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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(6): 1237-1253, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785787

RESUMO

We report an early-onset autosomal-recessive neurological disease with cerebellar atrophy and lysosomal dysfunction. We identified bi-allelic loss-of-function (LoF) variants in Oxidative Resistance 1 (OXR1) in five individuals from three families; these individuals presented with a history of severe global developmental delay, current intellectual disability, language delay, cerebellar atrophy, and seizures. While OXR1 is known to play a role in oxidative stress resistance, its molecular functions are not well established. OXR1 contains three conserved domains: LysM, GRAM, and TLDc. The gene encodes at least six transcripts, including some that only consist of the C-terminal TLDc domain. We utilized Drosophila to assess the phenotypes associated with loss of mustard (mtd), the fly homolog of OXR1. Strong LoF mutants exhibit late pupal lethality or pupal eclosion defects. Interestingly, although mtd encodes 26 transcripts, severe LoF and null mutations can be rescued by a single short human OXR1 cDNA that only contains the TLDc domain. Similar rescue is observed with the TLDc domain of NCOA7, another human homolog of mtd. Loss of mtd in neurons leads to massive cell loss, early death, and an accumulation of aberrant lysosomal structures, similar to what we observe in fibroblasts of affected individuals. Our data indicate that mtd and OXR1 are required for proper lysosomal function; this is consistent with observations that NCOA7 is required for lysosomal acidification.

2.
Thyroid ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668133

RESUMO

Background: Distant metastasis is a rare occurrence in thyroid cancer, and it can be associated with poor prognosis. The genomic repertoires of various solid malignancies have previously been reported but remain underexplored in metastatic papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Furthermore, whether distant metastases harbor distinct genetic alterations beyond those observed in primary tumors is unknown. Methods: We performed whole-exome sequencing on 14 matched distant metastases, primary PTC tumors, and normal tissues. Point mutations, copy number alterations, cancer cell fractions, and mutational signatures were defined using the state-of-the-art bioinformatics methods. All likely deleterious variants were validated by orthogonal methods. Results: Genomic differences were observed between primary and distant metastatic deposits, with a median of 62% (range 21-92%) of somatic mutations detected in metastatic tissues, but absent from the corresponding primary tumor sample. Mutations in known driver genes including BRAF, NRAS, and HRAS were shared and preferentially clonal in both sites. However, likely deleterious variants affecting DNA methylation and transcriptional repression signaling genes including SIN3A, RBBP1, and CHD4 were found to be restricted in the metastatic lesions. Moreover, a mutational signature shift was observed between the mutations that are specific or enriched in the metastatic and primary lesions. Conclusions: Primary PTC and distant metastases differ in their range of somatic alterations. Genomic analysis of distant metastases provides an opportunity to identify potentially clinically informative alterations not detected in primary tumors, which might influence decisions for personalized therapy in PTC patients with distant metastasis.

3.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730227

RESUMO

Retinal arterial macroaneurysms with supravalvular pulmonic stenosis (RAMSVPS), also known as Familial Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysms (FRAM) syndrome, is a very rare multisystem disorder. Here, we present a case series comprising ophthalmologic and systemic evaluation of patients homozygous for RAMSVPS syndrome causative IGFBP7 variant. New clinical details on 22 previously published and 8 previously unpublished patients are described. Age at first presentation ranged from 1 to 34 years. The classical feature of macroaneurysms and vascular beading involving the retinal arteries was universal. Follow up extending up to 14 years after initial diagnosis revealed recurrent episodes of bleeding and leakage from macroaneurysms in 55% and 59% of patients, respectively. The majority of patients who underwent echocardiography (18/23) showed evidence of heart involvement, most characteristically pulmonary (valvular or supravalvular) stenosis, often requiring surgical correction (12/18). Four patients died in the course of the study from complications of pulmonary stenosis, cerebral hemorrhage, and cardiac complications. Liver involvement (usually cirrhosis) was observed in eight patients. Cerebral vascular involvement was observed in one patient, and stroke was observed in two. We conclude that RAMSVPS is a recognizable syndrome characterized by a high burden of ocular and systemic morbidity, and risk of premature death. Recommendations are proposed for early detection and management of these complications.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 959-973, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668701

RESUMO

Unlike many cancers, the pattern of tumor evolution in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and its potential role in relapse have not been elucidated. In this study, multi-region whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on early-stage PTC tumors (n = 257 tumor regions) from 79 individuals, including 17 who had developed relapse, to understand the temporal and spatial framework within which subclonal mutations catalyze tumor evolution and its potential clinical relevance. Paired primary-relapse tumor tissues were also available for a subset of individuals. The resulting catalog of variants was analyzed to explore evolutionary histories, define clonal and subclonal events, and assess the relationship between intra-tumor heterogeneity and relapse-free survival. The multi-region WES approach was key in correctly classifying subclonal mutations, 40% of which would have otherwise been erroneously considered clonal. We observed both linear and branching evolution patterns in our PTC cohort. A higher burden of subclonal mutations was significantly associated with increased risk of relapse. We conclude that relapse in PTC, while generally rare, does not follow a predictable evolutionary path and that subclonal mutation burden may serve as a prognostic factor. Larger studies utilizing multi-region sequencing in relapsed PTC case subjects with matching primary tissues are needed to confirm these observations.

5.
Hepatology ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595528

RESUMO

The clinical consequences of defective primary cilium (ciliopathies) are characterized by marked phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Although fibrocystic liver disease is an established ciliopathy phenotype, severe neonatal cholestasis is rarely recognized as such. We describe seven individuals from seven families with syndromic ciliopathy clinical features, including severe neonatal cholestasis (lethal in one and necessitating liver transplant in two). Positional mapping revealed a single critical locus on chromosome 7. Whole exome sequencing revealed three different homozygous variants in TTC26 that fully segregated with the phenotype. TTC26 (IFT56/DYF-13) is an atypical component of IFT-B complex, and deficiency of its highly conserved orthologs has been consistently shown to cause defective ciliary function in several model organisms. We show that cilia in TTC26-mutated patient cells display variable length and impaired function as indicated by dysregulated sonic hedgehog signaling (SHH), abnormal staining for IFT-B components and transcriptomic clustering with cells derived from individuals with closely related ciliopathies. We also demonstrate a strong expression of Ttc26 in the embryonic mouse liver in a pattern consistent with its proposed role in the normal development of the intrahepatic biliary system. In addition to establishing a TTC26-related ciliopathy phenotype in humans, our results highlight the importance of considering ciliopathies in the differential diagnosis of severe neonatal cholestasis even in the absence of more typical features.

6.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607522

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe a new form of childhood-onset rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in autosomal recessive high myopia associated with mutations in LRPAP1. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 12 children (24 eyes) with recessive LRPAP1 mutations and associated high myopia. METHODS: Serial ophthalmological examination and retinal imaging during 4.6±1.9 (mean ± standard deviation) years. Retinal interventions included prophylactic laser and surgical retinal repair. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and recurrence rate of RRD and retinal break formation. Association between LRPAP1 genotypes and RRD characteristics. RESULTS: Some 42% of children (5 children [6 eyes]) developed RRD at the age of 10.43±0.97 years. Four of the children who developed RRD were male (80%), and 1 was female (20%). Visual acuity was significantly reduced in eyes with RRD at presentation and at the most recent visit compared with eyes with no RRD (P < 0.001 for both). Two eyes had inoperable RRD. Four eyes for which primary retinal repair was done had redetachment (100% of operated eyes) due to variable degrees of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Reattachment after surgical repair, which was maintained at least during 6 months of follow-up, was achieved in 3 eyes (75%), with final visual acuities of 20/300 in 2 eyes and 20/400 in 1 eye. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first description of a nonsyndromic, high myopia-related, recessive RRD without any signs of vitreoretinal degeneration. Recessive LRPAP1 gene mutations confer a high risk of childhood-onset RRD and PVR. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy in turn increases the risk of recurrent RRD and may lead to blindness. Recognizing the LRPAP1-related high myopia phenotype is important, and early childhood examination with additional close follow-up and prophylactic retinal laser should be considered.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 1016-1022, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630791

RESUMO

MEDNIK syndrome (mental retardation, enteropathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratoderma) is an autosomal-recessive disorder caused by bi-allelic mutations in AP1S1, encoding the small σ subunit of the AP-1 complex. Central to the pathogenesis of MEDNIK syndrome is abnormal AP-1-mediated trafficking of copper transporters; this abnormal trafficking results in a hybrid phenotype combining the copper-deficiency-related characteristics of Menkes disease and the copper-toxicity-related characteristics of Wilson disease. We describe three individuals from two unrelated families in whom a MEDNIK-like phenotype segregates with two homozygous null variants in AP1B1, encoding the large ß subunit of the AP-1 complex. Similar to individuals with MEDNIK syndrome, the affected individuals we report display abnormal copper metabolism, evidenced by low plasma copper and ceruloplasmin, but lack evidence of copper toxicity in the liver. Functional characterization of fibroblasts derived from affected individuals closely resembles the abnormal ATP7A trafficking described in MEDNIK syndrome both at baseline and in response to copper treatment. Taken together, our results expand the list of inborn errors of copper metabolism.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570783

RESUMO

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of birth defects with family- and population-based studies supporting a strong hereditary component. Multifactorial inheritance is the rule although a growing number of Mendelian forms have been described including candidates that have yet to be confirmed independently. TLL1 is one such candidate that was proposed in the etiology of atrial septal defect (ASD). We describe a girl with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) and ASD secundum whose whole-exome sequencing (WES) revealed a de novo splicing (c.1379-2A>G) variant in TLL1 as well as an inherited truncating variant in NODAL. The identification of this dual molecular diagnosis both supports the candidacy of TLL1 in ASD pathogenesis and highlights the power of WES in revealing multilocus cardiac phenotypes.

9.
Brain ; 142(10): 2948-2964, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501903

RESUMO

Axon pathfinding and synapse formation are essential processes for nervous system development and function. The assembly of myelinated fibres and nodes of Ranvier is mediated by a number of cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily including neurofascin, encoded by the NFASC gene, and its alternative isoforms Nfasc186 and Nfasc140 (located in the axonal membrane at the node of Ranvier) and Nfasc155 (a glial component of the paranodal axoglial junction). We identified 10 individuals from six unrelated families, exhibiting a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized with a spectrum of central (intellectual disability, developmental delay, motor impairment, speech difficulties) and peripheral (early onset demyelinating neuropathy) neurological involvement, who were found by exome or genome sequencing to carry one frameshift and four different homozygous non-synonymous variants in NFASC. Expression studies using immunostaining-based techniques identified absent expression of the Nfasc155 isoform as a consequence of the frameshift variant and a significant reduction of expression was also observed in association with two non-synonymous variants affecting the fibronectin type III domain. Cell aggregation studies revealed a severely impaired Nfasc155-CNTN1/CASPR1 complex interaction as a result of the identified variants. Immunofluorescence staining of myelinated fibres from two affected individuals showed a severe loss of myelinated fibres and abnormalities in the paranodal junction morphology. Our results establish that recessive variants affecting the Nfasc155 isoform can affect the formation of paranodal axoglial junctions at the nodes of Ranvier. The genetic disease caused by biallelic NFASC variants includes neurodevelopmental impairment and a spectrum of central and peripheral demyelination as part of its core clinical phenotype. Our findings support possible overlapping molecular mechanisms of paranodal damage at peripheral nerves in both the immune-mediated and the genetic disease, but the observation of prominent central neurological involvement in NFASC biallelic variant carriers highlights the importance of this gene in human brain development and function.

10.
Hum Genet ; 138(11-12): 1247-1257, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538237

RESUMO

The reversible oxidation of L-malate to oxaloacetate is catalyzed by NAD(H)-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH). MDH plays essential roles in the malate-aspartate shuttle and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. These metabolic processes are important in mitochondrial NADH supply for oxidative phosphorylation. Recently, bi-allelic mutations in mitochondrial MDH2 were identified in patients with global developmental delay, epilepsy and lactic acidosis. We now report two patients from an extended consanguineous family with a deleterious variant in the cytosolic isoenzyme of MDH (MDH1). The homozygous missense variant in the NAD+-binding domain of MDH1 led to severely diminished MDH protein expression. The patients presented with global developmental delay, epilepsy and progressive microcephaly. Both patients had normal concentrations of plasma amino acids, acylcarnitines, lactate, and urine organic acids. To identify the metabolic consequences of MDH1 deficiency, untargeted metabolomics was performed on dried blood spots (DBS) from the patients and in MDH1 knockout HEK293 cells that were generated by Crispr/Cas9. Increased levels of glutamate and glycerol-3-phosphate were found in DBS of both patients. In MDH1 KO HEK293 cells, increased levels of glycerol-3-phosphate were also observed, as well as increased levels of aspartate and decreased levels of fumarate. The consistent finding of increased concentrations of glycerol-3-phosphate may represent a compensatory mechanism to enhance cytosolic oxidation of NADH by the glycerol-P-shuttle. In conclusion, MDH1 deficiency is a new metabolic defect in the malate-aspartate shuttle characterized by a severe neurodevelopmental phenotype with elevated concentrations of glycerol-3-phosphate as a potential biomarker.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 689-705, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495489

RESUMO

Sphingomyelinases generate ceramide from sphingomyelin as a second messenger in intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. Children from 12 unrelated families presented with microcephaly, simplified gyral pattern of the cortex, hypomyelination, cerebellar hypoplasia, congenital arthrogryposis, and early fetal/postnatal demise. Genomic analysis revealed bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in SMPD4, coding for the neutral sphingomyelinase-3 (nSMase-3/SMPD4). Overexpression of human Myc-tagged SMPD4 showed localization both to the outer nuclear envelope and the ER and additionally revealed interactions with several nuclear pore complex proteins by proteomics analysis. Fibroblasts from affected individuals showed ER cisternae abnormalities, suspected for increased autophagy, and were more susceptible to apoptosis under stress conditions, while treatment with siSMPD4 caused delayed cell cycle progression. Our data show that SMPD4 links homeostasis of membrane sphingolipids to cell fate by regulating the cross-talk between the ER and the outer nuclear envelope, while its loss reveals a pathogenic mechanism in microcephaly.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 606-615, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474318

RESUMO

Cerebellar malformations are diverse congenital anomalies frequently associated with developmental disability. Although genetic and prenatal non-genetic causes have been described, no systematic analysis has been performed. Here, we present a large-exome sequencing study of Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and cerebellar hypoplasia (CBLH). We performed exome sequencing in 282 individuals from 100 families with DWM or CBLH, and we established a molecular diagnosis in 36 of 100 families, with a significantly higher yield for CBLH (51%) than for DWM (16%). The 41 variants impact 27 neurodevelopmental-disorder-associated genes, thus demonstrating that CBLH and DWM are often features of monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders. Though only seven monogenic causes (19%) were identified in more than one individual, neuroimaging review of 131 additional individuals confirmed cerebellar abnormalities in 23 of 27 genetic disorders (85%). Prenatal risk factors were frequently found among individuals without a genetic diagnosis (30 of 64 individuals [47%]). Single-cell RNA sequencing of prenatal human cerebellar tissue revealed gene enrichment in neuronal and vascular cell types; this suggests that defective vasculogenesis may disrupt cerebellar development. Further, de novo gain-of-function variants in PDGFRB, a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for vascular progenitor signaling, were associated with CBLH, and this discovery links genetic and non-genetic etiologies. Our results suggest that genetic defects impact specific cerebellar cell types and implicate abnormal vascular development as a mechanism for cerebellar malformations. We also confirmed a major contribution for non-genetic prenatal factors in individuals with cerebellar abnormalities, substantially influencing diagnostic evaluation and counseling regarding recurrence risk and prognosis.

14.
Mol Cell Biol ; 39(19)2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263000

RESUMO

The formation of inosine at the wobble position of eukaryotic tRNAs is an essential modification catalyzed by the ADAT2/ADAT3 complex. In humans, a valine-to-methionine mutation (V144M) in ADAT3 that originated ∼1,600 years ago is the most common cause of autosomal recessive intellectual disability (ID) in Arabia. While the mutation is predicted to affect protein structure, the molecular and cellular effects of the V144M mutation are unknown. Here, we show that cell lines derived from ID-affected individuals expressing only ADAT3-V144M exhibit decreased wobble inosine in certain tRNAs. Moreover, extracts from the same cell lines of ID-affected individuals display a severe reduction in tRNA deaminase activity. While ADAT3-V144M maintains interactions with ADAT2, the purified ADAT2/3-V144M complexes exhibit defects in activity. Notably, ADAT3-V144M exhibits an increased propensity to form aggregates associated with cytoplasmic chaperonins that can be suppressed by ADAT2 overexpression. These results identify a key role for ADAT2-dependent folding of ADAT3 in wobble inosine modification and indicate that proper formation of an active ADAT2/3 complex is crucial for proper neurodevelopment.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 384-394, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256876

RESUMO

Proteins anchored to the cell surface via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) play various key roles in the human body, particularly in development and neurogenesis. As such, many developmental disorders are caused by mutations in genes involved in the GPI biosynthesis and remodeling pathway. We describe ten unrelated families with bi-allelic mutations in PIGB, a gene that encodes phosphatidylinositol glycan class B, which transfers the third mannose to the GPI. Ten different PIGB variants were found in these individuals. Flow cytometric analysis of blood cells and fibroblasts from the affected individuals showed decreased cell surface presence of GPI-anchored proteins. Most of the affected individuals have global developmental and/or intellectual delay, all had seizures, two had polymicrogyria, and four had a peripheral neuropathy. Eight children passed away before four years old. Two of them had a clinical diagnosis of DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures), a condition that includes sensorineural deafness, shortened terminal phalanges with small finger and toenails, intellectual disability, and seizures; this condition overlaps with the severe phenotypes associated with inherited GPI deficiency. Most individuals tested showed elevated alkaline phosphatase, which is a characteristic of the inherited GPI deficiency but not DOORS syndrome. It is notable that two severely affected individuals showed 2-oxoglutaric aciduria, which can be seen in DOORS syndrome, suggesting that severe cases of inherited GPI deficiency and DOORS syndrome might share some molecular pathway disruptions.

16.
Hum Mutat ; 40(11): 2108-2120, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301155

RESUMO

The wobble position in the anticodon loop of transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) is subject to numerous posttranscriptional modifications. In particular, thiolation of the wobble uridine has been shown to play an important role in codon-anticodon interactions. This modification is catalyzed by a highly conserved CTU1/CTU2 complex, disruption of which has been shown to cause abnormal phenotypes in yeast, worms, and plants. We have previously suggested that a single founder splicing variant in human CTU2 causes a novel multiple congenital anomalies syndrome consisting of dysmorphic facies, renal agenesis, ambiguous genitalia, microcephaly, polydactyly, and lissencephaly (DREAM-PL). In this study, we describe five new patients with DREAM-PL phenotype and whose molecular analysis expands the allelic heterogeneity of the syndrome to five different alleles; four of which predict protein truncation. Functional characterization using patient-derived cells for each of these alleles, as well as the original founder allele; revealed a specific impairment of wobble uridine thiolation in all known thiol-containing tRNAs. Our data establish a recognizable CTU2-linked autosomal recessive syndrome in humans characterized by defective thiolation of the wobble uridine. The potential deleterious consequences for the translational efficiency and fidelity during development as a mechanism for pathogenicity represent an attractive target of future investigations.

17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1543-1546, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207089

RESUMO

1p36 deletion syndrome is a well-described condition with a recognizable phenotype, including cognitive impairment, seizures, and structural brain anomalies such as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). In a large series of these individuals by Battaglia et al., "birth history was notable in 50% of the cases for varying degrees of perinatal distress." Given the potential for perinatal distress, seizures and PVL, we questioned if this disorder has clinical overlap with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We reviewed the medical records of 69 individuals with 1p36 deletion to clarify the perinatal phenotype of this disorder and determine if there is evidence of perinatal distress and/or hypoxic injury. Our data provides evidence that these babies have signs of perinatal distress. The majority (59% term; 75% preterm) needed resuscitation and approximately 18% had cardiac arrest. Most had abnormal brain imaging (84% term; 73% preterm) with abnormal white matter findings in over half of patients. PVL or suggestion of "hypoxic insult" was present in 18% of term and 45% of preterm patients. In conclusion, individuals with 1p36 deletion have evidence of perinatal distress, white matter changes, and seizures, which can mimic HIE but are likely related to their underlying chromosome disorder.

18.
Hum Mutat ; 40(11): 1985-1992, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209944

RESUMO

We report four unrelated children with homozygous loss-of-function variants in TASP1 and an overlapping phenotype comprising developmental delay with hypotonia and microcephaly, feeding difficulties with failure-to-thrive, recurrent respiratory infections, cardiovascular malformations, cryptorchidism, happy demeanor, and distinctive facial features. Two children had a homozygous founder deletion encompassing exons 5-11 of TASP1, the third had a homozygous missense variant, c.701 C>T (p.Thr234Met), affecting the active site of the encoded enzyme, and the fourth had a homozygous nonsense variant, c.199 C>T (p.Arg67*). TASP1 encodes taspase 1 (TASP1), which is responsible for cleaving, thus activating, the lysine methyltransferases KMT2A and KMT2D, which are essential for histone methylation and transcription regulation. The consistency of the phenotype, the critical biological function of TASP1, the deleterious nature of the TASP1 variants, and the overlapping features with Wiedemann-Steiner and Kabuki syndromes respectively caused by pathogenic variants in KMT2A and KMT2D all support that TASP1 is a disease-related gene.

19.
Seizure ; 69: 154-172, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054490

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Epileptic encephalopathies (EE), are a group of age-related disorders characterized by intractable seizures and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities that may result in cognitive and motor delay. Early infantile epileptic encephalopathies (EIEE) manifest in the first year of life. EIEE are highly heterogeneous genetically but a genetic etiology is only identified in half of the cases, typically in the form of de novo dominant mutations. METHOD: This is a descriptive retrospective study of a consecutive series of patients diagnosed with EIEE from the participating hospitals. A chart review was performed for all patients. The diagnosis of epileptic encephalopathy was confirmed by molecular investigations in commercial labs. In silico study was done for all novel mutations. A systematic search was done for all the types of EIEE and their correlated genes in the literature using the Online Mendelian Inheritance In Man and PubMed databases. RESULTS: In this case series, we report 72 molecularly characterized EIEE from a highly consanguineous population, and review their clinical course. We identified 50 variants, 26 of which are novel, causing 26 different types of EIEE. Unlike outbred populations, autosomal recessive EIEE accounted for half the cases. The phenotypes ranged from self-limiting and drug-responsive to severe refractory seizures or even death. CONCLUSIONS: We reported the largest EIEE case series in the region with confirmed molecular testing and detailed clinical phenotyping. The number autosomal recessive predominance could be explained by the society's high consanguinity. We reviewed all the EIEE registered causative genes in the literature and proposed a functional classification.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1202-1209, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079898

RESUMO

The wobble hypothesis was proposed to explain the presence of fewer tRNAs than possible codons. The wobble nucleoside position in the anticodon stem-loop undergoes a number of modifications that help maintain the efficiency and fidelity of translation. AlkB homolog 8 (ALKBH8) is an atypical member of the highly conserved AlkB family of dioxygenases and is involved in the formation of mcm5s2U, (S)-mchm5U, (R)-mchm5U, mcm5U, and mcm5Um at the anticodon wobble uridines of specific tRNAs. In two multiplex consanguineous families, we identified two homozygous truncating ALKBH8 mutations causing intellectual disability. Analysis of tRNA derived from affected individuals showed the complete absence of these modifications, consistent with the presumptive loss of function of the variants. Our results highlight the sensitivity of the brain to impaired wobble modification and expand the list of intellectual-disability syndromes caused by mutations in genes related to tRNA modification.

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