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Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 900026, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35602514


Background: Vaccine hesitancy is a global public health threat. Understanding the role of psychological factors in vaccine hesitancy is often neglected and relatively less explored. Aim and Objectives: To analyze the relationship between mental health and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy before and after the advent of COVID-19 vaccines (AC19V) in the general population of India and Saudi Arabia (KSA) which vary in severity of the pandemic and vaccine mandates. Materials and Methods: A total of 677 adult participants from India and KSA participated in this cross-sectional online web-based survey. Sociodemographic details and current COVID-19 status pertaining to infection and vaccination were collected. Depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and perceptive need for mental health support (MHS) were assessed before and after AC19V. A newly constructed and validated COVID19 vaccine hesitancy scale-12 (COVID19-VHS12) scale was used to evaluate the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Results: Prevalence and levels of depression and anxiety symptoms decreased significantly in Saudis but not in Indians after AC19V. PTSD symptoms showed a significant reduction in both India and KSA. Anxiety symptoms were higher in KSA than India before AC19V while PTSD was higher in India before and after AC19V. Except for the place of residence and employment status, the subgroups of sociodemographic variables which were at higher risk of negative mental health before AC19V showed improvement in their mental health after AC19V. The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in India and KSA was 50.8% (95% CI 45.73-55.89%) and 55.7% (95% CI 50.16-61.31%), respectively. A bidirectional association between vaccine hesitancy and mental health was observed in KSA but not in India. Higher vaccine hesitancy favored higher levels of depression, anxiety, and perceptive need for MHS and vice versa in KSA. None of the mental health parameters predicted vaccine hesitancy in India, while higher vaccine hesitancy increased the risk of anxiety. Conclusion: Vaccine hesitancy has a negative impact on mental health and vice versa over and above the impact of sociodemographic factors and COVID-19 vaccination and infection status which shows variations between India and KSA.

Vet Sci ; 8(12)2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941815


INTRODUCTION: Primate animal models are being utilized to explore novel therapies for spinal cord injuries. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the transplantation of predegenerated nerve segments in unilateral spinal cord-hemisected bonnet monkeys' (Macaca radiata) locomotor functions using the complex runways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bonnet monkeys were initially trained to walk in a bipedal motion on grid and staircase runways. In one group of trained monkeys, surgical hemisection was made in the spinal cord at the T12-L1 level. In the other group, hemisection was induced in the spinal cord, and the ulnar nerve was also transected at the same time (transplant group). After one week, the hemisected cavity was reopened and implanted with predegenerated ulnar nerve segments obtained from the same animal of the transplant group. RESULTS: All the operated monkeys showed significant deficits in locomotion on runways at the early postoperative period. The walking ability of operated monkeys was found to be gradually improved, and they recovered nearer to preoperative level at the fourth postoperative month, and there were no marked differences. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that there were no significant improvements in the locomotion of monkeys on runways after the delayed grafting of nerve segments until one year later. The failure of the predegenerated nerve graft as a possible therapeutic strategy to improve the locomotion of monkeys may be due to a number of factors set in motion by trauma, which could possibly prevent the qualities of regeneration. The exact reason for this ineffectiveness of predegenerated nerve segments and their underlying mechanism is not known.

Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 654524, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33898488


Background: The recent pandemic outbreak has created a huge impact on dentistry. Dental students and dental professionals are at a higher risk because dental practice comprises close communication and widespread exposure to blood, saliva, and other body fluids. It is imperative to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions regarding Coronavirus (COVID-19) among budding dentists. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of dental students regarding dental practices during COVID-19. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among undergraduate students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An online questionnaire consisting of demographic, knowledge, and attitude-based questions were circulated among the study population, and the responses for the knowledge and attitude were scored. Their mean scores were then calculated. Chi-square test and nonparametric tests were computed using SPSS version 21 software, and p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: 388 undergraduate dental students have participated in the study from Saudi Arabia. 68% of the respondents believed that they had sufficient knowledge regarding COVID-19. The mean score for knowledge was 5.84 out of 7. Females (6.24) scored statistically significantly higher than males (5.55, p < = 0.001). The mean attitude score was 6.34 out of 9. 93% were using PPE models, while 95% maintained social distancing. Out of all the participating dental students, only 16% were willing to treat patients during the pandemic, and 28% did not want to treat patients, 28% preferred teledentistry. The majority (44%) of dental undergraduates were willing to handle only emergency cases. Conclusion: Accurate knowledge and attitude regarding COVID-19 and diversified opinion on preventive practices during the pandemic period among budding dental professionals evident from Saudi Arabia. Mixed opinions were witnessed among them in seeking help from professional societies. The majority of dental undergraduates were willing to handle only emergency cases.

Saudi J Med Med Sci ; 6(2): 104-107, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787830


Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa is a rare type of cutaneous vasculitis. It affects the small- and medium-sized arteries of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue without extracutaneous involvement. The diagnosis is by skin biopsy, and the characteristic finding is a leukocytoclastic vasculitis. We report a case of a 14-year-old Saudi girl who was referred to the dermatology service because of multiple ulceronecrotic lesions on the frontal aspects of the distal lower limbs. She had past medical consultations and treatment but without improvement. The histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis of cPAN, and ultimately, she responded to treatment with pentoxifylline and topical clobetasol propionate. It is important to be aware of this disease and refer the patient to the dermatology service for the appropriate evaluation and treatment.