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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486972

RESUMO

Introduction. Non-invasive sample collection and viral sterilizing buffers have independently enabled workflows for more widespread COVID-19 testing by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Gap statement. The combined use of sterilizing buffers across non-invasive sample types to optimize sensitive, accessible, and biosafe sampling methods has not been directly and systematically compared.Aim. We aimed to evaluate diagnostic yield across different non-invasive samples with standard viral transport media (VTM) versus a sterilizing buffer eNAT- (Copan diagnostics Murrieta, CA) in a point-of-care diagnostic assay system.Methods. We prospectively collected 84 sets of nasal swabs, oral swabs, and saliva, from 52 COVID-19 RT-PCR-confirmed patients, and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from 37 patients. Nasal swabs, oral swabs, and saliva were placed in either VTM or eNAT, prior to testing with the Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 (Xpert). The sensitivity of each sampling strategy was compared using a composite positive standard.Results. Swab specimens collected in eNAT showed an overall superior sensitivity compared to swabs in VTM (70 % vs 57 %, P=0.0022). Direct saliva 90.5 %, (95 % CI: 82 %, 95 %), followed by NP swabs in VTM and saliva in eNAT, was significantly more sensitive than nasal swabs in VTM (50 %, P<0.001) or eNAT (67.8 %, P=0.0012) and oral swabs in VTM (50 %, P<0.0001) or eNAT (58 %, P<0.0001). Saliva and use of eNAT buffer each increased detection of SARS-CoV-2 with the Xpert; however, no single sample matrix identified all positive cases.Conclusion. Saliva and eNAT sterilizing buffer can enhance safe and sensitive detection of COVID-19 using point-of-care GeneXpert instruments.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Meios de Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca/virologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Nariz/virologia , Testes Imediatos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/normas
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4702, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349104

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis can adapt to changing environments by non-heritable mechanisms. Frame-shifting insertions and deletions (indels) may also participate in adaptation through gene disruption, which could be reversed by secondary introduction of a frame-restoring indel. We present ScarTrek, a program that scans genomic data for indels, including those that together disrupt and restore a gene's reading frame, producing "frame-shift scars" suggestive of reversible gene inactivation. We use ScarTrek to analyze 5977 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates. We show that indel frequency inversely correlates with genomic linguistic complexity and varies with gene-position and gene-essentiality. Using ScarTrek, we detect 74 unique frame-shift scars in 48 genes, with a 3.74% population-level incidence of unique scar events. We find multiple scars in the ESX-1 gene cluster. Six scars show evidence of convergent evolution while the rest shared a common ancestor. Our results suggest that sequential indels are a mechanism for reversible gene silencing and adaptation in M. tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Inativação Gênica , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Fases de Leitura/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/microbiologia
3.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(10): e0084521, 2021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288729

RESUMO

The increased transmission of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC), which originated in the United Kingdom (B.1.1.7/alpha), South Africa (B1.351/beta), Brazil (P.1/gamma), the United States (B.1.427/429 or epsilon), and India (B.1.617.2/delta), requires a vigorous public health response, including real-time strain surveillance on a global scale. Although genome sequencing is the gold standard for identifying these VOCs, it is time-consuming and expensive. Here, we describe a simple, rapid, and high-throughput reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) melting-temperature (Tm) screening assay that identifies the first three major VOCs. RT-PCR primers and four sloppy molecular beacon (SMB) probes were designed to amplify and detect the SARS-CoV-2 N501Y (A23063T) and E484K (G23012A) mutations and their corresponding wild-type sequences. After RT-PCR, the VOCs were identified by a characteristic Tm of each SMB. Assay optimization and testing was performed with RNA from SARS-CoV-2 USA WA1/2020 (wild type [WT]), B.1.1.7, and B.1.351 variant strains. The assay was then validated using clinical samples. The limit of detection for both the WT and variants was 4 and 10 genomic copies/reaction for the 501- and 484-codon assays, respectively. The assay was 100% sensitive and 100% specific for identifying the N501Y and E484K mutations in cultured virus and in clinical samples, as confirmed by Sanger sequencing. We have developed an RT-PCR melt screening test for the major VOCs that can be used to rapidly screen large numbers of patient samples, providing an early warning for the emergence of these variants and a simple way to track their spread.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Temperatura
4.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252687, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upper respiratory samples used to test for SARS-CoV-2 virus may be infectious and present a hazard during transport and testing. A buffer with the ability to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 at the time of sample collection could simplify and expand testing for COVID-19 to non-conventional settings. METHODS: We evaluated a guanidium thiocyanate-based buffer, eNAT™ (Copan) as a possible transport and inactivation medium for downstream Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) testing to detect SARS-CoV-2. Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 in eNAT and in diluted saliva was studied at different incubation times. The stability of viral RNA in eNAT was also evaluated for up to 7 days at room temperature (28°C), refrigerated conditions (4°C) and at 35°C. RESULTS: SARS-COV-2 virus spiked directly in eNAT could be inactivated at >5.6 log10 PFU/ml within a minute of incubation. When saliva was diluted 1:1 in eNAT, no cytopathic effect (CPE) on VeroE6 cells was observed, although SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be detected even after 30 min incubation and after two cell culture passages. A 1:2 (saliva:eNAT) dilution abrogated both CPE and detectable viral RNA after as little as 5 min incubation in eNAT. SARS-CoV-2 RNA from virus spiked at 5X the limit of detection remained positive up to 7 days of incubation in all tested conditions. CONCLUSION: eNAT and similar guanidinium thiocyanate-based media may be of value for transport, stabilization, and processing of clinical samples for RT-PCR based SARS-CoV-2 detection.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Guanidina/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Saliva/efeitos dos fármacos , Saliva/virologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , COVID-19/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Meios de Cultura , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Células Vero
5.
medRxiv ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758892

RESUMO

Background: The increased transmission of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) which originated in the United Kingdom (B.1.1.7), South Africa (B1.351), Brazil (P.1) and in United States (B.1.427/429) requires a vigorous public health response, including real time strain surveillance on a global scale. Although genome sequencing is the gold standard for identifying these VOCs, it is time consuming and expensive. Here, we describe a simple, rapid and high-throughput reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) melting temperature (Tm) screening assay that identifies these three major VOCs. Methods: RT-PCR primers and four sloppy molecular beacon (SMB) probes were designed to amplify and detect the SARS-CoV-2 N501Y (A23063T) and E484K (G23012A) mutations and their corresponding wild type sequences. After RT-PCR, the VOCs were identified by a characteristic Tm of each SMB. Assay optimization and testing was performed with RNA from SARS-CoV-2 USA WA1/2020 (WT), a B.1.17 and a B.1.351 variant strains. The assay was then validated using clinical samples. Results: The limit of detection (LOD) for both the WT and variants was 4 and 10 genomic copies/reaction for the 501 and 484 codon assays, respectively. The assay was 100% sensitive and 100% specific for identifying the N501Y and E484K mutations in cultured virus and in clinical samples as confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Conclusion: We have developed an RT-PCR melt screening test for the three major VOCs which can be used to rapidly screen large numbers of patient samples providing an early warning for the emergence of these variants and a simple way to track their spread.

6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(3)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298611

RESUMO

We describe the design, development, analytical performance, and a limited clinical evaluation of the 10-color Xpert MTB/XDR assay (CE-IVD only, not for sale in the United States). This assay is intended as a reflex test to detect resistance to isoniazid (INH), fluoroquinolones (FLQ), ethionamide (ETH), and second-line injectable drugs (SLIDs) in unprocessed sputum samples and concentrated sputum sediments which are positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis The Xpert MTB/XDR assay simultaneously amplifies eight genes and promoter regions in M. tuberculosis and analyzes melting temperatures (Tm s) using sloppy molecular beacon (SMB) probes to identify mutations associated with INH, FLQ, ETH, and SLID resistance. Results can be obtained in under 90 min using 10-color GeneXpert modules. The assay can differentiate low- versus high-level resistance to INH and FLQ as well as cross-resistance versus individual resistance to SLIDs by identifying mutation-specific Tm s or Tm patterns generated by the SMB probes. The assay has a limit of detection comparable to that of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and successfully detected 16 clinically significant mutations in a challenge set of clinical isolate DNA. In a clinical study performed at two sites with 100 sputum and 214 clinical isolates, the assay showed a sensitivity of 94% to 100% and a specificity of 100% for all drugs except for ETH compared to that of sequencing. The sensitivity and specificity were in the same ranges as those of phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing. Used in combination with a primary tuberculosis diagnostic test, this assay should expand the capacity for detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis near the point of care.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4870, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978384

RESUMO

Little is known about the physiology of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We studied the mutational rates of 24 index tuberculosis (TB) cases and their latently infected household contacts who developed active TB up to 5.25 years later, as an indication of bacterial physiological state and possible generation times during latent TB infection in humans. Here we report that the rate of new mutations in the M. tuberculosis genome decline dramatically after two years of latent infection (two-sided p < 0.001, assuming an 18 h generation time equal to log phase M. tuberculosis, with latency period modeled as a continuous variable). Alternatively, assuming a fixed mutation rate, the generation time increases over the latency duration. Mutations indicative of oxidative stress do not increase with increasing latency duration suggesting a lack of host or bacterial derived mutational stress. These results suggest that M. tuberculosis enters a quiescent state during latency, decreasing the risk for mutational drug resistance and increasing generation time, but potentially increasing bacterial tolerance to drugs that target actively growing bacteria.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/microbiologia , Taxa de Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Adulto , Brasil , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
medRxiv ; 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has stretched the ability of many institutions to supply needed personal protective equipment, especially N95 respirators. N95 decontamination and reuse programs provide one potential solution to this problem. Unfortunately, a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of decontamination on the integrity of various N95 models using a quantitative fit test (QTFT) approach is lacking. AIMS: 1) To investigate the effects of up to eight rounds of vaporized H2O2 (VHP) decontamination on the integrity of N95 respirators currently in use in a hospital setting. 2) To examine if N95 respirators worn by one user can adapt to the face shape of a second user with no compromise of integrity following VHP decontamination. METHODS: The PortaCount Pro+ Respirator Fit Tester Model 8038 was used to quantitatively define the integrity, measured by fit, of N95 respirators following decontamination with VHP. FINDINGS: There was an observable downward trend in the integrity of Halyard Fluidshield 46727 N95 respirators throughout eight cycles of decontamination with VHP. The integrity of 3M 1870 N95 respirators was significantly reduced after the respirator was worn, decontaminated with VHP, and then quantitatively fit tested on a second user. Furthermore, we uncovered inconsistencies between qualitative fit test and QTFT results that may have strong implications on the fit testing method used by institutions. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed variability in the integrity of different N95 models after VHP decontamination and exposed potential limitations of N95 decontamination and reuse programs.

9.
medRxiv ; 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a severe shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE), especially N95 respirators. Efficient, effective and economically feasible methods for large-scale PPE decontamination are urgently needed. AIMS: (1) to develop protocols for effectively decontaminating PPE using vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP); (2) to develop novel approaches that decrease set up and take down time while also increasing decontamination capacity (3) to test decontamination efficiency for N95 respirators heavily contaminated by makeup or moisturizers. METHODS: We converted a decommissioned Biosafety Level 3 laboratory into a facility that could be used to decontaminate N95 respirators. N95 respirators were hung on metal racks, stacked in piles, placed in paper bags or covered with makeup or moisturizer. A VHP VICTORYTM unit from STERIS was used to inject VHP into the facility. Biological and chemical indicators were used to validate the decontamination process. FINDINGS: N95 respirators individually hung on metal racks were successfully decontaminated using VHP. N95 respirators were also successfully decontaminated when placed in closed paper bags or if stacked in piles of up to six. Stacking reduced the time needed to arrange N95 respirators for decontamination by approximately two-thirds while almost tripling facility capacity. Makeup and moisturizer creams did not interfere with the decontamination process. CONCLUSIONS: Respirator stacking can reduce the hands-on time and increase decontamination capacity. When personalization is needed, respirators can be decontaminated in labeled paper bags. Make up or moisturizers do not appear to interfere with VHP decontamination.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571828

RESUMO

We have identified a previously unknown mechanism of reversible high-level ethambutol (EMB) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is caused by a reversible frameshift mutation in the M. tuberculosis orn gene. A frameshift mutation in orn produces the small-colony-variant (SCV) phenotype, but this mutation does not change the MICs of any drug for wild-type M. tuberculosis However, the same orn mutation in a low-level EMB-resistant double embB-aftA mutant (MIC = 8 µg/ml) produces an SCV with an EMB MIC of 32 µg/ml. Reversible resistance is indistinguishable from a drug-persistent phenotype, because further culture of these orn-embB-aftA SCV mutants results in rapid reversion of the orn frameshifts, reestablishing the correct orn open reading frame, returning the culture to normal colony size, and reversing the EMB MIC back to that (8 µg/ml) of the parental strain. Transcriptomic analysis of orn-embB-aftA mutants compared to wild-type M. tuberculosis identified a 27-fold relative increase in the expression of embC, which is a cellular target for EMB. Expression of embC in orn-embB-aftA mutants was also increased 5-fold compared to that in the parental embB-aftA mutant, whereas large-colony orn frameshift revertants of the orn-embB-aftA mutant had levels of embC expression similar to that of the parental embB-aftA strain. Reversible frameshift mutants may contribute to a reversible form of microbiological drug resistance in human tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Etambutol , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Etambutol/farmacologia , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Pentosiltransferases/genética
11.
Lancet infect. dis ; 20(6): 742-752, June 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1100284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical and epidemiological significance of HIV-associated Mycobacterium tuberculosis bloodstream infection (BSI) is incompletely understood. We hypothesised that M tuberculosis BSI prevalence has been underestimated, that it independently predicts death, and that sputum Xpert MTB/RIF has suboptimal diagnostic yield for M tuberculosis BSI. METHODS: We did a systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of studies performing routine mycobacterial blood culture in a prospectively defined patient population of people with HIV aged 13 years or older. Studies were identified through searching PubMed and Scopus up to Nov 10, 2018, without language or date restrictions and through manual review of reference lists. Risk of bias in the included studies was assessed with an adapted QUADAS-2 framework. IPD were requested for all identified studies and subject to harmonised inclusion criteria: age 13 years or older, HIV positivity, available CD4 cell count, a valid mycobacterial blood culture result (excluding patients with missing data from lost or contaminated blood cultures), and meeting WHO definitions for suspected tuberculosis (presence of screening symptom). Predicted probabilities of M tuberculosis BSI from mixed-effects modelling were used to estimate prevalence. Estimates of diagnostic yield of sputum testing with Xpert (or culture if Xpert was unavailable) and of urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) testing for M tuberculosis BSI were obtained by two-level random-effect meta-analysis. Estimates of mortality associated with M tuberculosis BSI were obtained by mixed-effect Cox proportional-hazard modelling and of effect of treatment delay on mortality by propensity-score analysis. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number 42016050022. FINDINGS:We identified 23 datasets for inclusion (20 published and three unpublished at time of search) and obtained IPD from 20, representing 96·2% of eligible IPD. Risk of bias for the included studies was assessed to be generally low except for on the patient selection domain, which was moderate in most studies. 5751 patients met harmonised IPD-level inclusion criteria. Technical factors such as number of blood cultures done, timing of blood cultures relative to blood sampling, and patient factors such as inpatient setting and CD4 cell count, explained significant heterogeneity between primary studies. The predicted probability of M tuberculosis BSI in hospital inpatients with HIV-associated tuberculosis, WHO danger signs, and a CD4 count of 76 cells per µL (the median for the cohort) was 45% (95% CI 38­52). The diagnostic yield of sputum in patients with M tuberculosis BSI was 77% (95% CI 63­87), increasing to 89% (80­94) when combined with urine LAM testing. Presence of M tuberculosis BSI compared with its absence in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis increased risk of death before 30 days (adjusted hazard ratio 2·48, 95% CI 2·05­3·08) but not after 30 days (1·25, 0·84­2·49). In a propensity-score matched cohort of participants with HIV-associated tuberculosis (n=630), mortality increased in patients with M tuberculosis BSI who had a delay in anti-tuberculosis treatment of longer than 4 days compared with those who had no delay (odds ratio 3·15, 95% CI 1·16­8·84). INTERPRETATION:In critically ill adults with HIV-tuberculosis, M tuberculosis BSI is a frequent manifestation of tuberculosis and predicts mortality within 30 days. Improved diagnostic yield in patients with M tuberculosis BSI could be achieved through combined use of sputum Xpert and urine LAM. Anti-tuberculosis treatment delay might increase the risk of mortality in these patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
12.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(8)2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366669

RESUMO

Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the primary means of identifying acute infections caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Accurate and fast test results may permit more efficient use of protective and isolation resources and allow rapid therapeutic interventions. We evaluated the analytical and clinical performance characteristics of the Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 (Xpert) test, a rapid, automated molecular test for SARS-CoV-2. Analytical sensitivity and specificity/interference were assessed with infectious SARS-CoV-2; other infectious coronavirus species, including SARS-CoV; and 85 nasopharyngeal swab specimens positive for other respiratory viruses, including endemic human coronaviruses (hCoVs). Clinical performance was assessed using 483 remnant upper- and lower-respiratory-tract specimens previously analyzed by standard-of-care (SOC) NAATs. The limit of detection of the Xpert test was 0.01 PFU/ml. Other hCoVs, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, were not detected by the Xpert test. SARS-CoV, a closely related species in the subgenus Sarbecovirus, was detected by a broad-range target (E) but was distinguished from SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2-specific N2 target). Compared to SOC NAATs, the positive agreement of the Xpert test was 219/220 (99.5%), and the negative agreement was 250/261 (95.8%). A third tie-breaker NAAT resolved all but three of the discordant results in favor the Xpert test. The Xpert test provided sensitive and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 in a variety of upper- and lower-respiratory-tract specimens. The high sensitivity and short time to results of approximately 45 min may impact patient management.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Automação Laboratorial/métodos , Betacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug susceptibility testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is difficult to perform in resource-limited settings where Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) smears are commonly used for disease diagnosis and monitoring. We developed a simple method for extraction of MTB DNA from AFB smears for sequencing-based detection of mutations associated with resistance to all first and several second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. METHODS: We isolated MTB DNA by boiling smear content in a Chelex solution, followed by column purification. We sequenced PCR-amplified segments of the rpoB, katG, embB, gyrA, gyrB, rpsL, and rrs genes, the inhA, eis, and pncA promoters and the entire pncA gene. RESULTS: We tested our assay on 1,208 clinically obtained AFB smears from Ghana (n = 379), Kenya (n = 517), Uganda (n = 262), and Zambia (n = 50). Coverage depth varied by target and slide smear grade, ranging from 300X to 12000X on average. Coverage of ≥20X was obtained for all targets in 870 (72%) slides overall. Mono-resistance (5.9%), multi-drug resistance (1.8%), and poly-resistance (2.4%) mutation profiles were detected in 10% of slides overall, and in over 32% of retreatment and follow-up cases. CONCLUSION: This rapid AFB smear DNA-based method for determining drug resistance may be useful for the diagnosis and surveillance of drug-resistant tuberculosis.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Humanos
14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(6): 742-752, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical and epidemiological significance of HIV-associated Mycobacterium tuberculosis bloodstream infection (BSI) is incompletely understood. We hypothesised that M tuberculosis BSI prevalence has been underestimated, that it independently predicts death, and that sputum Xpert MTB/RIF has suboptimal diagnostic yield for M tuberculosis BSI. METHODS: We did a systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of studies performing routine mycobacterial blood culture in a prospectively defined patient population of people with HIV aged 13 years or older. Studies were identified through searching PubMed and Scopus up to Nov 10, 2018, without language or date restrictions and through manual review of reference lists. Risk of bias in the included studies was assessed with an adapted QUADAS-2 framework. IPD were requested for all identified studies and subject to harmonised inclusion criteria: age 13 years or older, HIV positivity, available CD4 cell count, a valid mycobacterial blood culture result (excluding patients with missing data from lost or contaminated blood cultures), and meeting WHO definitions for suspected tuberculosis (presence of screening symptom). Predicted probabilities of M tuberculosis BSI from mixed-effects modelling were used to estimate prevalence. Estimates of diagnostic yield of sputum testing with Xpert (or culture if Xpert was unavailable) and of urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) testing for M tuberculosis BSI were obtained by two-level random-effect meta-analysis. Estimates of mortality associated with M tuberculosis BSI were obtained by mixed-effect Cox proportional-hazard modelling and of effect of treatment delay on mortality by propensity-score analysis. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number 42016050022. FINDINGS: We identified 23 datasets for inclusion (20 published and three unpublished at time of search) and obtained IPD from 20, representing 96·2% of eligible IPD. Risk of bias for the included studies was assessed to be generally low except for on the patient selection domain, which was moderate in most studies. 5751 patients met harmonised IPD-level inclusion criteria. Technical factors such as number of blood cultures done, timing of blood cultures relative to blood sampling, and patient factors such as inpatient setting and CD4 cell count, explained significant heterogeneity between primary studies. The predicted probability of M tuberculosis BSI in hospital inpatients with HIV-associated tuberculosis, WHO danger signs, and a CD4 count of 76 cells per µL (the median for the cohort) was 45% (95% CI 38-52). The diagnostic yield of sputum in patients with M tuberculosis BSI was 77% (95% CI 63-87), increasing to 89% (80-94) when combined with urine LAM testing. Presence of M tuberculosis BSI compared with its absence in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis increased risk of death before 30 days (adjusted hazard ratio 2·48, 95% CI 2·05-3·08) but not after 30 days (1·25, 0·84-2·49). In a propensity-score matched cohort of participants with HIV-associated tuberculosis (n=630), mortality increased in patients with M tuberculosis BSI who had a delay in anti-tuberculosis treatment of longer than 4 days compared with those who had no delay (odds ratio 3·15, 95% CI 1·16-8·84). INTERPRETATION: In critically ill adults with HIV-tuberculosis, M tuberculosis BSI is a frequent manifestation of tuberculosis and predicts mortality within 30 days. Improved diagnostic yield in patients with M tuberculosis BSI could be achieved through combined use of sputum Xpert and urine LAM. Anti-tuberculosis treatment delay might increase the risk of mortality in these patients. FUNDING: This study was supported by Wellcome fellowships 109105Z/15/A and 105165/Z/14/A.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/complicações , Humanos , Mortalidade , Prevalência
15.
Cell Chem Biol ; 27(5): 560-570.e10, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197094

RESUMO

Published Mycobacterium tuberculosis ß-ketoacyl-ACP synthase KasA inhibitors lack sufficient potency and/or pharmacokinetic properties. A structure-based approach was used to optimize existing KasA inhibitor DG167. This afforded indazole JSF-3285 with a 30-fold increase in mouse plasma exposure. Biochemical, genetic, and X-ray studies confirmed JSF-3285 targets KasA. JSF-3285 offers substantial activity in an acute mouse model of infection and in the corresponding chronic infection model, with efficacious reductions in colony-forming units at doses as low as 5 mg/kg once daily orally and improvement of the efficacy of front-line drugs isoniazid or rifampicin. JSF-3285 is a promising preclinical candidate for tuberculosis.


Assuntos
3-Oxoacil-(Proteína de Transporte de Acila) Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , 3-Oxoacil-(Proteína de Transporte de Acila) Sintase/metabolismo , Animais , Antituberculosos/química , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia
17.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 120: 101898, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090859

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to identify individuals at risk of progression and reactivation among household contacts (HHC) of pulmonary TB cases in Vitoria, Brazil. We first evaluated the predictive performance of six published signatures on the transcriptional dataset obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from HHC that either progressed to TB disease or not (non-progressors) during a five-year follow-up. The area under the curve (AUC) values for the six signatures ranged from 0.670 to 0.461, and the PPVs did not reach the WHO published target product profiles (TPPs). We therefore used as training cohort the earliest time-point samples from the African cohort of adolescents (GSE79362) and applied an ensemble feature selection pipeline to derive a novel 29-gene signature (PREDICT29). PREDICT29 was tested on 16 progressors and 21 non-progressors. PREDICT29 performed better in segregating progressors from non-progressors in the Brazil cohort with the area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.911 and PPV of 20%. This proof of concept study demonstrates that PREDICT29 can predict risk of progression/reactivation to clinical TB disease in recently exposed individuals at least 5 years prior to disease development. Upon validation in larger and geographically diverse cohorts, PREDICT29 can be used to risk-stratify recently infected for targeted therapy.

19.
EJNMMI Res ; 10(1): 8, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in the use of F-18 FDG PET-CT to monitor tuberculosis (TB) treatment response. Tuberculosis lung lesions are often complex and diffuse, with dynamic changes during treatment and persisting metabolic activity after apparent clinical cure. This poses a challenge in quantifying scan-based markers of burden of disease and disease activity. We used semi-automated, whole lung quantification of lung lesions to analyse serial FDG PET-CT scans from the Catalysis TB Treatment Response Cohort to identify characteristics that best correlated with clinical and microbiological outcomes. RESULTS: Quantified scan metrics were already associated with clinical outcomes at diagnosis and 1 month after treatment, with further improved accuracy to differentiate clinical outcomes after standard treatment duration (month 6). A high cavity volume showed the strongest association with a risk of treatment failure (AUC 0.81 to predict failure at diagnosis), while a suboptimal reduction of the total glycolytic activity in lung lesions during treatment had the strongest association with recurrent disease (AUC 0.8 to predict pooled unfavourable outcomes). During the first year after TB treatment lesion burden reduced; but for many patients, there were continued dynamic changes of individual lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Quantification of FDG PET-CT images better characterised TB treatment outcomes than qualitative scan patterns and robustly measured the burden of disease. In future, validated metrics may be used to stratify patients and help evaluate the effectiveness of TB treatment modalities.

20.
J Infect Dis ; 220(220 Suppl 3): S99-S107, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593597

RESUMO

Tests that can replace sputum smear microscopy have been identified as a top priority diagnostic need for tuberculosis by the World Health Organization. High-quality evidence on diagnostic accuracy for tests that may meet this need is an essential requirement to inform decisions about policy and scale-up. However, test accuracy studies are often of low and inconsistent quality and poorly reported, leading to uncertainty about true test performance. Here we provide guidance for the design of diagnostic test accuracy studies of sputum smear-replacement tests. Such studies should have a cross-sectional or cohort design, enrolling either a consecutive series or a random sample of patients who require evaluation for tuberculosis. Adults with respiratory symptoms are the target population. The reference standard should at a minimum be a single, automated, liquid culture, but additional cultures, follow-up, clinical case definition, and specific measures to understand discordant results should also be included. Inclusion of smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF (or MTB/RIF Ultra) as comparators is critical to allow broader comparability and generalizability of results, because disease spectrum can vary between studies and affects relative test performance. Given the complex nature of sputum (the primary specimen type used for pulmonary TB), careful design and reporting of the specimen flow is essential. Test characteristics other than accuracy (such as feasibility, implementation considerations, and data on impact on patient, population and health systems outcomes) are also important aspects.


Assuntos
Bioensaio , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Padrões de Referência , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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