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1.
Anal Chem ; 92(19): 13084-13091, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668145

RESUMO

Low molecular weight metabolites are essential for defining the molecular phenotypes of cells. However, spatial metabolomics tools often lack the sensitivity, specify, and spatial resolution to provide comprehensive descriptions of these species in tissue. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) of low molecular weight ions is particularly challenging as MALDI matrix clusters are often nominally isobaric with multiple metabolite ions, requiring high resolving power instrumentation or derivatization to circumvent this issue. An alternative to this is to perform ion mobility separation before ion detection, enabling the visualization of metabolites without the interference of matrix ions. Additional difficulties surrounding low weight metabolite visualization include high resolution imaging, while maintaining sufficient ion numbers for broad and representative analysis of the tissue chemical complement. Here, we use MALDI timsTOF IMS to image low molecular weight metabolites at higher spatial resolution than most metabolite MALDI IMS experiments (20 µm) while maintaining broad coverage within the human kidney. We demonstrate that trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) can resolve matrix peaks from metabolite signal and separate both isobaric and isomeric metabolites with different distributions within the kidney. The added ion mobility data dimension dramatically increased the peak capacity for spatial metabolomics experiments. Through this improved sensitivity, we have found >40 low molecular weight metabolites in human kidney tissue, such as argininic acid, acetylcarnitine, and choline that localize to the cortex, medulla, and renal pelvis, respectively. Future work will involve further exploring metabolomic profiles of human kidneys as a function of age, sex, and race.

2.
Nat Genet ; 52(1): 56-73, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911677

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified breast cancer risk variants in over 150 genomic regions, but the mechanisms underlying risk remain largely unknown. These regions were explored by combining association analysis with in silico genomic feature annotations. We defined 205 independent risk-associated signals with the set of credible causal variants in each one. In parallel, we used a Bayesian approach (PAINTOR) that combines genetic association, linkage disequilibrium and enriched genomic features to determine variants with high posterior probabilities of being causal. Potentially causal variants were significantly over-represented in active gene regulatory regions and transcription factor binding sites. We applied our INQUSIT pipeline for prioritizing genes as targets of those potentially causal variants, using gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci), chromatin interaction and functional annotations. Known cancer drivers, transcription factors and genes in the developmental, apoptosis, immune system and DNA integrity checkpoint gene ontology pathways were over-represented among the highest-confidence target genes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Risco
3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(D1): D682-D688, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691826

RESUMO

The Ensembl (https://www.ensembl.org) is a system for generating and distributing genome annotation such as genes, variation, regulation and comparative genomics across the vertebrate subphylum and key model organisms. The Ensembl annotation pipeline is capable of integrating experimental and reference data from multiple providers into a single integrated resource. Here, we present 94 newly annotated and re-annotated genomes, bringing the total number of genomes offered by Ensembl to 227. This represents the single largest expansion of the resource since its inception. We also detail our continued efforts to improve human annotation, developments in our epigenome analysis and display, a new tool for imputing causal genes from genome-wide association studies and visualisation of variation within a 3D protein model. Finally, we present information on our new website. Both software and data are made available without restriction via our website, online tools platform and programmatic interfaces (available under an Apache 2.0 license) and data updates made available four times a year.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(7): 674-685, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841383

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate age-specific relative and absolute cancer risks of breast cancer and to estimate risks of ovarian, pancreatic, male breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers associated with germline PALB2 pathogenic variants (PVs) because these risks have not been extensively characterized. METHODS: We analyzed data from 524 families with PALB2 PVs from 21 countries. Complex segregation analysis was used to estimate relative risks (RRs; relative to country-specific population incidences) and absolute risks of cancers. The models allowed for residual familial aggregation of breast and ovarian cancer and were adjusted for the family-specific ascertainment schemes. RESULTS: We found associations between PALB2 PVs and risk of female breast cancer (RR, 7.18; 95% CI, 5.82 to 8.85; P = 6.5 × 10-76), ovarian cancer (RR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.40 to 6.04; P = 4.1 × 10-3), pancreatic cancer (RR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.50; P = 8.7 × 10-3), and male breast cancer (RR, 7.34; 95% CI, 1.28 to 42.18; P = 2.6 × 10-2). There was no evidence for increased risks of prostate or colorectal cancer. The breast cancer RRs declined with age (P for trend = 2.0 × 10-3). After adjusting for family ascertainment, breast cancer risk estimates on the basis of multiple case families were similar to the estimates from families ascertained through population-based studies (P for difference = .41). On the basis of the combined data, the estimated risks to age 80 years were 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) for female breast cancer, 5% (95% CI, 2% to 10%) for ovarian cancer, 2%-3% (95% CI females, 1% to 4%; 95% CI males, 2% to 5%) for pancreatic cancer, and 1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 5%) for male breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These results confirm PALB2 as a major breast cancer susceptibility gene and establish substantial associations between germline PALB2 PVs and ovarian, pancreatic, and male breast cancers. These findings will facilitate incorporation of PALB2 into risk prediction models and optimize the clinical cancer risk management of PALB2 PV carriers.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(22): 8670-8674, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117643

RESUMO

The development of an intermolecular and enantioselective aza-Wacker reaction is described. Using indoles as the N-source and a selection of alkenols as the coupling partners selective ß-hydride elimination toward the alcohol was achieved. This strategy preserves the newly formed stereocenter by preventing the formation of traditionally observed enamine products. Allylic and homoallylic alcohols with a variety of functional groups are compatible with the reaction in high enantioselectivity. Isotopic-labeling experiments support a syn amino-palladation mechanism for this new class of aza-Wacker reactions.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(22): 8708-8711, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124676

RESUMO

Herein we describe the development of a Pd-catalyzed enantioselective Markovnikov addition of carbamates to allylic alcohols for the construction of α-tertiary and α-secondary amines. The reaction affords a range of ß-amino alcohols, after reduction of the aldehyde in situ, which contain a variety of functional groups in moderate yields and moderate to good enantioselectivities. These products can be readily oxidized to ß-amino acids, valuable building blocks for the synthesis of biologically active compounds. Mechanistic studies indicate that the C-N bond formation occurs via a syn amino-palladation mechanism, an insight which may guide future reaction development given the limited number of enantioselective syntheses of α-tertiary amines.

8.
Metallomics ; 11(5): 982-993, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968088

RESUMO

Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace metal required for all forms of life, but is toxic at high concentrations. While the toxic effects of high levels of Zn are well documented, the mechanism of cell death appears to vary based on the study and concentration of Zn. Zn has been proposed as an anti-cancer treatment against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The goal of this analysis was to determine the effects of Zn on metabolism and cell death in A549 cells. Here, high throughput multi-omics analysis identified the molecular effects of Zn intoxication on the proteome, metabolome, and transcriptome of A549 human NSCLC cells after 5 min to 24 h of Zn exposure. Multi-omics analysis combined with additional experimental evidence suggests Zn intoxication induces ferroptosis, an iron and lipid peroxidation-dependent programmed cell death, demonstrating the utility of multi-omics analysis to identify cellular response to intoxicants.


Assuntos
Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Zinco/toxicidade , Células A549 , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Genômica , Humanos , NAD/biossíntese , Necrose , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(4): 822-825, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genes regulated by breast cancer risk alleles identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may harbor rare coding risk alleles. METHODS: We sequenced the coding regions for 38 genes within 500 kb of 38 lead GWAS SNPs in 13,538 breast cancer cases and 5,518 controls. RESULTS: Truncating variants in these genes were rare, and were not associated with breast cancer risk. Burden testing of rare missense variants highlighted 5 genes with some suggestion of an association with breast cancer, although none met the multiple testing thresholds: MKL1, FTO, NEK10, MDM4, and COX11. Six common alleles in COX11, MAP3K1 (two), and NEK10 (three) were associated at the P < 0.0001 significance level, but these likely reflect linkage disequilibrium with causal regulatory variants. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that rare coding variants in these genes confer substantial breast cancer risks. However, more modest effect sizes could not be ruled out. IMPACT: We tested the hypothesis that rare variants in 38 genes near breast cancer GWAS loci may mediate risk. These variants do not appear to play a major role in breast cancer heritability.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 144(5): 1195-1204, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175445

RESUMO

Breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2-driven tumors may benefit from targeted therapy. It is not clear whether current BRCA screening guidelines are effective at identifying these patients. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of inherited BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants in a large, clinically representative breast cancer cohort and to estimate the proportion of BRCA1/2 carriers not detected by selectively screening individuals with the highest probability of being carriers according to current clinical guidelines. The study included 5,122 unselected Swedish breast cancer patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2008. Target sequence enrichment (48.48 Fluidigm Access Arrays) and sequencing were performed (Illumina Hi-Seq 2,500 instrument, v4 chemistry). Differences in patient and tumor characteristics of BRCA1/2 carriers who were already identified as part of clinical BRCA1/2 testing routines and additional BRCA1/2 carriers found by sequencing the entire study population were compared using logistic regression models. Ninety-two of 5,099 patients with valid variant calls were identified as BRCA1/2 carriers by screening all study participants (1.8%). Only 416 study participants (8.2%) were screened as part of clinical practice, but this identified 35 out of 92 carriers (38.0%). Clinically identified carriers were younger, less likely postmenopausal and more likely to be associated with familiar ovarian cancer compared to the additional carriers identified by screening all patients. More BRCA2 (34/42, 81.0%) than BRCA1 carriers (23/50, 46%) were missed by clinical screening. In conclusion, BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence in unselected breast cancer patients was 1.8%. Six in ten BRCA carriers were not detected by selective clinical screening of individuals.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Prevalência
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 21-34, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554720

RESUMO

Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57-1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628-0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
12.
J Anim Sci ; 97(1): 90-100, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481306

RESUMO

Heifers that have an earlier age at puberty often have greater lifetime productivity. Age at puberty is moderately heritable so selection should effectively reduce the number of days to puberty, and improve heifer productivity and profitability as a result. However, recording age at puberty is intensive, requiring repeat ovarian scanning to determine age at first corpus luteum (AGECL). Genomic selection has been proposed as a strategy to select for earlier age at puberty; however, large reference populations of cows with AGECL records and genotypes would be required to generate accurate GEBV for this trait. Reproductive maturity score (RMS) is a proxy trait for age at puberty for implementation in northern Australia beef herds, where large scale recording of AGECL is not feasible. RMS assigns a score of 0 to 5 from a single ovarian scan to describe ovarian maturity at ~600 d. Here we use multivariate genomic prediction to evaluate the value of a large RMS data set to improve accuracy of GEBV for age at puberty (AGECL). There were 882 Brahman and 990 Tropical Composite heifers with AGECL phenotypes, and an independent set of 974 Brahman, 1,798 Santa Gertrudis, and 910 Droughtmaster heifers with RMS phenotypes. All animals had 728,785 real or imputed SNP genotypes. The correlation of AGECL and RMS (h2 = 0.23) was estimated as -0.83 using the genomic information. This result also demonstrates that using genomic information it is possible to estimate genetic correlations between traits collected on different animals in different herds, with minimal or unknown pedigree linkage between them. Inclusion of heifers with RMS in the multi-trait model improved the accuracy of genomic evaluations for AGECL. Accuracy of RMS GEBV generally did not improve by adding heifers with AGECL phenotypes into the reference population. These results suggest that RMS and AGECL may be used together in a multi-trait prediction model to increase the accuracy of prediction for age at puberty in tropically adapted beef cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Genoma/genética , Genômica , Reprodução/genética , Maturidade Sexual/genética , Animais , Austrália , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Análise Multivariada , Linhagem , Fenótipo
13.
Cancer Res ; 78(21): 6329-6338, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385609

RESUMO

Genetic variants that increase breast cancer risk can be rare or common. This study tests whether the genetic risk stratification of breast cancer by rare and common variants in established loci can discriminate tumors with different biology, patient survival, and mode of detection. Multinomial logistic regression tested associations between genetic risk load [protein-truncating variant (PTV) carriership in 31 breast cancer predisposition genes-or polygenic risk score (PRS) using 162 single-nucleotide polymorphisms], tumor characteristics, and mode of detection (OR). Ten-year breast cancer-specific survival (HR) was estimated using Cox regression models. In this unselected cohort of 5,099 patients with breast cancer diagnosed in Sweden between 2001 and 2008, PTV carriers (n = 597) were younger and associated with more aggressive tumor phenotypes (ER-negative, large size, high grade, high proliferation, luminal B, and basal-like subtype) and worse outcome (HR, 1.65; 1.16-2.36) than noncarriers. After excluding 92 BRCA1/2 carriers, PTV carriership remained associated with high grade and worse survival (HR, 1.76; 1.21-2.56). In 5,007 BRCA1/2 noncarriers, higher PRS was associated with less aggressive tumor characteristics (ER-positive, PR-positive, small size, low grade, low proliferation, and luminal A subtype). Among patients with low mammographic density (<25%), non-BRCA1/2 PTV carriers were more often interval than screen-detected breast cancer (OR, 1.89; 1.12-3.21) than noncarriers. In contrast, higher PRS was associated with lower risk of interval compared with screen-detected cancer (OR, 0.77; 0.64-0.93) in women with low mammographic density. These findings suggest that rare and common breast cancer susceptibility loci are differentially associated with tumor characteristics, survival, and mode of detection.Significance: These findings offer the potential to improve screening practices for breast cancer by providing a deeper understanding of how risk variants affect disease progression and mode of detection. Cancer Res; 78(21); 6329-38. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Regressão , Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Proteome Res ; 17(10): 3396-3408, 2018 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114907

RESUMO

Proteomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics generate comprehensive data sets, and current biocomputational capabilities allow their efficient integration for systems biology analysis. Published multiomics studies cover methodological advances as well as applications to biological questions. However, few studies have focused on the development of a high-throughput, unified sample preparation approach to complement high-throughput omic analytics. This report details the automation, benchmarking, and application of a strategy for transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analyses from a common sample. The approach, sample preparation for multi-omics technologies (SPOT), provides equivalent performance to typical individual omic preparation methods but greatly enhances throughput and minimizes the resources required for multiomic experiments. SPOT was applied to a multiomics time course experiment for zinc-treated HL-60 cells. The data reveal Zn effects on NRF2 antioxidant and NFkappaB signaling. High-throughput approaches such as these are critical for the acquisition of temporally resolved, multicondition, large multiomic data sets such as those necessary to assess complex clinical and biological concerns. Ultimately, this type of approach will provide an expanded understanding of challenging scientific questions across many fields.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Células HL-60 , Humanos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos , Zinco/farmacologia
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(5): 853-859, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29325031

RESUMO

Functional disruptions of susceptibility genes by large genomic structure variant (SV) deletions in germlines are known to be associated with cancer risk. However, few studies have been conducted to systematically search for SV deletions in breast cancer susceptibility genes. We analysed deep (> 30x) whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data generated in blood samples from 128 breast cancer patients of Asian and European descent with either a strong family history of breast cancer or early cancer onset disease. To identify SV deletions in known or suspected breast cancer susceptibility genes, we used multiple SV calling tools including Genome STRiP, Delly, Manta, BreakDancer and Pindel. SV deletions were detected by at least three of these bioinformatics tools in five genes. Specifically, we identified heterozygous deletions covering a fraction of the coding regions of BRCA1 (with approximately 80kb in two patients), and TP53 genes (with ∼1.6 kb in two patients), and of intronic regions (∼1 kb) of the PALB2 (one patient), PTEN (three patients) and RAD51C genes (one patient). We confirmed the presence of these deletions using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Our study identified novel SV deletions in breast cancer susceptibility genes and the identification of such SV deletions may improve clinical testing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deleção de Sequência , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
16.
J Med Genet ; 55(2): 97-103, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28993434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 is offered typically to selected women based on age of onset and family history of cancer. However, current internationally accepted genetic testing referral guidelines are built mostly on data from cancer genetics clinics in women of European descent. To evaluate the appropriateness of such guidelines in Asians, we have determined the prevalence of germ line variants in an unselected cohort of Asian patients with breast cancer and healthy controls. METHODS: Germ line DNA from a hospital-based study of 2575 unselected patients with breast cancer and 2809 healthy controls were subjected to amplicon-based targeted sequencing of exonic and proximal splice site junction regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 using the Fluidigm Access Array system, with sequencing conducted on a Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. Variant calling was performed with GATK UnifiedGenotyper and were validated by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Fifty-five (2.1%) BRCA1 and 66 (2.6%) BRCA2 deleterious mutations were identified among patients with breast cancer and five (0.18%) BRCA1 and six (0.21%) BRCA2 mutations among controls. One thousand one hundred and eighty-six (46%) patients and 97 (80%) carriers fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for genetic testing. CONCLUSION: Five per cent of unselected Asian patients with breast cancer carry deleterious variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2. While current referral guidelines identified the majority of carriers, one in two patients would be referred for genetic services. Given that such services are largely unavailable in majority of low-resource settings in Asia, our study highlights the need for more efficient guidelines to identify at-risk individuals in Asia.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Malásia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
17.
Nat Genet ; 49(12): 1767-1778, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058716

RESUMO

Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer), all of European origin. We identified independent associations at P < 5 × 10-8 with ten variants at nine new loci. At P < 0.05, we replicated associations with 10 of 11 variants previously reported in ER-negative disease or BRCA1 mutation carrier GWAS and observed consistent associations with ER-negative disease for 105 susceptibility variants identified by other studies. These 125 variants explain approximately 16% of the familial risk of this breast cancer subtype. There was high genetic correlation (0.72) between risk of ER-negative breast cancer and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. These findings may lead to improved risk prediction and inform further fine-mapping and functional work to better understand the biological basis of ER-negative breast cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
18.
Nature ; 551(7678): 92-94, 2017 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059683

RESUMO

Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ásia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Simulação por Computador , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
J Med Genet ; 54(11): 732-741, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28779002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy in women and has a major heritable component. The risks associated with most rare susceptibility variants are not well estimated. To better characterise the contribution of variants in ATM, CHEK2, PALB2 and XRCC2, we sequenced their coding regions in 13 087 BC cases and 5488 controls from East Anglia, UK. METHODS: Gene coding regions were enriched via PCR, sequenced, variant called and filtered for quality. ORs for BC risk were estimated separately for carriers of truncating variants and of rare missense variants, which were further subdivided by functional domain and pathogenicity as predicted by four in silico algorithms. RESULTS: Truncating variants in PALB2 (OR=4.69, 95% CI 2.27 to 9.68), ATM (OR=3.26; 95% CI 1.82 to 6.46) and CHEK2 (OR=3.11; 95% CI 2.15 to 4.69), but not XRCC2 (OR=0.94; 95% CI 0.26 to 4.19) were associated with increased BC risk. Truncating variants in ATM and CHEK2 were more strongly associated with risk of oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive than ER-negative disease, while those in PALB2 were associated with similar risks for both subtypes. There was also some evidence that missense variants in ATM, CHEK2 and PALB2 may contribute to BC risk, but larger studies are necessary to quantify the magnitude of this effect. CONCLUSIONS: Truncating variants in PALB2 are associated with a higher risk of BC than those in ATM or CHEK2. A substantial risk of BC due to truncating XRCC2 variants can be excluded.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/química , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/química , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
20.
Bioinformatics ; 33(9): 1389-1391, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28453673

RESUMO

Motivation: The identification of the functional variants responsible for observed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) signals is one of the most challenging tasks of the post-GWAS research era. Several tools have been developed to annotate genetic variants by their genomic location and potential functional implications. Each of these tools has its own requirements and internal logic, which forces the user to become acquainted with each interface. Results: From an awareness of the amount of work needed to analyze a single locus, we have built a flexible, versatile and easy-to-use web interface designed to help in prioritizing variants and predicting their potential functional implications. This interface acts as a single-point of entry linking association results with reference tools and relevant experiments. Availability and Implementation: VEXOR is an integrative web application implemented through the Shiny framework and available at: http://romix.genome.ulaval.ca/vexor. Contact: arnaud.droit@crchuq.ulaval.ca. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Software , Genoma Humano , Genômica/métodos , Humanos
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