Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 390
Filtrar
3.
PLoS Genet ; 17(1): e1009210, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428619

RESUMO

Modern day Saudi Arabia occupies the majority of historical Arabia, which may have contributed to ancient waves of migration out of Africa. This ancient history has left a lasting imprint in the genetics of the region, including the diverse set of tribes that call Saudi Arabia their home. How these tribes relate to each other and to the world's major populations remains an unanswered question. In an attempt to improve our understanding of the population structure of Saudi Arabia, we conducted genomic profiling of 957 unrelated individuals who self-identify with 28 large tribes in Saudi Arabia. Consistent with the tradition of intra-tribal unions, the subjects showed strong clustering along tribal lines with the distance between clusters correlating with their geographical proximities in Arabia. However, these individuals form a unique cluster when compared to the world's major populations. The ancient origin of these tribal affiliations is supported by analyses that revealed little evidence of ancestral origin from within the 28 tribes. Our results disclose a granular map of population structure and have important implications for future genetic studies into Mendelian and common diseases in the region.

4.
Clin Genet ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410500

RESUMO

We describe an 11-year-old girl with PLACK Syndrome (peeling skin, leukonychia, acral punctate keratosis, cheilitis, and knuckle pads), who was found to have a novel homozygous variant in CAST, the pathogenicity of which was confirmed using blood-derived RNA. There is no established treatment for PLACK syndrome. However, we demonstrate for the first time that this condition is associated with low levels of vitamin A and essential fatty acids, which prompted us to consider a potential treatment strategy. Indeed, we initiated this patient on intravenous lipid infusion (Vitalipid®; an emulsion of fat-soluble vitamins and lipofundin-MCT/LCT 20%) and the response was dramatic. Following the fourth monthly course of treatment, pruritis disappeared and the skin lesions showed remarkable objective improvement. PLACK syndrome is a very rare genodermatosis and only six families have been described to date with pathogenic CAST variants. This is the first report of an objective response to a therapeutic agent, which suggests that PLACK is a potentially treatable condition. The remarkable response we report and the relative safety of the intervention should prompt healthcare providers who care for PLACK syndrome patients to explore this as a potential treatment strategy in future studies.

5.
Genet Med ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420346

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify novel genes associated with intellectual disability (ID) in four unrelated families. METHODS: Here, through exome sequencing and international collaboration, we report eight individuals from four unrelated families of diverse geographic origin with biallelic loss-of-function variants in UBE4A. RESULTS: Eight evaluated individuals presented with syndromic intellectual disability and global developmental delay. Other clinical features included hypotonia, short stature, seizures, and behavior disorder. Characteristic features were appreciated in some individuals but not all; in some cases, features became more apparent with age. We demonstrated that UBE4A loss-of-function variants reduced RNA expression and protein levels in clinical samples. Mice generated to mimic patient-specific Ube4a loss-of-function variant exhibited muscular and neurological/behavioral abnormalities, some of which are suggestive of the clinical abnormalities seen in the affected individuals. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that biallelic loss-of-function variants in UBE4A cause a novel intellectual disability syndrome, suggesting that UBE4A enzyme activity is required for normal development and neurological function.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(1): 8-15, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417889

RESUMO

The delineation of disease entities is complex, yet recent advances in the molecular characterization of diseases provide opportunities to designate diseases in a biologically valid manner. Here, we have formalized an approach to the delineation of Mendelian genetic disorders that encompasses two distinct but inter-related concepts: (1) the gene that is mutated and (2) the phenotypic descriptor, preferably a recognizably distinct phenotype. We assert that only by a combinatorial or dyadic approach taking both of these attributes into account can a unitary, distinct genetic disorder be designated. We propose that all Mendelian disorders should be designated as "GENE-related phenotype descriptor" (e.g., "CFTR-related cystic fibrosis"). This approach to delineating and naming disorders reconciles the complexity of gene-to-phenotype relationships in a simple and clear manner yet communicates the complexity and nuance of these relationships.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Genômica/métodos , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(1): 115-133, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308444

RESUMO

Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 3 (SCUBE3) is a member of a small family of multifunctional cell surface-anchored glycoproteins functioning as co-receptors for a variety of growth factors. Here we report that bi-allelic inactivating variants in SCUBE3 have pleiotropic consequences on development and cause a previously unrecognized syndromic disorder. Eighteen affected individuals from nine unrelated families showed a consistent phenotype characterized by reduced growth, skeletal features, distinctive craniofacial appearance, and dental anomalies. In vitro functional validation studies demonstrated a variable impact of disease-causing variants on transcript processing, protein secretion and function, and their dysregulating effect on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. We show that SCUBE3 acts as a BMP2/BMP4 co-receptor, recruits the BMP receptor complexes into raft microdomains, and positively modulates signaling possibly by augmenting the specific interactions between BMPs and BMP type I receptors. Scube3-/- mice showed craniofacial and dental defects, reduced body size, and defective endochondral bone growth due to impaired BMP-mediated chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, recapitulating the human disorder. Our findings identify a human disease caused by defective function of a member of the SCUBE family, and link SCUBE3 to processes controlling growth, morphogenesis, and bone and teeth development through modulation of BMP signaling.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(3): 945-948, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369052

RESUMO

Pathogenic heterozygous variants in PIEZO2 typically cause distal arthrogryposis type 5 (DA5) and the closely related Gordon syndrome (GS). Only one case of PIEZO2-related Marden-Walker syndrome (MWS) has been reported to date. We report the phenotypic features of a Saudi female patient with features consistent with MWS in whom we identified a novel de novo likely pathogenic variant in PIEZO2. Our case lends support to the link between PIEZO2 and MWS.

10.
Clin Immunol ; 222: 108639, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259966

RESUMO

Complete remission from recurrent EBV-positive lymphoma is not mandatory before HSCT to achieve long-term cure in a patient suffering from a recently described immunodeficiency affecting the T-cell coactivation molecule 4-1BB.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 963-976, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157009

RESUMO

NCKAP1/NAP1 regulates neuronal cytoskeletal dynamics and is essential for neuronal differentiation in the developing brain. Deleterious variants in NCKAP1 have been identified in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability; however, its clinical significance remains unclear. To determine its significance, we assemble genotype and phenotype data for 21 affected individuals from 20 unrelated families with predicted deleterious variants in NCKAP1. This includes 16 individuals with de novo (n = 8), transmitted (n = 6), or inheritance unknown (n = 2) truncating variants, two individuals with structural variants, and three with potentially disruptive de novo missense variants. We report a de novo and ultra-rare deleterious variant burden of NCKAP1 in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders which needs further replication. ASD or autistic features, language and motor delay, and variable expression of intellectual or learning disability are common clinical features. Among inherited cases, there is evidence of deleterious variants segregating with neuropsychiatric disorders. Based on available human brain transcriptomic data, we show that NCKAP1 is broadly and highly expressed in both prenatal and postnatal periods and demostrate enriched expression in excitatory neurons and radial glias but depleted expression in inhibitory neurons. Mouse in utero electroporation experiments reveal that Nckap1 loss of function promotes neuronal migration during early cortical development. Combined, these data support a role for disruptive NCKAP1 variants in neurodevelopmental delay/autism, possibly by interfering with neuronal migration early in cortical development.

12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179433

RESUMO

Klippel-Feil syndrome 4 (KFS4; MIM# 616549) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in MYO18B and comprises, in addition to Klippel-Feil anomaly (KFA), nemaline myopathy, facial dysmorphism, and short stature. We aim to outline the natural history of KFS4 and provide an updated description of its clinical, radiological, laboratory, and molecular findings. We comprehensively analyzed the medical records of 6 Saudi and 1 American patients (including 5 previously unpublished cases) with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of KFS4. All patients had myopathy of varying severity that followed a slowly progressive or non-progressive course, affecting primarily the proximal musculature of the lower limb although hand involvement with distal arthrogryposis and abnormal interphalangeal creases was also observed. KFA and characteristic dysmorphic features, including ptosis and bulbous nose, were observed in all but two patients. The causal MYO18B variants were a founder NM_032608.5:c.6905C>A; p.(Ser2302*) variant in the Saudi patients (P1-P6) and a novel MYO18B homozygous variant (c.6660_6670del;p.[Arg2220Serfs*74]) in the American Caucasian patient (P7). We report the phenotypic and genetic findings in seven patients with KFS4. We describe the natural history of this disease, confirm myopathy as a universal feature and describe its pattern and progression, and note interesting differences between the phenotypes observed in patients with KFA and those without.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(6): 1178-1185, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242396

RESUMO

We have previously described a heart-, eye-, and brain-malformation syndrome caused by homozygous loss-of-function variants in SMG9, which encodes a critical component of the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) machinery. Here, we describe four consanguineous families with four different likely deleterious homozygous variants in SMG8, encoding a binding partner of SMG9. The observed phenotype greatly resembles that linked to SMG9 and comprises severe global developmental delay, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, and variable congenital heart and eye malformations. RNA-seq analysis revealed a general increase in mRNA expression levels with significant overrepresentation of core NMD substrates. We also identified increased phosphorylation of UPF1, a key SMG1-dependent step in NMD, which most likely represents the loss of SMG8--mediated inhibition of SMG1 kinase activity. Our data show that SMG8 and SMG9 deficiency results in overlapping developmental disorders that most likely converge mechanistically on impaired NMD.

16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053768

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide, where ~50% of patients develop metastasis, despite current improved management. Genomic characterisation of metastatic CRC, and elucidating the effects of therapy on the metastatic process, are essential to help guide precision medicine. Multi-region whole-exome sequencing was performed on 191 sampled tumour regions of patient-matched therapy-naïve and treated CRC primary tumours (n = 92 tumour regions) and metastases (n = 99 tumour regions), in 30 patients. Somatic variants were analysed to define the origin, composition, and timing of seeding in the metastatic progression of therapy-naïve and treated metastatic CRC. High concordance, with few genomic differences, was observed between primary CRC and metastases. Most cases supported a late dissemination model, via either monoclonal or polyclonal seeding. Polyclonal seeding appeared more common in therapy-naïve metastases than in treated metastases. Whereby, treatment prompted for the selection of distinct resistant clones, through monoclonal seeding to distant metastatic sites. Overall, this study reinforces the importance of early clinical detection and surgical excision of the CRC tumour, whilst further highlighting the clinical challenges for metastatic CRC with increased intratumour heterogeneity (either due to early dissemination or polyclonal metastatic spread) and the underlying risk of future therapeutic resistance in treated patients.

17.
Brain ; 143(10): 2911-2928, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103737

RESUMO

Human post-natal neurodevelopmental delay is often associated with cerebral alterations that can lead, by themselves or associated with peripheral deficits, to premature death. Here, we report the clinical features of 10 patients from six independent families with mutations in the autosomal YIF1B gene encoding a ubiquitous protein involved in anterograde traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell membrane, and in Golgi apparatus morphology. The patients displayed global developmental delay, motor delay, visual deficits with brain MRI evidence of ventricle enlargement, myelination alterations and cerebellar atrophy. A similar profile was observed in the Yif1b knockout (KO) mouse model developed to identify the cellular alterations involved in the clinical defects. In the CNS, mice lacking Yif1b displayed neuronal reduction, altered myelination of the motor cortex, cerebellar atrophy, enlargement of the ventricles, and subcellular alterations of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus compartments. Remarkably, although YIF1B was not detected in primary cilia, biallelic YIF1B mutations caused primary cilia abnormalities in skin fibroblasts from both patients and Yif1b-KO mice, and in ciliary architectural components in the Yif1b-KO brain. Consequently, our findings identify YIF1B as an essential gene in early post-natal development in human, and provide a new genetic target that should be tested in patients developing a neurodevelopmental delay during the first year of life. Thus, our work is the first description of a functional deficit linking Golgipathies and ciliopathies, diseases so far associated exclusively to mutations in genes coding for proteins expressed within the primary cilium or related ultrastructures. We therefore propose that these pathologies should be considered as belonging to a larger class of neurodevelopmental diseases depending on proteins involved in the trafficking of proteins towards specific cell membrane compartments.

18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(12): 2999-3006, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965080

RESUMO

Recently, the genetic cause of HIDEA syndrome (hypotonia, hypoventilation, intellectual disability, dysautonomia, epilepsy, and eye abnormalities) was identified as biallelic pathogenic variants in P4HTM, which encodes an atypical member of the prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs) family of enzymes. We report seven patients from four new families in whom HIDEA was only diagnosed after whole-exome sequencing (WES) revealed novel disease-causing variants in P4HTM. We note the variable phenotypic expressivity of the syndrome except for cognitive impairment/developmental delay, and hypotonia, which seem to be consistent findings. One patient only presented with hypotonia, developmental delay, and abnormal eye movements, which highlights the challenge in diagnosing milder cases with this new syndrome. Other notable features include mild facial dysmorphism, obesity, and brain dysmyelination and atrophy. We conclude that HIDEA is a highly variable syndrome and suspect that a large fraction of patients will be diagnosed via reverse phenotyping after recessive P4HTM variants are identified by agnostic genomic sequencing assays.

19.
Clin Genet ; 98(5): 515-516, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926405

RESUMO

BNAR syndrome (MIM608980) is a very rare condition: nine cases belonging to three unrelated families were reported since its first description in 2002. The distinctive clinical feature is the bifidity of the tip of the nose and its association with anorectal and/or renal anomalies. Its molecular basis consisting of biallelic FREM1 missense or nonsense mutations was elucidated after studying the original Egyptian family and was confirmed in two families originating from Afghanistan and Pakistan. We describe a fourth family originating from Turkey with signs challenging the diagnostic criteria suggested by the description of the three reported families.

20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(18): 3054-3063, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885237

RESUMO

Microphthalmia, coloboma and cataract are part of a spectrum of developmental eye disorders in humans affecting ~12 per 100 000 live births. Currently, variants in over 100 genes are known to underlie these conditions. However, at least 40% of affected individuals remain without a clinical genetic diagnosis, suggesting variants in additional genes may be responsible. Calpain 15 (CAPN15) is an intracellular cysteine protease belonging to the non-classical small optic lobe (SOL) family of calpains, an important class of developmental proteins, as yet uncharacterized in vertebrates. We identified five individuals with microphthalmia and/or coloboma from four independent families carrying homozygous or compound heterozygous predicted damaging variants in CAPN15. Several individuals had additional phenotypes including growth deficits, developmental delay and hearing loss. We generated Capn15 knockout mice that exhibited similar severe developmental eye defects, including anophthalmia, microphthalmia and cataract, and diminished growth. We demonstrate widespread Capn15 expression throughout the brain and central nervous system, strongest during early development, and decreasing postnatally. Together, these findings demonstrate a critical role of CAPN15 in vertebrate developmental eye disorders, and may signify a new developmental pathway.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA