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1.
Clin Immunol ; 203: 1-8, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the pattern of reported immune diseases in the international ASIA syndrome registry. METHODS: Data from 500 subjects exposed to adjuvants from the ASIA syndrome international registry were analysed. RESULTS: The patient mean age was 43 ±â€¯17 years and 89% were female. Within the reported immune diseases, 69% were well-defined immune diseases (autoimmune, autoinflammation, and mixed pattern diseases). Among the well-defined immune diseases following the exposure to adjuvants, polygenic autoimmune diseases were significantly higher than autoinflammatory disorders (92.7% vs 5.8%, respectively, p < 0.001). Polygenic autoimmune diseases such as connective tissue diseases were significantly linked to the exposure to HBV vaccine (OR 3.15 [95%CI 1.08-9.23], p = 0.036). Polygenic autoinflammatory diseases were significantly associated with the exposure to influenza vaccination (OR 10.98 [95%CI 3.81-31.67], p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Immune conditions following vaccination are rare, and among these, polygenic autoimmune diseases represent the vast majority of the well-defined immune diseases reported under the umbrella ASIA syndrome. However, vaccines benefit outweighs their autoimmune side effects.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No absolute data on the treatment of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) related to refractory obstetric complications exist to date. TNF-α play a major role in this disorder. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of TNF-α blockers in 18 aPL-positive women with recurrent infertility after therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) plus aspirin (LDA) plus hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). METHODS: Prospective case-series of 12 women fulfilling Sydney criteria for obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (OAPS) and 6 with incomplete forms (OMAPS). All women tested positive for aPL at least twice. Non-criteria aPL were tested in 15/18. Complement, TNF-α and IL-10 were also evaluated. Women were closely monitored for fetal well-being and possible malformations throughout gestation and the postpartum period. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were started on adalimumab and 2 on certolizumab. Twelve women completed gestation: 9 at term and 3 pre-term. Differences in laboratory categories and outcomes were observed when OAPS and OMAPS were compared. First trimester miscarriage or implantation failure recurred in 6 cases, all of the OAPS group. Malformations were not seen in the newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, good obstetric results were obtained in 70% of previous LMWH-LDA+HCQ refractory cases. TNF-α blockers were well tolerated without adverse effects. The combination of LMWH plus LDA plus TNF-α blockers appears to be a promising treatment for refractory obstetric complaints related to aPL; nevertheless, outcome differences between OAPS and OMAPS do exist.

3.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(4): 406-414, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772493

RESUMO

AIM: To analyse the clinical features, laboratory data and foetal-maternal outcomes, and follow them up on a cohort of 1000 women with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (OAPS). METHODS: The European Registry of OAPS became a registry within the framework of the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibody projects and was placed on a website in June 2010. Thirty hospitals throughout Europe have collaborated to carry out this registry. Cases with obstetric complaints related to antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) who tested positive for aPL at least twice were included prospectively and retrospectively. The seven-year survey results are reported. RESULTS: 1000 women with 3553 episodes were included of which 2553 were historical and 1000 were latest episodes. All cases fulfilled the Sydney classification criteria. According to the laboratory categories, 292 (29.2%) were in category I, 357 (35.7%) in IIa, 224 (22.4%) in IIb and 127 (12.7%) in IIc. Miscarriages were the most prevalent clinical manifestation in 386 cases (38.6%). Moreover, the presence of early preeclampsia (PE) and early foetal growth restriction (FGR) appeared in 181 (18.1%) and 161 (16.1%), respectively. In this series, 448 (44.8%) women received the recommended OAPS treatment. Patients with recommended treatment had a good live-birth rate (85%), but worse results (72.4%) were obtained in patients with any treatment (low-dose aspirin (LDA) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) not on recommended schedule, while patients with no treatment showed a poor birth rate (49.6%). CONCLUSION: In this series, recurrent miscarriage is the most frequent poor outcome. To avoid false-negative diagnoses, all laboratory category subsets were needed. OAPS cases have very good foetal-maternal outcomes when treated. Results suggest that we were able to improve our clinical practice to offer better treatment and outcomes to OAPS patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Habitual/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Habitual/epidemiologia , Aborto Habitual/etiologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Autoimmun Rev ; 17(12): 1153-1168, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316994

RESUMO

The relapse rate in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) remains high, i.e. around 20%-21% at 5 years in thrombotic APS and 20-28% in obstetrical APS [2, 3]. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) appears as an additional therapy, as it possesses immunomodulatory and anti-thrombotic various effects [4-16]. Our group recently obtained the orphan designation of HCQ in antiphospholipid syndrome by the European Medicine Agency. Furthermore, the leaders of the project made the proposal of an international project, HIBISCUS, about the use of Hydroxychloroquine in secondary prevention of obstetrical and thrombotic events in primary APS. This study has been launched in several countries and at now, 53 centers from 16 countries participate to this international trial. This trial consists in two parts: a retrospective and a prospective study. The French part of the trial in thrombosis has been granted by the French Minister of Health in December 2015 (the academic trial independent of the pharmaceutical industry PHRC N PAPIRUS) and is coordinated by one of the members of the leading consortium of HIBISCUS.

5.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 151(6): 215-222, sept. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-173922

RESUMO

Background and objectives: To compare clinical, laboratory, treatment and live birth rate data between women with aPL-related obstetric complications (OMAPS) not fulfilling the Sydney criteria and women fulfilling them (OAPS). Materials and methods: Retrospective and prospective multicentre study. Data comparison between groups from The European Registry on Antiphospholipid Syndrome included within the framework of the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibody projects. Results: 338 women were analysed: 247 fulfilled the Sydney criteria (OAPS group) and 91 did not (OMAPS group). In the OMAPS group, 24/91 (26.37%) fulfilled laboratory Sydney criteria (subgroup A) and 67/91 (74.63%) had a low titre and/or non-persistent aPL-positivity (subgroup B). Overall, aPL laboratory categories in OAPS vs. OMAPS showed significant differences: 34% vs. 11% (p<0.0001) for category I, 66% vs. 89% (p<0.0001) for category II. No differences were observed when current obstetric complications were compared (p=0.481). 86.20% of OAPS women were treated vs. 75.82% of OMAPS (p=0.0224), particularly regarding the LDA+LMWH schedule (p=0.006). No differences between groups were observed in live births, gestational, puerperal arterial and/or venous thrombosis. Conclusions: Significant differences were found among aPL categories between groups. Treatment rates were higher in OAPS. Both OAPS and OMAPS groups had similarly good foetal-maternal outcomes when treated. The proposal to modify OAPS classification criteria, mostly laboratory requirements, is reinforced by these results


Fundamento Y objetivos: Comparar características clínicas, analíticas, tratamiento y tasa de hijos vivos entre gestantes con Síndrome Antifosfolípido Obstétrico (SAFO) y gestantes con morbilidad obstétrica relacionada con el síndrome que no cumplen los criterios de clasificación actuales. Material Y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo y prospectivo multicéntrico: datos de once hospitales terciarios europeos recogidos en el European Registry on Antiphospholipid Syndrome. Resultados: Se analizaron 338 mujeres: 247 cumplían criterios de Sydney para SAFO (grupo OAPS), y 91 no (grupo OMAPS). En el grupo OMAPS, 24/91(26.37%) cumplían criterios analíticos, pero no clínicos para SAFO (subgrupo A) y 67/91(74.63%) presentaban títulos medio-bajos o títulos positivos no persistentes de anticuerpos antifosfolípido, con o sin cumplir criterios clínicos (subgrupo B). Se observaron diferencias significativas entre los 2 grupos en cuanto a las categorías analíticas: 34% vs. 11% (p<0.0001) para la categoría I y 66% vs. 89% (p<0.0001) para la categoría II, OAPS vs OMAPS, respectivamente. No se observaron diferencias significativas en cuanto a las complicaciones obstétricas (p=0.481). El 86.20% del grupo OAPS recibió tratamiento vs.el 75.82% del grupo OMAPS (p=0.0224). No se observaron diferencias en la tasa de hijos vivos, ni en la tasa de trombosis arterial y/o venosa gestacional y/o puerperal. Conclusiones: Ambos grupos fueron muy homogéneos, excepto en cuanto a la distribución de las categorías analíticas y en la tasa de tratamiento. Ambos grupos mostraron buenos resultados al ser tratados. Los resultados respaldan la opinión de muchos expertos de tener que revisar los criterios de clasificación actuales del Síndrome Antifosfolípido Obstétrico


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Morbidade , Complicações na Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Autoimmun Rev ; 17(8): 739-745, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29885541

RESUMO

Primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) and antiphospholipid syndrome associated to lupus (SAPS) have several overlapping characteristics. As systemic manifestations are also reported in patients with PAPS, and as a subgroup of PAPS patients could evaluate to a SAPS, the differentiation between the two types of APS could be performed based on the clinical experience of the medical teams and is related to a variety of clinical, biological, histological and genetic features. Several data are available in the literature with respect to the identification of distinctive features between these two entities. However, there are some limitation in the interpretation of results issued from studies performed prior to updated Sydney criteria. Based on recent data, a certain number of features more frequent in one type of APS as compared to the other could be distinguished. The major differentiation between these two entities is genetical. New genetic data allowing the identification of specific subgroups of APS are ongoing.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia
7.
Thromb Haemost ; 118(4): 639-646, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490410

RESUMO

The effect of additional treatments combined with conventional therapy on pregnancy outcomes was examined in high-risk primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) patients to identify the most effective treatment strategy. The study's inclusion criteria were (1) positivity to lupus anticoagulant alone or associated with anticardiolipin and/or anti-ß2 glycoprotein I antibodies; (2) a history of severe maternal-foetal complications (Group I) or a history of one or more pregnancies refractory to conventional therapy leading to unexplained foetal deaths not associated with severe maternal-foetal complications (Group II). Two different additional treatments were considered: oral-low-dose steroids (10-20 mg prednisone daily) and/or 200 to 400 mg daily doses of hydroxychloroquine and parenteral-intravenous immunoglobulins at 2 g/kg per month and/or plasma exchange. The study's primary outcomes were live birth rates and pregnancy complications. A total of 194 pregnant PAPS patients attending 20 tertiary centres were retrospectively enrolled. Hydroxychloroquine was found to be linked to a significantly higher live birth rate with respect to the other oral treatments in the Group II patients. The high (400 mg) versus low (200 mg) doses of hydroxychloroquine (p = 0.036) and its administration before versus during pregnancy (p = 0.021) were associated with a significantly higher live birth rate. Hydroxychloroquine therapy appeared particularly efficacious in the PAPS patients without previous thrombosis. Parenteral treatments were associated with a significantly higher live birth rate with respect to the oral ones (p = 0.037), particularly in the Group I patients. In conclusion, some additional treatments were found to be safe and efficacious in high-risk PAPS pregnant women.

9.
Obstet Gynecol Surv ; 73(1): 40-55, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29368790

RESUMO

Importance: We have performed a systematic search to summarize the role of statins for preventing and treating severe preeclampsia. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether pravastatin is a useful and safe alternative for treating preeclampsia during pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A systematic MEDLINE (PubMed) search was performed (1979 to June 2017), which was restricted to articles published in English, using the relevant key words of "statins," "pregnancy," "preeclampsia," "obstetrical antiphospholipid syndrome," and "teratogenicity." Results: The initial search provided 296 articles. Finally, 146 articles were related to the use of statins during pregnancy, regarding their effect on the fetus and the treatment of preeclampsia. Ten studies were related to in vitro studies, 25 in animals, and 24 in humans (13 case report series and 11 cohort studies). We found 84 studies on reviews of such guidelines on cardiovascular disease (35 studies), use of statins in the antiphospholipid syndrome (25 studies), statin's specific use during pregnancy (13 studies), or preeclampsia treatment (11 studies). Conclusions: Although the studies are of poor quality, the rate of major congenital abnormalities in the newborn exposed to statins during pregnancy is no higher than the expected when compared with overall risk population. The review shows a potential beneficial role of statins in preventing and treating severe preeclampsia that needs to be evaluated through well-designed clinical trials. Relevance: This update could influence positively the clinical practice, giving an alternative therapy for clinicians who treat preeclampsia, particularly in severe cases.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Placentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Pravastatina/farmacologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/tratamento farmacológico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Placenta/metabolismo , Pravastatina/uso terapêutico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Immunol Res ; 66(1): 120-140, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29199390

RESUMO

Systemic autoimmune or granulomatous disorders related to biomaterials of human use have rarely been described. The aim of this study was to report cases of autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) related to biomaterial injections and prostheses, mainly silicone, hyaluronic acid, acrylamides and methacrylate compounds in a Spanish patient cohort. This study is a retrospective analysis of clinical, laboratory, histopathological and follow-up data of 45 cases of patients suffering from late-onset, non-infectious inflammatory/autoimmune disorders related to bioimplants. Late onset was defined as 3 months or more post injection. Data were obtained through a further non-systematic but comprehensive review of the literature. Forty-five cases of late-onset adverse reactions related to biomaterial injections or prostheses were reviewed. All cases had systemic complaints that could be categorised as ASIA. In all but four patients, inflammatory features at the implantation site preceded distant or systemic manifestations. Abnormal blood tests were common. Localised inflammatory nodules and panniculitis in 40/45 (88.88%) evolved into a variety of disorders, viz., primary biliary cirrhosis, Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, human adjuvant disease, vasculitis, inflammatory bowel syndrome and inflammatory polyradiculopathy. Five (11.11%) cases presented primarily with systemic autoimmune disorders. Biomaterials and prostheses can provoke late-onset systemic autoimmune disorders fulfilling ASIA criteria, or present primarily local/regional inflammatory reactions that may eventually evolve into systemic autoimmune and/or granulomatous disorders which fall under ASIA.

11.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 151(6): 215-222, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical, laboratory, treatment and live birth rate data between women with aPL-related obstetric complications (OMAPS) not fulfilling the Sydney criteria and women fulfilling them (OAPS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective and prospective multicentre study. Data comparison between groups from The European Registry on Antiphospholipid Syndrome included within the framework of the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibody projects. RESULTS: 338 women were analysed: 247 fulfilled the Sydney criteria (OAPS group) and 91 did not (OMAPS group). In the OMAPS group, 24/91 (26.37%) fulfilled laboratory Sydney criteria (subgroup A) and 67/91 (74.63%) had a low titre and/or non-persistent aPL-positivity (subgroup B). Overall, aPL laboratory categories in OAPS vs. OMAPS showed significant differences: 34% vs. 11% (p<0.0001) for category I, 66% vs. 89% (p<0.0001) for category II. No differences were observed when current obstetric complications were compared (p=0.481). 86.20% of OAPS women were treated vs. 75.82% of OMAPS (p=0.0224), particularly regarding the LDA+LMWH schedule (p=0.006). No differences between groups were observed in live births, gestational, puerperal arterial and/or venous thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences were found among aPL categories between groups. Treatment rates were higher in OAPS. Both OAPS and OMAPS groups had similarly good foetal-maternal outcomes when treated. The proposal to modify OAPS classification criteria, mostly laboratory requirements, is reinforced by these results.

13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 9(11): 2411-2435, 2017 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176033

RESUMO

Cellular senescence is a cell fate program that entails essentially irreversible proliferative arrest in response to damage signals. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), an important pro-inflammatory cytokine secreted by some types of senescent cells, can induce senescence in mouse and human cells. However, downstream signaling pathways linking TNFα-related inflammation to senescence are not fully characterized. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model, we show that TNFα induces permanent growth arrest and increases p21CIP1, p16INK4A, and SA-ß-gal, accompanied by persistent DNA damage and ROS production. By gene expression profiling, we identified the crucial involvement of inflammatory and JAK/STAT pathways in TNFα-mediated senescence. We found that TNFα activates a STAT-dependent autocrine loop that sustains cytokine secretion and an interferon signature to lock cells into senescence. Furthermore, we show STAT1/3 activation is necessary for cytokine and ROS production during TNFα-induced senescence. However, inhibition of STAT1/3 did not rescue cells from proliferative arrest, but rather suppressed cell cycle regulatory genes and altered TNFα-induced senescence. Our findings suggest a positive feedback mechanism via the STAT pathway that sustains cytokine production and reveal a reciprocal regulatory role of JAK/STAT in TNFα-mediated senescence.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/patologia , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
15.
Autoimmun Rev ; 16(7): 730-734, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28478081

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the consecutive pregnancy outcome and treatment in refractory obstetrical antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). METHODS: Retrospective multicenter open-labelled study from December 2015 to June 2016. We analyzed the outcome of pregnancies in patients with obstetrical APS (Sydney criteria) and previous adverse obstetrical event despite low-dose aspirin and low-molecular weight heparin LMWH (LMWH) conventional treatment who experienced at least one subsequent pregnancy. RESULTS: Forty nine patients with median age 27years (23-32) were included from 8 European centers. Obstetrical APS was present in 71%, while 26% had obstetrical and thrombotic APS. Lupus anticoagulant was present in 76% and triple antiphospholipid antibody (APL) positivity in 45% of patients. Pregnancy loss was noted in 71% with a median age of gestation of 11 (8-21) weeks. The presence of APS non-criteria features (35% vs 17% in pregnancies without adverse obstetrical event; p=0.09), previous intrauterine death (65% vs 38%; p=0.06), of LA (90% vs 65%; p=0.05) were more frequent in pregnancies with adverse pregnancy outcome, whereas isolated recurrent miscarriage profile was more frequent in pregnancies without any adverse pregnancy outcome (15% vs 41%; p=0.04). In univariate analysis considering all pregnancies (index and subsequent ones), an history of previous intrauterine death was associated with pregnancy loss (odds-ratio 2.51 (95% CI 1.274.96); p=0.008), whereas previous history of prematurity related to APS (odds-ratio 0.13 95%CI 0.04 0.41, P=0.006), steroids use during the pregnancy (odds-ratio 0.30 95% CI 0.11-0.82, p=0.019) and anticardiolipids isolated profile (odds-ratio 0.51 95% CI 0.26-1.03, p=0.0588) were associated with favorable outcome. In multivariate analysis, only previous history of prematurity, steroids use and anticardiolipids isolated profiles were associated with live-birth pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The main features of refractory obstetrical APS were the high rates of LA and triple APL positivity. Steroids could be effective in this APS profile, but prospective studies are necessary.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/tratamento farmacológico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/imunologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 53(1): 40-53, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28054230

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a central regulator of inflammation, and TNF-α antagonists may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders in which TNF-α plays a major pathogenic role. TNF-α has also been associated with inflammatory mechanisms related to implantation, placentation, and pregnancy outcome. TNF-α is secreted by immune cells and works by binding to TNFR1 and TNFR2 cell receptors. TNF-α is also related to JAK/STAT pathways, which opens up hypothetical new targets for modifying. The accurate balance between Th1 cytokines, mainly TNF-α, Th17, and Th2, particularly IL-10 is essential to achieve good obstetric outcomes. TNF-α targeted therapy could be rational in treating women with obstetric complication related to overproduction of TNF-α, such as recurrent pregnancy loss, early and severe pre-eclampsia, and recurrent implantation failure syndrome, all "idiopathic" or related to aPL positivity. Along the same lines, Th1 cytokines, mainly TNF- α, play a leading pathogenic role in rheumatic and systemic autoimmune diseases occurring in women and, to a lesser extent, in men of reproductive age. These disorders have to be clinically silent before pregnancy can be recommended, which is usually only possible to achieve after intensive anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive treatment, TNF-α blockers included. Physicians should be aware of the theoretic potential but low embryo-fetal toxicity risk of these drugs during pregnancy. From an updated review in May 2016, we can conclude that TNF-α blockers are useful in certain "refractory" cases of inflammatory disorders related to poor obstetric outcomes and infertility. Furthermore, TNF-α blockers can be safely used during the implantation period and pregnancy. Breastfeeding is also permitted with all TNF-α inhibitors. Since data on the actual mechanism of action of JAK-STAT in inflammatory obstetric disorders including embryo implantation are scarce, for the time being, therapeutic interventions in this setting should be discouraged. Finally, adverse effects on sperm quality, or causing embryo-fetal anomalies, in men treated with TNF inhibitors have not been described.


Assuntos
Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Aborto Habitual/imunologia , Aborto Habitual/metabolismo , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Implantação do Embrião , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Masculino , Exposição Paterna , Pentoxifilina/farmacologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/imunologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Gravidez , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
19.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 147(8): 352-360, oct. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-156849

RESUMO

Las enfermedades reumáticas y autoinmunitarias afectan a mujeres y, en menor medida, también a hombres en edad fértil. Estas deben estar sin actividad clínica antes de la concepción, lo que suele conseguirse con fármacos inmunodepresores/antiinflamatorios. Un 50% de los embarazos en este colectivo no serán planificados. Los profesionales debemos conocer los efectos embrio/fetotóxicos de estos fármacos, así como sus consecuencias negativas sobre la gestación y la lactancia. Esta revisión actualizada hasta enero de 2016 permite concluir que la mayoría de los inmunodepresores disponibles, incluidos los inhibidores del TNF, se pueden utilizar antes y durante la gestación, con la excepción de ciclofosfamida, metotrexato, micofenolato y leflunomida. Se puede lactar exceptuando si se usa metotrexato, leflunomida, micofenolato y ciclofosfamida. Parece que abatacept, belimumab, rituximab, tocilizumab y anakinra son seguros durante la gestación y la lactancia. Exceptuando ciclofosfamida y sulfasalazina, no se han comunicado efectos sobre la calidad espermática ni un aumento de embriofetopatías en hombres tratados con inmunodepresores (AU)


Rheumatic and systemic autoimmune diseases occur in women and, to a lesser degree, men of reproductive age. These disorders have to be clinically nonactive before conception, which is usually only possible after anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive treatment. We must be alert since 50% of pregnancies are unplanned. Physicians should know the embryo-foetal toxicity of these drugs during pregnancy and lactation. This January 2016-updated review allows us to conclude that the majority of immunosuppressives available –anti-TNF inhibitors included– can be used before and during pregnancy, with the exception of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, mycophenolate and leflunomide. Lactation is permitted with all drugs except methotrexate, leflunomide, mycophenolate and cyclophosphamide. Although data on abatacept, belimumab, rituximab, tocilizumab and anakinra are scant, preliminary reports agree on their safety during pregnancy and, probably, lactation. Cyclophosphamide and sulfasalazine apart, no negative effects on sperm quality, or embryo-foetal anomalies in men treated with immunosuppressives have been described (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Biológica/métodos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Segurança do Paciente , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico
20.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 76(2): 164-71, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27401589

RESUMO

AIM: To analyse the prevalence and effects of inherited thrombophilic disorders (ITD) on maternal-foetal outcomes in cases of antiphospholipid antibody related to obstetric complications. METHODS: Women with obstetric complaints who tested positive for aPL and with inherited thrombophilia were prospectively and retrospectively included. RESULTS: ITD data were available in 208 of 338: 147 had obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (OAPS) and 61 aPL-related obstetric morbidity (OMAPS). 24.1% had ITD. Laboratory categories I and IIa were more related to OAPS-ITD and IIb and IIc to OMAPS-ITD. No significant differences in obstetric complaints were observed. Regarding ITD carriers, treatment rates were higher in OAPS than in OMAPS for LMWH and LDA plus LMWH (P=.002). CONCLUSION: Cases with aPL-related OAPS/OMAPS showed no differences in maternal-foetal outcomes regardless of the presence of one ITD. Maternal thrombotic risk was low, with ITD-positive cases included. Registry data concur with Sydney criteria, whereby aPL-ITD-positive patients are classified as having antiphospholipid syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/epidemiologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Trombofilia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Trombofilia/complicações
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