buccal (1.90mm) MIC were similar (P>0.05). In unilateral impaction, the transversal changes on the affected side were 2mm versus almost 1mm observed in the unaffected side (P<0.05). Finally, the multiple linear regressions were identified to the ANB angle, the impaction sectors and the distance from middle raphe to the cusp tip of MIC as influential variables. CONCLUSION: The maxillary inter-premolar widths increase after traction of MIC without differences between type or location of impaction. In addition, the transverse change in the affected side in unilateral MIC is greater than the unaffected side resolving the earlier transverse asymmetry.

17.
Int Orthod ; 18(3): 424-435, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278665

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively compare the dentoskeletal and soft tissue changes of patients with Class II malocclusion treated with cervical headgear and Jones Jig appliances, followed by fixed appliances. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample comprised 46 Class II malocclusion patients divided into two groups. Patients with Class II malocclusion based on the ANB angle and plaster model analyses, needing non-extraction orthodontic treatment, absence of mandibular crowding and no previous orthodontic treatment were eligible to be selected. Group 1 consisted of 25 patients treated with cervical headgear (CH) followed by fixed appliances for a mean period of 3.26 years and group 2 consisted of 21 patients treated with the Jones Jig (JJ) appliance for a mean of 4.29 years. Lateral cephalograms were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of orthodontic treatment. For intergroup comparisons, t and Mann-Whitney tests were performed. RESULTS: The cervical headgear group produced significantly greater maxillary anterior displacement restriction (SNA; CH: -0.97°±1.33; JJ: 0.07°±1.73; P=0.025), apical base discrepancy improvement (ANB; CH: -1.52°±1.25; JJ: 0.36°±1.46; P=0.006), FMA reduction (CH: -0.78°±2.68; JJ: 1.07°±2.84; P=0.028) and distal mandibular molar angulation (Md6.PM; CH: 6.97°±3.66; JJ: 2.77°±6.87; P=0.013) than the Jones Jig group. CONCLUSIONS: Both distalizers followed by fixed appliances were effective to correct Class II malocclusion. The cervical headgear group presented skeletal effects with less treatment time and there were no significant intergroup differences regarding soft tissue changes.

18.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(1): 103-108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246690

RESUMO

Background: The position of the mental foramen (MF) is particularly relevant in dentistry. The incorporation of new imaging techniques, such as cone-beam-computed tomography (CBCT), can be used to identify anatomic dimorphic traits. Aims: This study evaluated the sexual dimorphism of MF position by CBCT among a selected population. Methods: Fifty CBCT images from 20 to 40-year-old subjects (25 men and 25 women) were evaluated. The horizontal position was evaluated using the al Jasser-Nwoku classification to identify the position of the MF in the mandible. Two measurements were obtained on coronal sections to evaluate the vertical position of the MF: the distance from the uppermost alveolar ridge to the upper edge of the foramen and the distance from the inferior edge of the foramen to the lower border of the mandible. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparisons between sexes and sides were performed with Student's t-test and Chi-square tests. Results: The most frequent location of the MF was in line and below of the second premolar tooth in both men and women (P > 0.05). Additionally, significant differences were found between sexes for the distance from the inferior edge of the foramen to the lower border of the mandible in each side (P < 0.001 for the right and left sides). Conclusions: Horizontal position of the MF is not a sexually dimorphic feature and it is predominantly in line and below the second premolar tooth. Women present the MF in a more caudal position, closer to the mandibular base when compared to men.


Assuntos
Forame Mentual , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula , Peru , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Orthod ; 47(2): 170-180, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166995

RESUMO

The aim of this article is to report a case series of a miniscrew-anchored maxillary protraction therapy (MAMP). Two male patients presenting with Class III malocclusion were included in this report. The treatment consisted of a hybrid expander and two miniscrews at the anterior region of the mandible anchoring Class III elastics for maxillary protraction. Effective maxillary length, ANB angle and Wits appraisal increased after treatment. Slight dental effects were observed. MAMP therapy produced substantial skeletal effects and might be a good treatment option for Class III growing patients.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle , Técnica de Expansão Palatina , Cefalometria , Aparelhos de Tração Extrabucal , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula , Maxila
20.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 42(9): 1051-1056, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140764

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the buccal alveolar bone thickness of mesioangulated mandibular impacted third molars (MITM) with buccal versus lingual inclination using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated 69 individuals (39 women and 30 men) who presented a total of 101 mesioangulated MITM according to the Winter classification and in B position according to the Pell and Gregory classification. The average age was 22.99 ± 3.94 years. The superior, medial and inferior alveolar thickness regarding buccal (n = 44) or lingual (n = 57) mandibular third molar inclination were measured. T test or Mann-Whitney U test and finally, a multiple linear regression were applied (p < 0.05). RESULTS: The buccal alveolar bone thickness of mesioangulated mandibular impacted third molars was significantly greater in the group with lingual inclination compared to the group with buccal inclination, in the superior region (6.21 ± 3.27 vs. 4.85 ± 3.06; p = 0.036). The lingual inclination significantly influenced the buccal alveolar bone thickness in the middle region (p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The mesioangulated MITM in B position with lingual inclination have a greater thickness of the superior and medial buccal alveolar bone than the MITM with buccal inclination. These results should be considered during MITM diagnosis and surgical planning.

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