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1.
Physiol Meas ; 40(8): 08NT01, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of novel photoplethysmography (PPG) Pulse Sounder/Pulse Visualizer communication techniques for alerting the presence (or absence) of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). APPROACH: Proof of concept evaluation using our previously published multi-site PPG pulse data set (110 participants included; age > 40 years; 44% PAD by ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI)). Two main pulse encoding rules using the risetime as an example feature to mark each heartbeat in a 6 s analysis study window: if risetime at both great toes ⩽time threshold ('no PAD' state) then heartbeat marked with a single 5 kHz audio tone; if risetime from either great toe > threshold ('PAD') then heartbeat marked with a distinct train of 5 kHz audio tones. A simple spectrogram visual plot was also produced for each participant's audio signals. ROC curve analysis first determined an appropriate risetime threshold using the simple-to-evaluate PAD Visualizer and then re-tested at this level with PAD Sounder and classification performance summarized. MAIN RESULTS: The pulse encoding rules used were easy to learn. Visualizer best communication performance at risetime 0.27 s gave specificity 80.6%, sensitivity 95.8%, accuracy 87.3%, negative predictive value 96.2%, and Kappa statistic of 0.75. Classification performance for blinded assessment with audio PAD Sounder was identical. SIGNIFICANCE: Substantial agreements demonstrated between Sounder/Visualizer disease techniques and the ABPI PAD reference. These simple-to-use PAD communications methods when embedded into an appropriate device platform could offer significant benefits in PAD diagnosis for a range of clinical settings, including primary care where low-cost, portable and easy-to-use diagnostics can be desirable.

2.
Trends Plant Sci ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447302

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria produced the oxygen that began to accumulate on Earth 2.5 billion years ago, at the dawn of the Proterozoic Eon. By 2.4 billion years ago, the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) marked the onset of an atmosphere containing oxygen. The oxygen content of the atmosphere then remained low for almost 2 billion years. Why? Nitrogenase, the sole nitrogen-fixing enzyme on Earth, controls the entry of molecular nitrogen into the biosphere. Nitrogenase is inhibited in air containing more than 2% oxygen: the concentration of oxygen in the Proterozoic atmosphere. We propose that oxygen inhibition of nitrogenase limited Proterozoic global primary production. Oxygen levels increased when upright terrestrial plants isolated nitrogen fixation in soil from photosynthetic oxygen production in shoots and leaves.

3.
Osteoporos Int ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451838

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the association of surgical delay and comorbidities with the risk of mortality after hip fracture surgeries. We found that CCI was the dominant factor in predicting both short- and long-term mortality, and its effect is vital in the prognostication of survivorship. INTRODUCTION: Hip fracture is a growing concern and a delay in surgery is often associated with a poorer outcome. We hypothesized that a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) portends greater risk of mortality than a delay in surgery. Our aim was to investigate the associations of surgical delay and CCI with risk of mortality and to determine the dominant predictor. METHODS: This retrospective study examines hip fracture data from a large tertiary hospital in Singapore over the period January 2013 through December 2015. Data collected included age, gender, CCI, delay of surgery, fracture patterns, and the American Society of Anaesthesiologist (ASA) score. Post-operative outcomes analyzed included mortality at inpatient, at 30 and 90 days, and at 2 years. RESULTS: A total of 1004 patients with hip fractures were included in this study. Study mortality rates were 1.1% (n = 11) during in-hospital admission, 1.8% (n = 18) at 30 days, 2.7% (n = 27) at 90 days, and 13.3% (n = 129) at 2 years. Lost to follow-up rate at 2 years was 3.3%. We found that CCI was consistently the dominant factor in predicting both short- and long-term mortality. A CCI score of 5 was identified as the inflection point above which comorbidity at baseline presented a greater risk of mortality than a delay in surgery. CONCLUSION: Our analysis showed that CCI is the dominant predictor of both short- and long-term mortality compared with delay in surgery. The effect of CCI is vital in the prognostication of mortality in patients surgically treated for hip fractures.

4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 290, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to study gestational weight gain (GWG) in a Singaporean population and compare it with Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2009 GWG guidelines. METHODS: Nine hundred twenty-six women with low-risk singleton pregnancy were enrolled in a prospective cohort study from 2010 to 2014 in a Singapore tertiary maternity hospital. Seven hundred twenty-four patients had maternal weight information till term pregnancy and were included in analysis. Participants were categorized according to their first antenatal visit body mass index (BMI) as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. Total GWG for each BMI group was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the predictors of total GWG above and below IOM guidelines. RESULTS: Obese women had a mean total GWG (9.1 kg) that exceeded the upper limit IOM guidelines (9 kg). In multivariate analysis of predictors of total GWG above IOM guidelines, being overweight (adjusted OR: 3.91 [95% CI, 2.60-5.88]; p < .0001) and obese (adjusted OR: 4.78 [95% CI, 2.80, 8.15]; p < .0001) significantly increased the risks of gaining weight above IOM guidelines during pregnancy, compared to being normal weight. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are independent significant risk factors for gaining excessive gestational weight. Appropriate weight management for overweight and obese Singaporean women prior to and during pregnancy is important.

5.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(8): e14821, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dementia, which presents as cognitive decline in one or more cognitive domains affecting function, is increasing worldwide. Traditional cognitive screening tools for dementia have their limitations, with emphasis on memory and, to a lesser extent, on the cognitive domain of executive function. The use of virtual reality (VR) in screening for cognitive function in older persons is promising, but evidence for its use is sparse. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of using VR to screen for cognitive impairment in older persons in a primary care setting. The secondary aim was to assess the module's ability to discriminate between cognitively intact and cognitively impaired participants. METHODS: A comparative study was conducted at a public primary care clinic in Singapore, where persons aged 65-85 years were recruited based on a cut-off score of 26 on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale. They participated in a VR module for assessment of their learning and memory, perceptual-motor function, and executive function. Each participant was evaluated by the total performance score (range: 0-700) upon completion of the study. A questionnaire was also administered to assess their perception of and attitude toward VR. RESULTS: A total of 37 participants in Group 1 (cognitively intact; MoCA score≥26) and 23 participants in Group 2 (cognitively impaired; MoCA score<26) were assessed. The mean time to completion of the study was 19.1 (SD 3.6) minutes in Group 1 and 20.4 (3.4) minutes in Group 2. Mean feedback scores ranged from 3.80 to 4.48 (max=5) in favor of VR. The total performance score in Group 1 (552.0, SD 57.2) was higher than that in Group 2 (476.1, SD 61.9; P<.001) and exhibited a moderate positive correlation with scores from other cognitive screening tools: Abbreviated Mental Test (0.312), Mini-Mental State Examination (0.373), and MoCA (0.427). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for the relationship between the total performance score and the presence of cognitive impairment showed an area under curve of 0.821 (95% CI 0.714-0.928). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the feasibility of using a VR-based screening tool for cognitive function in older persons in primary care, who were largely in favor of this tool.

6.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392580

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) is a common cause of infection in humans. Beta-lactam antibiotics are the preferred agents, with anti-staphylococcal penicillins (ASPs) or the first-generation cephalosporin, cefazolin, favored by clinicians. Recent studies comparing the two strategies suggest similar outcomes between the agents. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore differences between cefazolin and ASPs for the treatment of MSSA infections. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) of observational or cohort studies using a random-effects model. Two blinded reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, risk of bias, and data extraction. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included clinical failure, infection recurrence, and antibiotic discontinuation due to adverse events. Subgroup analyses were conducted for the primary outcome by type of ASP, studies with a high percentage of deep-seated infections, and studies of low to moderate risk of bias. RESULTS: After performing a comprehensive search of the literature, and screening for study inclusion, 19 studies (13,390 patients) were included in the final meta-analysis. Fifteen of the 19 studies (79%) were judged as having a low or moderate risk of bias. Use of cefazolin was associated with lower all-cause mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.91, p = 0.006, I2 = 28%], clinical failure (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.41-0.74, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%), and antibiotic discontinuation due to adverse events (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.16-0.39, p < 0.001, I2 = 23%). Infection recurrence was higher in the cefazolin patients (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.04-1.93, p = 0.03, I2 = 0%). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrated that the use of cefazolin was associated with significant reductions in all-cause mortality, clinical failure, and discontinuation due to adverse events, but was associated with an increased risk of infection recurrence. FUNDING: University of Florida Open Access Publishing Fund funded the Rapid Service Fees. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (study ID: CRD42018106442).

7.
Radiol Med ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether ultrasound greyscale (GS) and power Doppler (PD) joint inflammation may be useful in identifying rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in different states of structural damage and disease activity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study utilizing 36-joint ultrasonography, bone erosion was scored dichotomously (1 = yes/0 = no) while GS and PD joint inflammations were graded semi-quantitatively (0-3) at each joint recess. Sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied to study ultrasound joint inflammation as a clinical marker for identifying patients with erosion score > 4.5 (median) and DAS28 > 2.6, > 3.2 and > 5.1, respectively. RESULTS: 1080 joints and 1800 joint recesses were scanned in 30 RA patients (mean disease duration, 70.3 months). Patients with GS score > 35.5 (median) had significantly higher ultrasound erosion scores when compared to those with GS score ≤ 35.5 (mean (95% CI) ultrasound erosion scores, 9.27 (6.12-12.4) versus 3.33 (2.31-4.36), respectively. p = 0.0027). Patients with PD positivity had significantly higher DAS28 scores compared to those with PD negativity (mean (95% CI) DAS28, 3.84 (3.35, 4.34) versus 2.86 (2.18, 3.54), respectively. p = 0.0457). Area under the ROC curve (AUC) based on cut-off GS scores ≥ 38 to identify patients with ultrasound erosion score >4.5 was 0.82 (sensitivity = 73.3%, specificity = 86.7%, accuracy = 80%). AUC based on cut-off PD scores ≥ 2.5 for identifying patients with DAS28 > 5.1 was 0.88 (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 69.2%, accuracy = 73.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound GS and PD joint inflammation scores can be useful in identifying RA patients with high bone erosion burden (ultrasound erosion score > 4.5) and high disease activity (DAS28 > 5.1), respectively.

9.
Emerg Med J ; 36(9): 529-534, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma team activation criteria have a variable performance in the paediatric population. We aimed to identify predictors for high-level resource utilisation during trauma resuscitation in the ED. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in the ED of a tertiary paediatric hospital. Patient data were collected from trauma surveillance registry and analysis was performed to identify significant predictors. We then assessed the sensitivity and specificity of proposed models with respect to observed patient outcomes. RESULTS: Among 11 282 cases, the mean age was 6.1±4.9 (SD) years old. Fall was the most common mechanism of injury in 7364 (65.3%) patients. Eighty-eight (0.8%) patients required at least one high-level resource. Significant predictors for high-resource utilisation were overall GCS of <14 (relative risk (RR) 38.841, 95% CI 21.328 to 70.739, p<0.001), high-risk mechanisms of fall from height and motor vehicle collision (RR 7.863, 95% CI 4.687 to 13.192, p<0.001), as well as age-specific tachycardia (RR 1.796, 95% CI 1.145 to 2.817, p=0.0108). A model consisting of GCS and high-risk mechanism would under-triage 21 (0.2%) patients and over-triage 681 (6.0%) patients. When age-specific tachycardia was added, 8 (0.1%) less patients would be under-triaged but an additional 3251 (28.9%) patients would be over-triaged. CONCLUSION: As utilisation of high-level resources in paediatric trauma was rare, it was difficult to find an appropriate balance between under-triage and over-triage. Between the two, minimising the proportion of under-triage is more important as patient safety is paramount in paediatric trauma care.

10.
Physiol Meas ; 40(8): 084004, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: People with diabetic neuropathy who have previously ulcerated are at high risk of re-ulceration. They should regularly attend podiatry clinics for surveillance and routine protective podiatric treatment. It has been suggested that inflammation prior to skin breakdown shows up as a hotspot on a thermal image even in the absence of clinical signs. The aim of this study is to quantify inter-patient and intra-patient thermal variations presented by diabetic feet at high risk of ulceration. APPROACH: Whole foot and spot temperatures were recorded for 96 patients who attended two successive podiatry appointments without ulceration 28 [28, 31] days apart, median [interquartile range]. This was a part of a longer study into whether thermal imaging in clinic can reduce the rate of re-ulceration. MAIN RESULTS: The variation in spot temperature right/left differences for single patients between visits was comparable to the variation observed between patients (0.8 [0.3, 1.5] °C compared with 0.9 [0.4, 1.7] °C). Similarly, whole foot temperature variation for a single patient between visits was comparable to the variation observed between patients (0.6 [0.2, 1.1] °C compared with 0.8 [0.2, 1.3] °C). SIGNIFICANCE: Thresholds which depend on thermal differences from visit to visit are unlikely to have sufficient specificity to effectively target treatment designed to prevent the development of foot ulcers.

11.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 22(9): 1719-1723, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304659

RESUMO

AIM: Power Doppler (PD) and gray scale (GS) imaging are commonly employed during ultrasonography in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While PD vascularity is often regarded as an ultrasound feature of more active joint inflammation, the true clinical significance of GS joint inflammation is less understood. We aimed to gain further insight into ultrasound PD and GS joint inflammation by studying their association with Disease Activity Score of 28 joints (DAS28) (a disease activity measure) and ultrasound-detected bone erosion (a structural damage measure). METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, ultrasound PD and GS joint inflammation were graded 0-3 (semi-quantitatively) and bone erosion was graded as yes = 1/no = 0 at each joint recess. Linear regression and Pearson correlation were used to characterize relationships and assess correlation of PD and GS scores with DAS28 and ultrasound erosion scores. RESULTS: One thousand and eighty joints and 1800 joint recesses from 36 peripheral joint sites (bilateral metacarpophalangeal joints, thumb interphalangeal joints, proximal interphalangeal joints, metatarsophalangeal joints, elbow, wrist and ankle) were scanned in 30 adult RA patients. PD scores correlated with DAS28 (r = 0.46, P = 0.0104) but not with ultrasound erosion scores; GS scores correlated with ultrasound erosion (r = 0.64, P = 0.0001) but not with DAS28 scores. Simple linear regression revealed PD as predictive of DAS28 (P = 0.0104) and GS as predictive of ultrasound-detected bone erosion (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Ultrasound PD joint inflammation is associated with disease activity and is correlated with DAS28. In contrast, GS joint inflammation is associated with structural damage and is correlated with ultrasound-detected bone erosion.

14.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237356

RESUMO

Severe neurological impairment (SNI) is a term commonly used in the medical literature, though there is no agreed definition. This limits opportunities for research into healthcare needs, treatment opportunities, resource planning, and outcome. We reviewed the literature to establish consistency of use of the term and to place it in the context of other commonly employed terms used to describe children with severe, complex medical needs. Forty-two articles were included for full-text analysis, with 23 including a definition of SNI. Motor impairment, intellectual disability, communication difficulties, and increased care needs were included in the definition in 80%, 70%, 30%, and 13% of papers respectively. Dependence on others for decision-making, chronicity, and distinction between disorders of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system were less frequently included. There is wide variation in the use of the term SNI. A consensus-based definition of this term would be useful to facilitate future research. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: There is inconsistency in use of the term severe neurological impairment (SNI), limiting research efforts. In defining SNI, considerations are mobility, intellectual disability, communication difficulties, and increased care needs. Distinction between acute and chronic, central and peripheral nervous system disorders, and dependence on others for decision-making were less significant.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194289

RESUMO

Undergraduate research experiences are excellent opportunities to engage students in science alongside experienced scientists, but at large institutions, it is challenging to accommodate all students. To address and engage a larger number of students, we developed a modular laboratory course based on the course-based undergraduate research experiences model. This new course was integrated with the scientific aims of a research laboratory studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying tissue regeneration in planarians. In this course, students were asked to identify genes with roles in planarian biology. Students analyzed and cloned an assigned gene, determined its expression pattern in situ and examined its function in regeneration. Additionally, we developed critical thinking and scientific communication skills by incorporating activities focused on critical concepts. Students obtained high quality primary data and were successful in completing and mastering the course learning outcomes. They benefitted by developing basic research skills, learning to perform, trouble-shooting experiments, reading and critically analyzing primary literature, and using the information to defend and explain their experimental results. Through this course, students also increased their confidence and ability to perform independent scientific research. The course was designed to make it accessible to the community to implement and adapt as appropriate in diverse institutions. © 2019 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2019.

16.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 143: 80-87, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254544

RESUMO

Incidental learning allows us to extract statistical relations between events in our daily lives without the intention to learn them. Whereas anticipation during intentional associative learning has been linked to increased and decreased theta band activity, comparatively little research has focused on incidental learning. The study of such a pervasive mechanism of incidental learning faces the challenge of finding an appropriate paradigm. Similarly, while posterior alpha band activity has been shown to facilitate attention to a predictable target location, it is not clear whether alpha power could mediate attention given other predictive information; e.g., when the only available information provided by the cue is the likelihood of the target outcome. Here we used a stimulus-stimulus associative learning task to investigate whether a cue carries information on its contingent relationship with a target outcome, not only when their relationship is learned intentionally but also when it could be learned incidentally. Moreover, by presenting the target outcome in a visual search task, we were also able to study whether anticipatory attention can be modulated by the intentional or the incidental knowledge of the likelihood of a target outcome given a predictive (or non-predictive) cue. Participants were exposed to streams of cue-target outcome trials, where one of two possible cues and one of two possible outcomes were displayed. Intention to learn was manipulated by asking participants to assess whether one of the target outcomes (the intentional one) was more likely to appear following one of the cues (the intentional one). Any learning regarding the other cue-outcome relationship would be incidental. We found that frontal and temporal theta band activity were sensitive to the predictive value of a cue (predictive cues elicited lower theta power). Moreover, left temporal theta was sensitive to the intention to learn associations (theta activity elicited by intentional learning cues was higher). Alpha power, by contrast, was not modulated by cue predictiveness of the target outcome. These findings suggest that theta band activity carries information about the predictive value of a cue. The topographical differences between theta for intentional and incidental learning suggest distinct cortical networks activated depending on whether the relationship between a cue and an outcome has been learned intentionally or incidentally.

17.
Physiol Meas ; 40(7): 07TR01, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195383

RESUMO

Respiratory rate (RR) is an important physiological parameter whose abnormality has been regarded as an important indicator of serious illness. In order to make RR monitoring simple to perform, reliable and accurate, many different methods have been proposed for such automatic monitoring. According to the theory of respiratory rate extraction, methods are categorized into three modalities: extracting RR from other physiological signals, RR measurement based on respiratory movements, and RR measurement based on airflow. The merits and limitations of each method are highlighted and discussed. In addition, current works are summarized to suggest key directions for the development of future RR monitoring methodologies.

18.
Infect Immun ; 87(8)2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160363

RESUMO

It has been shown that caspase-1, but not its upstream activator, ASC, contributes to oviduct pathology during mouse genital Chlamydia muridarum infection. We hypothesized that this dichotomy is due to the inadvertent absence of caspase-11 in previously used caspase-1-deficient mice. To address this, we studied the independent contributions of caspase-1 and -11 during genital Chlamydia infection. Our results show that caspase-11 deficiency was sufficient to recapitulate the effect of the combined absence of both caspase-1 and caspase-11 on oviduct pathology. Further, mice that were deficient for both caspase-1 and -11 but that expressed caspase-11 as a transgene (essentially, caspase-1-deficient mice) had no significant difference in oviduct pathology from control mice. Caspase-11-deficient mice showed reduced dilation in both the oviducts and uterus. To determine the mechanism by which caspase-11-deficient mice developed reduced pathology, the chlamydial burden and immune cell infiltration were determined in the oviducts. In the caspase-11-deficient mice, we observed increased chlamydial burdens in the upper genital tract, which correlated with increased CD4 T cell recruitment, suggesting a contribution of caspase-11 in infection control. Additionally, there were significantly fewer neutrophils in the oviducts of caspase-11-deficient mice, supporting the observed decrease in the incidence of oviduct pathology. Therefore, caspase-11 activation contributes to pathogen control and oviduct disease independently of caspase-1 activation.

19.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 3(5): 436-443, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Medium- and long-term sequelae of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) for type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are uncertain. Our aim was to describe the fluorescein angiography (FA) findings in patients who received IVB as primary treatment for type 1 ROP and compare them to findings in patients with ROP that spontaneously regressed. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight patients with a history of ROP who underwent fluorescein angiography between December 1, 2013, and July 31, 2018. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they had received IVB or had ROP that spontaneously regressed. METHODS: We reviewed the angiograms in the 2 groups for neovascularization (NV) and other abnormal vascular patterns in both the periphery and the posterior pole. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fluorescein angiography findings, including NV, peripheral, and macular vascular abnormalities. RESULTS: Forty eyes of 20 infants were included in the IVB group and 16 eyes of 8 infants in the untreated group. Median gestational age at birth was similar in the 2 groups (24.5 and 24.7 weeks, respectively; P = 0.44), as was the median birth weight (648.5 and 560.0 g, respectively; P = 0.26). Median postmenstrual age at the time of FA was 65.1 and 83.9 weeks, respectively (P = 0.0002). Review of angiograms demonstrated NV in 30.0% and 37.5% in the IVB and untreated cohorts, respectively (P = 0.75). Abnormal vascular patterns in the periphery were similar in both groups (100.0%), whereas posterior pole findings of vessels encroaching onto the fovea were more prevalent in the IVB cohort (65.0% vs. 25.0%; P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Fluorescein angiography after bevacizumab for ROP reveals abnormal vascular patterns in all eyes and NV in approximately one-third. Similar abnormal vascular patterns on FA are seen at a similar prevalence after spontaneous regression of ROP. These findings suggest that the abnormal vascular patterns identified by FA in patients with ROP result from the disease process itself rather than as a result of exposure to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor medications.

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