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PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257556, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555075


BACKGROUND: In Thailand, individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who develop portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) have a restricted treatment option because to the extent of the disease, poor underlying liver function, and non-coverage of immuno/targeted therapy. Radiotherapy (RT) plays an increasingly important function in these patients. To investigate the feasibility, efficacy, and adverse event rates, we performed a retrospective analysis of patients with HCC with PVTT who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiation (IMRT), volumetric-modulated radiotherapy (VMAT), and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in a single-institution. OBJECTIVES: To examine clinical results in terms of overall survival (OS), local control (LC), response of primary tumor and PVTT, hepatic and gastrointestinal adverse reaction, and prognosis variables for OS and LC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 2007 and August 2019, non-metastatic HCC with PVTT patients treated with RT were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated. RESULTS: The analysis included data from 160 patients. The mean age of the patients was 60.8 years ((95% CI 58.2-62.0). The median diameter of the tumor was 7.7 cm (range: 1-24.5). 85 (54.5%) individuals had PVTT in the main or first branch. At 1.8-10 Gy per fraction, the mean biologically effective dose (BED) as α/ß ratio of 10 was 49.6 (95% CI 46.7-52.5) Gy10. The median survival time was 8.3 (95% CI 6.1-10.3) months. Survival rates at one and two years were 39.6% and 17.1%, respectively. Estimated incidence of local failure using competing risk analysis were 24% and 60% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The overall response rate was 74%, with an 18.5 percent complete response rate. In multivariate analysis, tumor size, overall response, and radiation dose were all significant prognostic variables for OS. Hepatic unfavorable events of grade 3 and 4 were for 14.1% of the total. There was no occurrences of grade 3-4 gastrointestinal toxicity, either acute or late. Additionally, there were no treatment-related mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced RT is regarded as a safe and effective therapeutic option for HCC with PVTT. Overall survival was clearly related to tumor size, radiation dose, and tumor/PVTT response. Individuals with BED 56 Gy10 had significantly better overall survival than patients with BED 56 Gy10. A prospective randomized trial is required to validate these outcomes in order to corroborate these findings.

Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
J Radiat Res ; 62(3): 483-493, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899102


We developed a confidence interval-(CI) assessing model in multivariable normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modeling for predicting radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) in primary liver cancer patients using clinical and dosimetric data. Both the mean NTCP and difference in the mean NTCP (ΔNTCP) between two treatment plans of different radiotherapy modalities were further evaluated and their CIs were assessed. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed in 322 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 215) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (n = 107) treated with photon therapy. Dose-volume histograms of normal liver were reduced to mean liver dose (MLD) based on the fraction size-adjusted equivalent uniform dose. The most predictive variables were used to build the model based on multivariable logistic regression analysis with bootstrapping. Internal validation was performed using the cross-validation leave-one-out method. Both the mean NTCP and the mean ΔNTCP with 95% CIs were calculated from computationally generated multivariate random sets of NTCP model parameters using variance-covariance matrix information. RILD occurred in 108/322 patients (33.5%). The NTCP model with three clinical and one dosimetric parameter (tumor type, Child-Pugh class, hepatitis infection status and MLD) was most predictive, with an area under the receiver operative characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.79 (95% CI 0.74-0.84). In eight clinical subgroups based on the three clinical parameters, both the mean NTCP and the mean ΔNTCP with 95% CIs were able to be estimated computationally. The multivariable NTCP model with the assessment of 95% CIs has potential to improve the reliability of the NTCP model-based approach to select the appropriate radiotherapy modality for each patient.

Hepatopatias/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Modelos Biológicos , Probabilidade , Lesões por Radiação/complicações , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada
Radiother Oncol ; 135: 100-106, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015154


PURPOSE: To predict the probability of radiation-induced liver toxicity (RILT) and implement the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model-based approach considering confidence intervals (CIs) to select patients for new treatment techniques, such as proton beam therapy, based on a certain NTCP reduction (ΔNTCP) threshold for primary liver cancer patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) grade ≥2 RILT was scored. The Lyman NTCP models predicting the probability of CTCAE grade ≥2 RILT as a function of the fraction-size adjusted mean liver dose (MLD), using reference fraction size = 2 Gy/fraction and α/ß ratio = 2 Gy, were fitted using the maximum likelihood method. At certain combinations of MLDs, ΔNTCP with a CI was evaluated by the delta method. RESULTS: Of the 239 patients, the incidence of CTCAE grade ≥2 RILT was 55% (46% in the Child-Pugh (CP)-A vs. 81% in the CP-B/C, p < 0.001). Among 180 CP-A patients, 40% who had viral hepatitis infections experienced toxicity vs. 32% in the nonhepatitis subgroup. The MLD was 18 Gy in the toxicity group vs. 16.1 Gy in the nontoxicity group (p = 0.002). The estimated NTCP model parameters specific to the patient subgroups and the ΔNTCP with CI assuming a particular CP classification and viral hepatitis infection status were considerably different which possible changed treatment decision. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CP-A and viral hepatitis infection or CP-B/C cirrhosis had greater susceptibility to CTCAE grade ≥2 RILT. The estimated NTCP and ΔNTCP for individual patients along with a consideration of uncertainties improve the reliability of the NTCP model-based approach.

Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Fígado/efeitos da radiação , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Incerteza