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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531162

RESUMO

Advances in automation and data analytics can aid exploration of the complex chemistry of nanoparticles. Lead halide perovskite colloidal nanocrystals provide an interesting proving ground: there are reports of many different phases and transformations, which has made it hard to form a coherent conceptual framework for their controlled formation through traditional methods. In this work, we systematically explore the portion of Cs-Pb-Br synthesis space in which many optically distinguishable species are formed using high-throughput robotic synthesis to understand their formation reactions. We deploy an automated method that allows us to determine the relative amount of absorbance that can be attributed to each species in order to create maps of the synthetic space. These in turn facilitate improved understanding of the interplay between kinetic and thermodynamic factors that underlie which combination of species are likely to be prevalent under a given set of conditions. Based on these maps, we test potential transformation routes between perovskite nanocrystals of different shapes and phases. We find that shape is determined kinetically, but many reactions between different phases show equilibrium behavior. We demonstrate a dynamic equilibrium between complexes, monolayers, and nanocrystals of lead bromide, with substantial impact on the reaction outcomes. This allows us to construct a chemical reaction network that qualitatively explains our results as well as previous reports and can serve as a guide for those seeking to prepare a particular composition and shape.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 5318-5323, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530633

RESUMO

The understanding of synthetic pathways of bimetallic nanocrystals remains limited due to the complex energy landscapes and dynamics involved. In this work, we investigate the formation of self-limiting Cu@Ag core-shell nanoparticles starting from Cu nanocrystals followed by galvanic replacement with Ag ions. Bulk quantification with atomic emission spectroscopy and spatially resolved elemental mapping with electron microscopy reveal distinct nucleation regimes that produce nanoparticles with a tunable Ag shell thickness, but only up to a certain limiting thickness. We develop a quantitative transport model that explains this observed self-limiting structure as arising from the balance between entropy-driven interdiffusion and a positive mixing enthalpy. The proposed model depends only on the intrinsic physical properties of the system such as diffusivity and mixing energy and directly yields a high level of agreement with the elemental mapping profiles without requiring additional fit parameters.

3.
Nano Lett ; 20(5): 3178-3184, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353239

RESUMO

Active fibers with electro-optic functionalities are promising building blocks for the emerging and rapidly growing field of fiber and textile electronics. Yet, there remains significant challenges that require improved understanding of the principles of active fiber assembly to enable the development of fiber-shaped devices characterized by having a small diameter, being lightweight, and having high mechanical strength. To this end, the current frameworks are insufficient, and new designs and fabrication approaches are essential to accommodate this unconventional form factor. Here, we present a first demonstration of a pathway that effectively integrates the foundational components meeting such requirements, with the use of a flexible and robust conductive core carbon nanotube fiber and an organic-inorganic emissive composite layer as the two critical elements. We introduce an active fiber design that can be realized through an all solution-processed approach. We have implemented this technique to demonstrate a three-layered light-emitting fiber with a coaxially coated design.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299212

RESUMO

Carrier recombination is a crucial process governing the optical properties of a semiconductor. Although various theoretical approaches have been utilized to describe carrier behaviors, a quantitative understanding of the impact of defects and interfaces in low dimensional semiconductor systems is still elusive. Here, we develop a model system consisting of chemically tunable, highly luminescent halide perovskite nanocrystals to illustrate the role of carrier diffusion and material dimensionality on the carrier recombination kinetics and luminescence efficiency. Our advanced synthetic methods provide a well-controlled colloidal system consisting of nanocrystals with different aspect ratios, halide compositions, and surface conditions. Using this system, we reveal the scaling laws of photoluminescence quantum yield and radiative lifetime with respect to the aspect ratio of nanocrystals. The scaling laws derived herein are not only a phenomenological observation but proved a powerful tool disentangling the carrier dynamics of microscopic systems in a quantitative and interpretable manner. The investigation of our model system and theoretical formulation bring to light the dimensionality, as a hidden constraint on carrier dynamics, and identify the diffusion length as an important parameter that distinguishes nanoscale and macroscale carrier behaviors. The conceptual distinction in carrier dynamics in different dimensionality regimes informs new design rules for optical devices where complex microstructures are involved.

5.
Science ; 368(6486): 60-67, 2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241943

RESUMO

Precise three-dimensional (3D) atomic structure determination of individual nanocrystals is a prerequisite for understanding and predicting their physical properties. Nanocrystals from the same synthesis batch display what are often presumed to be small but possibly important differences in size, lattice distortions, and defects, which can only be understood by structural characterization with high spatial 3D resolution. We solved the structures of individual colloidal platinum nanocrystals by developing atomic-resolution 3D liquid-cell electron microscopy to reveal critical intrinsic heterogeneity of ligand-protected platinum nanocrystals in solution, including structural degeneracies, lattice parameter deviations, internal defects, and strain. These differences in structure lead to substantial contributions to free energies, consequential enough that they must be considered in any discussion of fundamental nanocrystal properties or applications.

6.
Nature ; 577(7790): 359-363, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942056

RESUMO

The impact of topological defects associated with grain boundaries (GB defects) on the electrical, optical, magnetic, mechanical and chemical properties of nanocrystalline materials1,2 is well known. However, elucidating this influence experimentally is difficult because grains typically exhibit a large range of sizes, shapes and random relative orientations3-5. Here we demonstrate that precise control of the heteroepitaxy of colloidal polyhedral nanocrystals enables ordered grain growth and can thereby produce material samples with uniform GB defects. We illustrate our approach with a multigrain nanocrystal comprising a Co3O4 nanocube core that carries a Mn3O4 shell on each facet. The individual shells are symmetry-related interconnected grains6, and the large geometric misfit between adjacent tetragonal Mn3O4 grains results in tilt boundaries at the sharp edges of the Co3O4 nanocube core that join via disclinations. We identify four design principles that govern the production of these highly ordered multigrain nanostructures. First, the shape of the substrate nanocrystal must guide the crystallographic orientation of the overgrowth phase7. Second, the size of the substrate must be smaller than the characteristic distance between the dislocations. Third, the incompatible symmetry between the overgrowth phase and the substrate increases the geometric misfit strain between the grains. Fourth, for GB formation under near-equilibrium conditions, the surface energy of the shell needs to be balanced by the increasing elastic energy through ligand passivation8-10. With these principles, we can produce a range of multigrain nanocrystals containing distinct GB defects.

7.
ACS Nano ; 13(12): 13784-13796, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751115

RESUMO

A phase transition within the ligand shell of core/shell quantum dots is studied in the prototypical system of colloidal CdSe/CdS quantum dots with a ligand shell composed of bound oleate (OA) and octadecylphosphonate (ODPA). The ligand shell composition is tuned using a ligand exchange procedure and quantified through proton NMR spectroscopy. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals a signature of a phase transition within the organic ligand shell. Surprisingly, the ligand order to disorder phase transition triggers an abrupt increase in the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) with increasing temperature. The temperature and width of the phase transition show a clear dependence on ligand shell composition, such that QDs with higher ODPA fractions have sharper phase transitions that occur at higher temperatures. In order to gain a molecular understanding of the changes in ligand ordering, Fourier transform infrared and vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopies are performed. These measurements confirm that an order/disorder transition in the ligand shell tracks with the photoluminescence changes that accompany the ligand phase transition. The phase transition is simulated through a lattice model that suggests that the ligand shell is well-mixed and does not have completely segregated domains of OA and ODPA. Furthermore, we show that the unsaturated chains of OA seed disorder within the ligand shell.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(42): 16997-17005, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592655

RESUMO

Upconverting nanoparticles provide valuable benefits as optical probes for bioimaging and Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) due to their high signal-to-noise ratio, photostability, and biocompatibility; yet, making nanoparticles small yields a significant decay in brightness due to increased surface quenching. Approaches to improve the brightness of UCNPs exist but often require increased nanoparticle size. Here we present a unique core-shell-shell nanoparticle architecture for small (sub-20 nm), bright upconversion with several key features: (1) maximal sensitizer concentration in the core for high near-infrared absorption, (2) efficient energy transfer between core and interior shell for strong emission, and (3) emitter localization near the nanoparticle surface for efficient FRET. This architecture consists of ß-NaYbF4 (core) @NaY0.8-xErxGd0.2F4 (interior shell) @NaY0.8Gd0.2F4 (exterior shell), where sensitizer and emitter ions are partitioned into core and interior shell, respectively. Emitter concentration is varied (x = 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 80%) to investigate influence on single particle brightness, upconversion quantum yield, decay lifetimes, and FRET coupling. We compare these seven samples with the field-standard core-shell architecture of ß-NaY0.58Gd0.2Yb0.2Er0.02F4 (core) @NaY0.8Gd0.2F4 (shell), with sensitizer and emitter ions codoped in the core. At a single particle level, the core-shell-shell design was up to 2-fold brighter than the standard core-shell design. Further, by coupling a fluorescent dye to the surface of the two different architectures, we demonstrated up to 8-fold improved emission enhancement with the core-shell-shell compared to the core-shell design. We show how, given proper consideration for emitter concentration, we can design a unique nanoparticle architecture to yield comparable or improved brightness and FRET coupling within a small volume.

9.
ACS Nano ; 13(10): 11825-11833, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553569

RESUMO

Reliably accessing nanocrystal luminophores with near-unity efficiencies aids in the ability to understand the upper performance limits in optoelectronic applications that require minimal nonradiative losses. Constructing structure-function relationships at the atomic level, while accounting for inevitable defects, allows for the development of robust strategies to achieve near-unity quantum yield luminophores. For CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals, bromine vacancies leave behind undercoordinated lead atoms that act as traps, limiting the achievable optical performance of the material. We show that selective etching represents a promising path for mitigating the consequences of optical defects in CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. A mechanistic understanding of the etching reaction is essential for developing strategies to finely control the reaction. We report a study of the selective etching mechanism of CsPbBr3 nanocrystal cubes by controlling the etchant chemical potential. We observe optical absorption and luminescence trajectories while varying the extent and rate of lead removal, removing in some cases up to 75% of the lead from the original nanocrystal ensemble. At modest etchant chemical potentials, the size and shape uniformity of the nanocrystal ensemble improves in addition to the quantum yield, proceeding through a layer-by-layer etching mechanism. Operating with excessively high etchant chemical potentials is detrimental to the overall optical performance as the etching transitions to nonselective, while too low of a chemical potential results in incomplete etching. Through this general approach, we show how to finely control selective etching to consistently access a steady state or chemical stability zone of near-unity quantum yield CsPbBr3 nanocrystals postsynthetically, suggesting a practical framework to extend this treatment to other perovskite compositions and sizes.

10.
Nano Lett ; 19(7): 4804-4810, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244231

RESUMO

In this report, we show that a new mechanism for carrier transport in solution-processed colloidal semiconductor nanocrystal arrays exists at high excitation intensity on ultrafast time scales and allows for facile intrinsic transport between as-prepared nanocrystals over long distances. By combining a high speed photoconductive switch with an ultrafast laser excitation in a sub-40 ps photoconductor, we observed transient photocurrents with peak densities of 3 × 104 - 106 mA/cm2 in self-assembled PbSe nanocrystals capped with long native oleic acid ligands. The ratio between the transient photocurrent peak and the steady-state dark current is 10 orders of magnitude. The transient mobility at the peak current is estimated to range between 0.5-17.5 cm2/(V s) for the various nanocrystal sizes studied, which is 6 to 9 orders of magnitude higher than the dark current steady-state mobility in PbSe, CdSe, and CdTe nanocrystals capped with native ligands. The results are analyzed using a kinetic model which attributes the ultrahigh transient photocurrent to multiple photogenerated excitons undergoing on-particle Auger recombination, followed by rapid tunneling at high energies. This mechanism is demonstrated for a wide range of PbSe nanocrystals sizes (diameters from 2.7 to 7.1 nm) and experimental parameters. Our observations indicate that native ligand-capped nanocrystal arrays are promising for optoelectronics applications wherein multiple carriers are photoinjected to interband states.

11.
ACS Nano ; 13(11): 12322-12344, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246407

RESUMO

The goal of this work is to identify favored pathways for preparation of defect-resilient attached wurtzite CdX (X = S, Se, Te) nanocrystals. We seek guidelines for oriented attachment of faceted nanocrystals that are most likely to yield pairs of nanocrystals with either few or no electronic defects or electronic defects that are in and of themselves desirable and stable. Using a combination of in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electronic structure calculations, we evaluate the relative merits of atomic attachment of wurtzite CdSe nanocrystals on the {11̅00} or {112̅0} family of facets. Pairwise attachment on either facet can lead to perfect interfaces, provided the nanocrystal facets are perfectly flat and the angles between the nanocrystals can adjust during the assembly. Considering defective attachment, we observe for {11̅00} facet attachment that only one type of edge dislocation forms, creating deep hole traps. For {112̅0} facet attachment, we observe that four distinct types of extended defects form, some of which lead to deep hole traps whereas others only to shallow hole traps. HRTEM movies of the dislocation dynamics show that dislocations at {11̅00} interfaces can be removed, albeit slowly. Whereas only some extended defects at {112̅0} interfaces could be removed, others were trapped at the interface. Based on these insights, we identify the most resilient pathways to atomic attachment of pairs of wurtzite CdX nanocrystals and consider how these insights can translate to the creation of electronically useful materials from quantum dots with other crystal structures.

12.
Sci Adv ; 5(5): eaav8141, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172026

RESUMO

One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials with highly anisotropic optoelectronic properties are key components in energy harvesting, flexible electronics, and biomedical imaging devices. 3D patterning methods that precisely assemble nanowires with locally controlled composition and orientation would enable new optoelectronic device designs. As an exemplar, we have created and 3D-printed nanocomposite inks composed of brightly emitting colloidal cesium lead halide perovskite (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I) nanowires suspended in a polystyrene-polyisoprene-polystyrene block copolymer matrix. The nanowire alignment is defined by the programmed print path, resulting in optical nanocomposites that exhibit highly polarized absorption and emission properties. Several devices have been produced to highlight the versatility of this method, including optical storage, encryption, sensing, and full-color displays.

13.
Nano Lett ; 19(6): 3878-3885, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056918

RESUMO

The optical efficiency of lanthanide-based upconversion is intricately related to the crystalline host lattice. Different crystal fields interacting with the electron clouds of the lanthanides can significantly affect transition probabilities between the energy levels. Here, we investigate six distinct alkaline-earth rare-earth fluoride host materials (M1- xLn xF2+x, MLnF) for infrared-to-visible upconversion, focusing on nanoparticles of CaYF, CaLuF, SrYF, SrLuF, BaYF, and BaLuF doped with Yb3+ and Er3+. We first synthesize ∼5 nm upconverting cores of each material via a thermal decomposition method. Then we introduce a dropwise hot-injection method to grow optically inert MYF shell layers around the active cores. Five distinct shell thicknesses are considered for each host material, resulting in 36 unique, monodisperse upconverting nanomaterials each with size below ∼15 nm. The upconversion quantum yield (UCQY) is measured for all core/shell nanoparticles as a function of shell thickness and compared with hexagonal (ß-phase) NaGdF4, a traditional upconverting host lattice. While the UCQY of core nanoparticles is below the detection limit (<10-5%), it increases by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude as the shell thickness approaches 4-6 nm. The UCQY values of our cubic MLnF nanoparticles meet or exceed the ß-NaGdF4 reference sample. Across all core/shell samples, SrLuF nanoparticles are the most efficient, with UCQY values of 0.53% at 80 W/cm2 for cubic nanoparticles with ∼11 nm edge length. This efficiency is 5 times higher than our ß-NaGdF4 reference material with comparable core size and shell thickness. Our work demonstrates efficient and bright upconversion in ultrasmall alkaline-earth-based nanoparticles, with applications spanning biological imaging and optical sensing.

14.
Science ; 363(6432): 1199-1202, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872520

RESUMO

A variety of optical applications rely on the absorption and reemission of light. The quantum yield of this process often plays an essential role. When the quantum yield deviates from unity by significantly less than 1%, applications such as luminescent concentrators and optical refrigerators become possible. To evaluate such high performance, we develop a measurement technique for luminescence efficiency with sufficient accuracy below one part per thousand. Photothermal threshold quantum yield is based on the quantization of light to minimize overall measurement uncertainty. This technique is used to guide a procedure capable of making ensembles of near-unity emitting cadmium selenide/cadmium sulfide (CdSe/CdS) core-shell quantum dots. We obtain a photothermal threshold quantum yield luminescence efficiency of 99.6 ± 0.2%, indicating nearly complete suppression of nonradiative decay channels.

15.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(5): 420-425, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833691

RESUMO

Electron microscopy has been instrumental in our understanding of complex biological systems. Although electron microscopy reveals cellular morphology with nanoscale resolution, it does not provide information on the location of different types of proteins. An electron-microscopy-based bioimaging technology capable of localizing individual proteins and resolving protein-protein interactions with respect to cellular ultrastructure would provide important insights into the molecular biology of a cell. Here, we synthesize small lanthanide-doped nanoparticles and measure the absolute photon emission rate of individual nanoparticles resulting from a given electron excitation flux (cathodoluminescence). Our results suggest that the optimization of nanoparticle composition, synthesis protocols and electron imaging conditions can lead to sub-20-nm nanolabels that would enable high signal-to-noise localization of individual biomolecules within a cellular context. In ensemble measurements, these labels exhibit narrow spectra of nine distinct colours, so the imaging of biomolecules in a multicolour electron microscopy modality may be possible.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanopartículas/química
16.
Nano Lett ; 19(4): 2489-2496, 2019 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848600

RESUMO

Colloidal cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals exhibit unique photophysical properties including high quantum yields, tunable emission colors, and narrow photoluminescence spectra that have marked them as promising light emitters for applications in diverse photonic devices. Randomly oriented transition dipole moments have limited the light outcoupling efficiency of all isotropic light sources, including perovskites. In this report we design and synthesize deep blue emitting, quantum confined, perovskite nanoplates and analyze their optical properties by combining angular emission measurements with back focal plane imaging and correlating the results with physical characterization. By reducing the dimensions of the nanocrystals and depositing them face down onto a substrate by spin coating, we orient the average transition dipole moment of films into the plane of the substrate and improve the emission properties for light emitting applications. We then exploit the sensitivity of the perovskite electronic transitions to the dielectric environment at the interface between the crystal and their surroundings to reduce the angle between the average transition dipole moment and the surface to only 14° and maximize potential light emission efficiency. This tunability of the electronic transition that governs light emission in perovskites is unique and, coupled with their excellent photophysical properties, introduces a valuable method to extend the efficiencies and applications of perovskite based photonic devices beyond those based on current materials.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(10): 4428-4437, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777753

RESUMO

Graphene liquid cell electron microscopy has the necessary temporal and spatial resolution to enable the in situ observation of nanoscale dynamics in solution. However, the chemistry of the solution in the liquid cell during imaging is as yet poorly understood due to the generation of a complex mixture of radiolysis products by the electron beam. In this work, the etching trajectories of nanocrystals were used as a probe to determine the effect of the electron beam dose rate and preloaded etchant, FeCl3, on the chemistry of the liquid cell. Initially, illuminating the sample at a low electron beam dose rate generates hydrogen bubbles, providing a reservoir of sacrificial reductant. Increasing the electron beam dose rate leads to a constant etching rate that varies linearly with the electron beam dose rate. Comparing these results with the oxidation potentials of the species in solution, the electron beam likely controls the total concentration of oxidative species in solution and FeCl3 likely controls the relative ratio of oxidative species, independently determining the etching rate and chemical potential of the reaction, respectively. Correlating these liquid cell etching results with the ex situ oxidative etching of gold nanocrystals using FeCl3 provides further insight into the liquid cell chemistry while corroborating the liquid cell dynamics with ex situ synthetic behavior. This understanding of the chemistry in the liquid cell will allow researchers to better control the liquid cell electron microscopy environment, allowing new nanoscale materials science experiments to be conducted systematically in a reproducible manner.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(50): 17760-17772, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501174

RESUMO

We introduce a general surface passivation mechanism for cesium lead halide perovskite materials (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) that is supported by a combined experimental and theoretical study of the nanocrystal surface chemistry. A variety of spectroscopic methods are employed together with ab initio calculations to identify surface halide vacancies as the predominant source of charge trapping. The number of surface traps per nanocrystal is quantified by 1H NMR spectroscopy, and that number is consistent with a simple trapping model in which surface halide vacancies create deleterious under-coordinated lead atoms. These halide vacancies exhibit trapping behavior that differs among CsPbCl3, CsPbBr3, and CsPbI3. Ab initio calculations suggest that introduction of anionic X-type ligands can produce trap-free band gaps by altering the energetics of lead-based defect levels. General rules for selecting effective passivating ligand pairs are introduced by considering established principles of coordination chemistry. Introducing softer, anionic, X-type Lewis bases that target under-coordinated lead atoms results in absolute quantum yields approaching unity and monoexponential luminescence decay kinetics, thereby indicating full trap passivation. This work provides a systematic framework for preparing highly luminescent CsPbX3 nanocrystals with variable compositions and dimensionalities, thereby improving the fundamental understanding of these materials and informing future synthetic and post-synthetic efforts toward trap-free CsPbX3 nanocrystals.

19.
ACS Nano ; 12(11): 11529-11540, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335943

RESUMO

Treatment of InP colloidal quantum dots (QDs) with hydrofluoric acid (HF) has been an effective method to improve their photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) without growing a shell. Previous work has shown that this can occur through the dissolution of the fluorinated phosphorus and subsequent passivation of indium on the reconstructed surface by excess ligands. In this article, we demonstrate that very significant luminescence enhancements occur at lower HF exposure though a different mechanism. At lower exposure to HF, the main role of the fluoride ions is to directly passivate the surface indium dangling bonds in the form of atomic ligands. The PLQY enhancement in this case is accompanied by red shifts of the emission and absorption peaks rather than blue shifts caused by etching as seen at higher exposures. Density functional theory shows that the surface fluorination is thermodynamically preferred and that the observed spectral characteristics might be due to greater exciton delocalization over the outermost surface layer of the InP QDs as well as alteration of the optical oscillator strength by the highly electronegative fluoride layer. Passivation of surface indium with fluorides can be applied to other indium-based QDs. PLQY of InAs QDs could also be increased by an order of magnitude via fluorination. We fabricated fluorinated InAs QD-based electrical devices exhibiting improved switching and higher mobility than those of 1,2-ethanedithiol cross-linked QD devices. The effective surface passivation eliminates persistent photoconductivity usually found in InAs QD-based solid films.

20.
Nano Lett ; 18(10): 6427-6433, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256644

RESUMO

Formation mechanisms of dendrite structures have been extensively explored theoretically, and many theoretical predictions have been validated for micro- or macroscale dendrites. However, it is challenging to determine whether classical dendrite growth theories are applicable at the nanoscale due to the lack of detailed information on the nanodendrite growth dynamics. Here, we study iron oxide nanodendrite formation using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We observe "seaweed"-like iron oxide nanodendrites growing predominantly in two dimensions on the membrane of a liquid cell. By tracking the trajectories of their morphology development with high spatial and temporal resolution, it is possible to explore the relationship between the tip curvature and growth rate, tip splitting mechanisms, and the effects of precursor diffusion and depletion on the morphology evolution. We show that the growth of iron oxide nanodendrites is remarkably consistent with the existing theoretical predictions on dendritic morphology evolution during growth, despite occurring at the nanoscale.

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