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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484992

RESUMO

Health care costs attributed to biologics have increased exponentially in the recent years, thus biosimilars offer a possible solution to limit costs while maintaining safety and efficacy. Reducing expenditure is vital to health care especially in developing countries where affordability and access to health care is a major challenge. We discuss the opportunities and the challenges of biosimilars in the field of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in low- and lower-middle income countries. Developing countries can potentially invest in the forecasted costs reduction by utilizing biosimilars. This can be used to decrease the costs of procedures such as HCT, which is a rapidly growing field in many developing regions. The introduction of biosimilars in the developing regions faces many challenges which include, but are not limited to: legal and regulatory issues, lack of research infrastructure, and the presence of educational barriers. Thus, collaborative efforts are needed to ensure an effective and safe introduction of biosimilars into low- and lower-middle income countries.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488877

RESUMO

Patients between 14 and 22 years old are underrepresented in both adult and pediatric studies. We analyzed the outcomes of 94 consecutive patients aged between 14 and 22 who underwent myeloablative matched related-donor transplant while in first or second complete remission. We studied the impact of disease type, remission status, ELN risk group, ABO mismatch, time from diagnosis to transplant, patient and donor age, conditioning type, stem cell source, and the year of transplant on transplant outcomes. The cumulative incidences of relapse, NRM, OS, and DFS at 5 years were 42%, 10%, 59%, and 48%, respectively. Absence of ABO mismatch and donor age > 20 were associated with better OS and DFS on univariate and multivariate analysis. The cumulative incidence of aGVHD and cGVHD were 18% and 44%, respectively. Donor age > 20 and peripheral blood stem cell source were significantly associated with higher incidence of cGVHD on univariate and multivariate analysis. Younger patient age was significantly associated with higher incidence of aGVHD. In this age group, the determinants of survival seem to be dependent on donor variables rather on the traditional disease and patient related variables. Relapse still a significant factor for transplant failure while NRM was low.

3.
Haematologica ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439677

RESUMO

Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia comprises two subtypes with distinct cytogenetic abnormalities of either t(8;21)(q22;q22) or inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22). Since long-term response to chemotherapy in those leukemias is relatively good, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered in patients who relapse and achieve second complete remission. To evaluate the outcomes of allogeneic transplantation in this indication, we studied 631 patients in reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry between the years 2000 and 2014. Leukemia-free survival probabilities at 2 and 5 years were 59.1% and 54.1%, while overall survival probabilities were 65% and 58.2% respectively. The incidence of relapse and risk of non-relapse mortality at the same time-points were 19.8% and 22.5% for relapse and 20.9% and 23.3% for non-relapse mortality respectively. The most important adverse factors influencing leukemia-free and overall survival were leukemia with t(8;21), presence of 3 or more additional chromosomal abnormalities and Karnofsky performance score <80. Relapse risk was increased in t(8;21) leukemia and associated with additional cytogenetic abnormalities as well as reduced intensity conditioning. Measurable residual disease in molecular evaluation before transplantation was associated with increased risk of relapse and inferior leukemia-free survival.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449780

RESUMO

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a highly complex procedure that requires a dedicated multidisciplinary team to optimize its safety. In addition, institutions may have different needs regarding indications based on regional disease prevalence or may have an interest in developing specialized services. Yet, structured recommendations are not commonly available. Here, the Transplant Center and Recipient Issues Standing Committee for the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (WBMT) organized a structured review of all pertinent elements to establish a transplant program. First, we solicited components from committee members and grouped them in domains (infrastructure, staff, cell processing laboratory, blood banking, laboratory, radiology, pharmacy, HLA testing, ancillary services and quality). Subsequently, reviewers scored all elements on a 7-point scale, from an absolute requirement (score of 1) to not required (score of 7). An independent group of five experienced transplant physicians reviewed the rankings. Minimum requirements to establish any HCT program were identified among elements with mean score of ≤2.0, and specific elements for allogeneic and autologous HCT were identified. Mean scores >2.0-4.0 were classified as preferred recommendation, and mean scores of >4.0 to ≤7.0 were considered ideal recommendations for advanced and complex types of transplantation. This structured set of recommendations guides the prioritization of minimum requirements to establish a transplant program and to set the path for expansion and further development.

5.
Haematologica ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413093

RESUMO

We compared severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free survival and other transplantation outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia patients given bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin, versus peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin after myeloablative conditioning. In the cohort of patients receiving grafts from a human-leukocyte-antigen matched sibling donor, patients given peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin (n=1,021) and those given bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin (n=1,633) presented comparable severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free (HR=0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-1.1, P=0.5) and overall (HR=1.0, 95% CI: 0.8-1.2, P=0.8) survival. They had however, a lower incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (HR=0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9; P=0.01). In the cohort of patients receiving grafts from human-leukocyte-antigen matched unrelated donor, patients given peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin (n=2,318) had better severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free survival than those given bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin (n=303) (HR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9, P=0.001). They also had a lower incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (HR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.8, P=0.0006) and better overall survival (HR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-1.0, P=0.04). In summary, these data suggest that peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin results in comparable (in the case of sibling donor) or significantly better (in the case of unrelated donor) severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free survival than bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission receiving grafts after myeloablative conditioning.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394275

RESUMO

Outcomes for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with leukemia differ from other age groups and are still under-represented in clinical research. The aim of this study was to analyze outcomes of umbilical cord blood transplant (UCBT) in AYAs with acute leukemia reported to Eurocord/European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Patients (N = 504) had acute lymphoblastic (59%) or myeloid leukemia (41%), were aged 15 to 25 years, and received UCBT after myeloablative conditioning regimens between 2004 and 2016. The primary endpoint was 3-year overall survival (OS). Median follow-up was 3.9 years. Transplant was single in 58% and double UCBT in 42%. Three-year OS was 45% and leukemia free survival (LFS) was 41%. Cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and relapse were 31% and 28%, respectively. CIF of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades II to IV at day 100 was 28%. Three-year CIF of chronic GVHD was 25%. In adjusted analysis, better disease status at UCBT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.74; P < .001) and more recent UCBT (HR, 1.43; P = .01) were associated with increased OS, and a similar effect of these factors was observed on LFS. Contrastingly, the use of antithymocyte globulin had a negative effect in LFS. The risk of acute GVHD grades II to IV increased with the use of double UCBT (HR, 1.65; P  = .02) and decreased with more recent transplant period (HR, .65; P = .02) and antithymocyte globulin use (HR, .55; P  = .01). Outcomes of AYA UCBT improved in more recent years, becoming comparable with pediatric results. Demonstrating the feasibility of UCBT in AYAs facilitates stem cell source selection and provides the basis for future prospective studies.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients using traditional adult chemotherapy protocols give low overall survival (OS) rates. Data are growing regarding the use of pediatric-inspired chemotherapy protocols in AYA patients with improvement in OS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To assess efficacy and tolerability of using a pediatric-inspired protocol in AYA patients, we initiated our local prospective trial using a modified version of the Children's Cancer Group 1900 protocol for newly diagnosed high-risk Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL patients. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study (from 2015 to 2018). The median age was 18 years (range, 14-34 years). The complete remission rate after induction was 37 patients [93%] and after a median follow-up of 5 years, OS, disease-free survival (DFS), and event-free survival were 75%, 72%, and 60%, respectively. Use of this protocol was well tolerated with manageable toxicities. Pegylated asparaginase was given to all patients during the induction phase and was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: The use of a pediatric-inspired protocol for high-risk AYA ALL patients was effective and well tolerated with improvement in OS and DFS compared with historical data using adult protocols in such populations.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445182

RESUMO

Philadelphia chromosome-like (Ph-like) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a relatively new entity characterized by high cytokine receptor and tyrosine kinase signaling resulting in multiple downstream pathway stimulation. The standard diagnostic method, gene expression profiling, is not widely available. Efforts are ongoing to establish easy and clinically applicable diagnostic pathways to facilitate the accurate identification of these patients and thus enable a better understanding of the prognosis and outcomes with different treatment approaches. The rates of complete remission in ALL patients are consistently above 90% with the different induction protocols; however, maintaining remission depends on the risk group of the patient and consolidation therapy. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) is particularly beneficial when the risk of relapse is very high and the expected complications with transplant are low. Data on the outcomes of allo-HCT for Ph-like ALL are scarce. In this article we review the published literature on outcomes of Ph-like ALL patients treated using different therapeutic approaches and make recommendations about transplant consideration for these patients.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181176

RESUMO

The first meeting of the African Blood and Marrow Transplantation (AfBMT) was held in Casablanca from April 19, 2018 to April 21, 2018, with the aim of fostering hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) activity in Africa. Out of the 54 African countries, HSCT is available only in six (Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, and Tunisia). During this meeting, African teams and international experts from the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (WBMT) gathered to share their experience and discussed ways to help fill the gap. Nurses and patients held their meeting in parallel. International support and collaboration can help by providing expertise adapted to local resources and regional population needs. Local engagement including government and private participants are necessary to initiate and develop local HSCT capability.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(16): 5143-5155, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253630

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a prognostic model and cytogenetic risk classification for previously treated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) undergoing reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed a retrospective analysis of outcomes of 606 patients with CLL who underwent RIC allogeneic HCT between 2008 and 2014 reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. RESULTS: On the basis of multivariable models, disease status, comorbidity index, lymphocyte count, and white blood cell count at HCT were selected for the development of prognostic model. Using the prognostic score, we stratified patients into low-, intermediate-, high-, and very-high-risk [4-year progression-free survival (PFS) 58%, 42%, 33%, and 25%, respectively, P < 0.0001; 4-year overall survival (OS) 70%, 57%, 54%, and 38%, respectively, P < 0.0001]. We also evaluated karyotypic abnormalities together with del(17p) and found that del(17p) or ≥5 abnormalities showed inferior PFS. Using a multivariable model, we classified cytogenetic risk into low, intermediate, and high (P < 0.0001). When the prognostic score and cytogenetic risk were combined, patients with low prognostic score and low cytogenetic risk had prolonged PFS (61% at 4 years) and OS (75% at 4 years). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of patients with previously treated CLL who underwent RIC HCT, we developed a robust prognostic scoring system of HCT outcomes and a novel cytogenetic-based risk stratification system. These prognostic models can be used for counseling patients, comparing data across studies, and providing a benchmark for future interventions. For future study, we will further validate these models for patients receiving targeted therapies prior to HCT.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158502

RESUMO

Combination therapy with a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), such as cyclosporine (CSA) or tacrolimus (Tac), and methotrexate (MTX) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a widely used approach to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prevention. Data on the comparative effectiveness of MMF compared with MTX are limited and conflicting, however. We analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research for adult patients undergoing first myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from an HLA-identical matched related donor (MRD; n = 3979) or matched unrelated donor (URD; n = 4163) using CSA+MMF, CSA+MTX, Tac+MMF, or Tac+MTX for GVHD prevention between 2000 and 2013. Within the MRD cohort, 2252 patients received CSA+MTX, 1391 received Tac+MTX, 114 received CSA+MMF, and 222 received Tac+MMF. Recipients of CSA+MMF had a higher incidence of acute GVHD grade II-IV (hazard ratio [HR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 2.20; P < .001) and grade III-IV (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.83; P < .001) compared with Tac+MTX. The use of CSA+MMF was also associated with inferior overall survival (OS) (HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.73 to 3.09; P < .001) due to higher transplantation-related mortality (TRM) (HR, 4.03; 95% CI, 2.61 to 6.23; P < .001) compared with Tac+MTX. Within the URD cohort, 974 patients received CSA+MTX, 2697 received Tac+MTX, 68 received CSA+MMF, and 424 received Tac+MMF. CSA+MMF was again significantly associated with a higher incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD (HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.57 to 3.42; P <0001), worse OS (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.67 to 3.35; P < .001), and higher TRM (HR, 3.09; 95% CI, 2.00 to 4.77; P < .001), compared with Tac+MTX and other regimens. Thus, this large retrospective comparison of MMF versus MTX in combination with CSA or Tac demonstrates significantly worse GVHD and survival outcomes with CSA+MMF compared with Tac+MTX.

13.
Blood Adv ; 3(12): 1826-1836, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201170

RESUMO

HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (Haplo-HCT) using posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) has improved donor availability. However, a matched sibling donor (MSD) is still considered the optimal donor. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database, we compared outcomes after Haplo-HCT vs MSD in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1). Data from 1205 adult CR1 AML patients (2008-2015) were analyzed. A total of 336 patients underwent PT-Cy-based Haplo-HCT and 869 underwent MSD using calcineurin inhibitor-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The Haplo-HCT group included more reduced-intensity conditioning (65% vs 30%) and bone marrow grafts (62% vs 7%), consistent with current practice. In multivariable analysis, Haplo-HCT and MSD groups were not different with regard to overall survival (P = .15), leukemia-free survival (P = .50), nonrelapse mortality (P = .16), relapse (P = .90), or grade II-IV acute GVHD (P = .98). However, the Haplo-HCT group had a significantly lower rate of chronic GVHD (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.48; P < .001). Results of subgroup analyses by conditioning intensity and graft source suggested that the reduced incidence of chronic GVHD in Haplo-HCT is not limited to a specific graft source or conditioning intensity. Center effect and minimal residual disease-donor type interaction were not predictors of outcome. Our results indicate a lower rate of chronic GVHD after PT-Cy-based Haplo-HCT vs MSD using calcineurin inhibitor-based GVHD prophylaxis, but similar other outcomes, in patients with AML in CR1. Haplo-HCT is a viable alternative to MSD in these patients.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228584

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is offered in a limited number of medical centers and is associated with significant direct and indirect costs. The degree to which social and geographic barriers reduce access to alloHCT is unknown. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) were integrated to determine the rate of unrelated donor (URD) alloHCT for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) performed between 2000 and 2010 in the 612 counties covered by SEER. The total incidence of AML, ALL, and MDS was determined using SEER, and the number of alloHCTs performed in the same time period and geographic area were determined using the CIBMTR database. We then determined which sociodemographic attributes influenced the rate of alloHCT (rural/urban status, median family size, percentage of residents below the poverty line, and percentage of minority race). In the entire cohort, higher levels of poverty were associated with lower rates of alloHCT (estimated rate ratio [ERR], .86 for a 10% increase in the percentage of the population below the poverty line; P < .01), whereas rural location was not (ERR, .87; P = .11). Thus, patients from areas with higher poverty rates diagnosed with ALL, AML, and MDS are less likely patients from wealthier counties to undergo URD alloHCT. There is need to better understand the reasons for this disparity and to encourage policy and advocacy efforts to improve access to medical care for all.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132455

RESUMO

Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) patients with relapsed or refractory disease may benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), but many lack a matched sibling donor (MSD). Herein, we compare outcomes of 2 reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) HCT platforms in cHL: T cell-replete related donor haploidentical (haplo) HCT with a post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based approach versus an MSD/calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based approach. The study included 596 adult patients who underwent a first RIC allo-HCT for cHL between 2008 and 2016 using either a haplo-PTCy (n = 139) or MSD/CNI-based (n = 457) approach. Overall survival (OS) was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression, and progression-free survival (PFS). On multivariate analysis, there was no significant difference between haplo/PTCy and MDS/CNI-based approaches in terms of OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], .79 to 1.45; P = .66) or PFS (HR, .86; 95% CI, .68 to 1.10; P = .22). Haplo/PTCy was associated with a significantly higher risk of grades II to IV aGVHD (odds ratio [OR], 1.73, 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.59; P = .007), but the risk of grades III to IV aGVHD was not significantly different between the 2 cohorts (OR, .61; 95% CI, .29 to 1.27; P = .19). The haplo/PTCy platform provided a significant reduction in cGVHD risk (HR, .45; 95% CI, .32 to .64; P < .001), and a significant reduction in relapse risk (HR, .74; 95% CI, .56 to .97; P = .03). There was a statistically nonsignificant trend toward higher NRM with a haplo/PTCy approach (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, .99 to 2.77; P = .06). Haplo/PTCy-based approaches are associated with lower incidences of cGVHD and relapse, with PFS and OS outcomes comparable with MSD/CNI-based approaches. There was a leaning toward higher NRM with a haplo/PTCy-based platform. These data show that haplo/PTCy allo-HCT in cHL results in survival comparable with MSD/CNI-based allo-HCT.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085303

RESUMO

Data on whether the T cell dose of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) products influences transplantation outcomes are conflicting. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database, we identified 2736 adult patients who underwent first allogeneic PBSC transplantation for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome between 2008 and 2014 using an HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD) or an 8/8-matched unrelated donor (MUD). We excluded ex vivo and in vivo T cell-depleted transplantations. Correlative analysis was performed between CD3+ T cell dose and the risk of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), relapse, nonrelapse mortality (NRM), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Using maximum likelihood estimation, we identified CD3+ T cell dose cutoff that separated the risk of acute GVHD (aGVHD) grade II-IV in both the MSD and MUD groups. A CD3+ T cell dose cutoff of 14 × 107 cells/kg identified MSD/low CD3+ (n = 223) and MSD/high CD3+ (n = 1214), and a dose of 15 × 107 cells/kg identified MUD/low CD3+ (n = 197) and MUD/high CD3+ (n = 1102). On univariate analysis, the MSD/high CD3+ group had a higher cumulative incidence of day +100 aGVHD grade II-IV compared with the MSD/low CD3+ group (33% versus 25%; P = .009). There were no differences between the 2 groups in engraftment rate, risk of aGVHD grade III-IV or chronic GVHD (cGVHD), NRM, relapse, DFS, or OS. The MUD/high CD3+ group had a higher cumulative incidence of day +100 aGVHD grade II-IV compared with the MUD/low CD3+ group (49% versus 41%; P = .04). There were no differences between the 2 groups in engraftment rate, risk of severe aGVHD or cGVHD, NRM, relapse, DFS, or OS. Multivariate analysis of the MSD and MUD groups failed to show an association between CD3+ T cell dose and the risk of either aGVHD grade II-IV (P = .10 and .07, respectively) or cGVHD (P = .80 and .30, respectively). Subanalysis of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio failed to identify cutoff values predictive of transplantation outcomes; however, using the log-rank test, the sample size was suboptimal for identifying a difference at this cutoff cell dose. In this registry study, the CD3+ T cell dose of PBSC products did not influence the risk of aGVHD or cGVHD or other transplantation outcomes when using an MSD or an 8/8-matched MUD. Subset analyses of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell doses were not possible given our small sample size.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071457

RESUMO

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a highly complex procedure that requires a dedicated multidisciplinary team to optimize safety. In addition, institutions may have different needs regarding indications based on regional disease prevalence or may have an interest in developing specialized services. Structured recommendations are not commonly available, however. The Transplant Center and Recipient Issues Standing Committee of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (WBMT) organized a structured review of all pertinent elements for establishing a transplantation program. First, we solicited components from committee members and grouped them into domains (infrastructure, staff, cell processing laboratory, blood banking, laboratory, radiology, pharmacy, HLA testing, ancillary services, and quality). Subsequently, reviewers scored each element on a 7-point scale, ranging from an absolute requirement (score of 1) to not required (score of 7). An independent group of 5 experienced transplantation physicians reviewed the rankings. The minimum requirements for establishing any HCT program were identified among elements with mean score of ≤2.0, and specific elements for allogeneic and autologous HCT were identified. Mean scores of >2.0 to 4.0 were classified as preferred recommendation, and mean scores of >4.0 to ≤ 7.0 were considered ideal recommendations for advanced and complex types of transplantation. This structured set of recommendations guides the prioritization of minimum requirements to establish a transplantation program and set the stage for expansion and further development.

18.
Blood Adv ; 3(9): 1441-1449, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053571

RESUMO

We report graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free relapse-free survival (GRFS) (a composite end point of survival without grade III-IV acute GVHD [aGVHD], systemic therapy-requiring chronic GVHD [cGVHD], or relapse) and cGVHD-free relapse-free survival (CRFS) among pediatric patients with acute leukemia (n = 1613) who underwent transplantation with 1 antigen-mismatched (7/8) bone marrow (BM; n = 172) or umbilical cord blood (UCB; n = 1441). Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards models. To account for multiple testing, P < .01 for the donor/graft variable was considered statistically significant. Clinical characteristics were similar between UCB and 7/8 BM recipients, because most had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (62%), 64% received total body irradiation-based conditioning, and 60% received anti-thymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab. Methotrexate-based GVHD prophylaxis was more common with 7/8 BM (79%) than with UCB (15%), in which mycophenolate mofetil was commonly used. The univariate estimates of GRFS and CRFS were 22% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16-29) and 27% (95% CI, 20-34), respectively, with 7/8 BM and 33% (95% CI, 31-36) and 38% (95% CI, 35-40), respectively, with UCB (P < .001). In multivariate analysis, 7/8 BM vs UCB had similar GRFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; 95% CI, 0.87-1.45; P = .39), CRFS (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.82-1.38; P = .66), overall survival (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.80-1.44; P = .66), and relapse (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.03-2.02; P = .03). However, the 7/8 BM group had a significantly higher risk for grade III-IV aGVHD (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.16-2.48; P = .006) compared with the UCB group. UCB and 7/8 BM groups had similar outcomes, as measured by GRFS and CRFS. However, given the higher risk for grade III-IV aGVHD, UCB might be preferred for patients lacking matched donors.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089284

RESUMO

The last decade had witnessed a remarkable reduction in the incidence of acute and chronic GvHD (graft versus host disease) in both related and unrelated transplants mostly due to the improved resolution of HLA (human leukocyte antigen) typing and the new methods for GvHD prevention. The use of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) to mitigate the bidirectional alloreactivity in the setting of haploidentical transplant have revolutionized and revived the field. Based on the promising results of PTCY in the haploidentical transplant field many groups used the same strategy in the setting of HLA-matched donors. This review will carefully examine the available data about the use of PTCY in HLA-matched setting.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092900

RESUMO

On August 30, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) approved tisagenlecleucel (KYMRIAH, Novartis, Basel, Switzerland), a synthetic bioimmune product of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR-T), for the treatment of children and young adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). With this new era of personalized cancer immunotherapy, multiple challenges are present ranging from implementation of a CAR-T program to safe delivery of the drug, long-term toxicity monitoring and disease assessments. To address these issues, experts representing the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant (ASBMT), the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), the International Society of Cell and Gene Therapy (ISCT), and the Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT), formed a global CAR-T task force to identify and address key questions pertinent for hematologists and transplant physicians regarding the clinical use of anti CD19 CAR-T therapy in patients with B-ALL. This article presents an initial roadmap for navigating common clinical practice scenarios that will become more prevalent now that the first commercially available CAR-T product for B-ALL has been approved.

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