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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 169: 112564, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148634

RESUMO

Phthalates are plastic-derived contaminants that are ubiquitous in natural environments and function as pro-oxidants. The extent to which phthalates bioaccumulate in wild animals and associations with oxidative stress are poorly understood. Here, we describe relationships between maternally-derived phthalates, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and the dietary antioxidant α-tocopherol in eggs of European herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in Cornwall, UK. Up to six phthalate parent compounds and four phthalate metabolites were detected. Egg concentrations of MDA were positively associated with dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and negatively associated with α-tocopherol, suggesting that DCHP is associated with oxidative stress in gulls. The consequences of phthalate exposure in ovo for offspring development warrants study.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Animais , Ovos , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácidos Ftálicos
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2373, 2021 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888703

RESUMO

In Shark Bay, Western Australia, male bottlenose dolphins form a complex nested alliance hierarchy. At the first level, pairs or trios of unrelated males cooperate to herd individual females. Multiple first-order alliances cooperate in teams (second-order alliances) in the pursuit and defence of females, and multiple teams also work together (third-order alliances). Yet it remains unknown how dolphins classify these nested alliance relationships. We use 30 years of behavioural data combined with 40 contemporary sound playback experiments to 14 allied males, recording responses with drone-mounted video and a hydrophone array. We show that males form a first-person social concept of cooperative team membership at the second-order alliance level, independently of first-order alliance history and current relationship strength across all three alliance levels. Such associative concepts develop through experience and likely played an important role in the cooperative behaviour of early humans. These results provide evidence that cooperation-based concepts are not unique to humans, occurring in other animal societies with extensive cooperation between non-kin.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/fisiologia , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Masculino , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6901, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767258

RESUMO

Investigations into cooperative partner choice should consider both potential and realised partners, allowing for the comparison of traits across all those available. Male bottlenose dolphins form persisting multi-level alliances. Second-order alliances of 4-14 males are the core social unit, within which 2-3 males form first-order alliances to sequester females during consortships. We compared social bond strength, relatedness and age similarity of potential and realised partners of individual males in two age periods: (i) adolescence, when second-order alliances are formed from all available associates, and (ii) adulthood, when first-order allies are selected from within second-order alliances. Social bond strength during adolescence predicted second-order alliance membership in adulthood. Moreover, males preferred same-aged or older males as second-order allies. Within second-order alliances, non-mating season social bond strength predicted first-order partner preferences during mating season consortships. Relatedness did not influence partner choice on either alliance level. There is thus a striking resemblance between male dolphins, chimpanzees and humans, where closely bonded non-relatives engage in higher-level, polyadic cooperative acts. To that end, our study extends the scope of taxa in which social bonds rather than kinship explain cooperation, providing the first evidence that such traits might have evolved independently in marine and terrestrial realms.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Golfinhos/psicologia , Animais , Masculino
4.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503915

RESUMO

Inconsistency between the environments of indoor pullet rearing and adult outdoor housing may increase the fearfulness in free-range hens. Rearing enrichments and/or range use may reduce adult fearfulness. Hy-Line Brown® chicks (n = 1700) were reared inside across 16 weeks with three enrichment treatments: weekly changing novel objects, custom-designed perching/navigation structures, or no additional enrichments. Pullets were transferred to a free-range system at 16 weeks of age, with range access provided from 25 weeks. At 62 weeks, 135 hens were selected from the three rearing treatments and two ranging groups (indoor: no ranging and outdoor: daily ranging) based on individual radio-frequency identification tracking. Individual behavioural tests of tonic immobility, emergence, open field, and novel object (pen level) were carried out on hens. Spectrograms of vocalisations were analysed for the open field test, as well as computer vision tracking of hen locomotion. The results showed few effects of rearing treatments, with outdoor rangers less fearful than indoor hens. The latency to step in the open field test negatively correlated with hen feather coverage. These results show that individual variation in ranging behaviours is present even following rearing enrichment treatments, and subsequent range use might be an indicator of bird fearfulness.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 756: 144008, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293089

RESUMO

This study assessed spatiotemporal changes at Gya Glacier, the associated development of a proglacial lake, and reconstructed the 2014 outburst flood that struck Gya Village in the Trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh, India. This study analyzed and for the first time modeled a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) event in the Trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh. Glacier and glacial lakes changes were quantified using remote sensing data supplemented with field observations. Glacier ice-thickness and glacier-bed overdeepenings were modeled using a shear-stress based model, GlabTop (Glacier-bed Topography). The reconstruction of the 2014 GLOF and the potential hazard assessment of Gya Lake were carried out using the hydrodynamic model HEC-RAS; results were validated against ground-collected data. Temporal evaluation of satellite data revealed a 45.6% loss in the total glacier area between 1969 and 2019. The earliest snow-free image available for the region shows that a proglacial lake existed as early as 1969 with an area of 3.06 ha. The lake has expanded to ~11 ha in 2019. Results from the GlabTop model suggest that the lake could grow further up to 12 ha in the future. Field-based geomorphic indicators suggest that the 2014 GLOF event resulted from a piping failure of the frontal moraine destroying numerous agricultural fields, some buildings, downstream infrastructure, and eroded natural channel embankments. The reconstruction of the event revealed that 25% of the lake waters drained out with a peak discharge of 470 m3s-1, inundating an area of ~4 km2 around Gya Village. However, a complete breaching of the terminal moraine could result in an event that would be 5.5 times larger than the 2014 GLOF. Therefore, this study could be useful not only in planning disaster-resilient infrastructure around proglacial lake environments in the cold-arid Ladakh but also in framing mitigation plans to reduce risk for vulnerable downstream communities.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14366, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873830

RESUMO

Increasing human activity along the coast has amplified the extinction risk of inshore delphinids. Informed selection and prioritisation of areas for the conservation of inshore delphinids requires a comprehensive understanding of their distribution and habitat use. In this study, we applied an ensemble species distribution modelling approach, combining results of six modelling algorithms to identify areas of high probability of occurrence of the globally Vulnerable Australian humpback dolphin in northern Ningaloo Marine Park (NMP), north-western Australia. Model outputs were based on sighting data collected during systematic, boat-based surveys between 2013 and 2015, and in relation to various ecogeographic variables. Water depth and distance to coast were identified as the most important variables influencing dolphin presence, with dolphins showing a preference for shallow waters (5-15 m) less than 2 km from the coast. Areas of high probability (> 0.6) of dolphin occurrence were primarily (90%) in multiple use areas where extractive human activities are permitted, and were poorly represented in sanctuary (no-take) zones. This spatial mismatch emphasises the need to reassess for future spatial planning and marine park management plan reviews for NMP. Shallow, coastal waters identified here should be considered priority areas for the conservation of this Vulnerable species.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Golfinhos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Algoritmos , Animais , Baías , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Austrália Ocidental
7.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823900

RESUMO

The Western European Hedgehog (Erinaceous europaeus) is a nocturnal animal that is in decline in much of Europe, but the monitoring of this species is subjective, prone to error, and an inadequate basis for estimating population trends. Here, we report the use of Crenosoma striatum, a parasitic nematode specific to hedgehogs as definitive hosts, to detect hedgehog presence in the natural environment. This is achieved through collecting and sampling the parasites within their intermediate hosts, gastropoda, a group much simpler to locate and sample in both urban and rural habitats. C. striatum and Crenosoma vulpis were collected post-mortem from the lungs of hedgehogs and foxes, respectively. Slugs were collected in two sessions, during spring and autumn, from Skomer Island (n = 21), which is known to be free of hedgehogs (and foxes); and Pennard, Swansea (n = 42), known to have a healthy hedgehog population. The second internal transcribed spacer of parasite ribosomal DNA was used to develop a highly specific, novel, PCR based multiplex assay. Crenosoma striatum was found only at the site known to be inhabited by hedgehogs, at an average prevalence in gastropods of 10% in spring and autumn. The molecular test was highly specific: One mollusc was positive for both C. striatum and C. vulpis, and differentiation between the two nematode species was clear. This study demonstrates proof of principle for using detection of specific parasite DNA in easily sampled intermediate hosts to confirm the presence of an elusive nocturnal definitive host species. The approach has great potential as an adaptable, objective tool to supplement and support existing ecological survey methods.

8.
Curr Biol ; 30(15): 3024-3030.e4, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589911

RESUMO

Cultural behavior, which is transmitted among conspecifics through social learning [1], is found across various taxa [2-6]. Vertical social transmission from parent to offspring [7] is thought to be adaptive because of the parental generation being more skilled than maturing individuals. It is found throughout the animal kingdom, particularly in species with prolonged parental care, e.g., [8, 9]. Social learning can also occur among members of the same generation [4, 10, 11] or between older, non-parental individuals and younger generations [7] via horizontal or oblique transmission, respectively. Extensive work on primate culture has shown that horizontal transmission of foraging behavior is biased toward species with broad cultural repertoires [12] and those with increased levels of social tolerance [13, 14], such as great apes. Vertical social transmission has been established as the primary transmission mechanism of foraging behaviors in the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) population of Shark Bay, Western Australia [6, 9, 15, 16]. Here, we investigated the spread of another foraging strategy, "shelling" [17], whereby some dolphins in this population feed on prey trapped inside large marine gastropod shells. Using a multi-network version of "network-based diffusion analysis" (NBDA), we show that shelling behavior spreads primarily through non-vertical social transmission. By statistically accounting for both environmental and genetic influences, our findings thus represent the first evidence of non-vertical transmission of a foraging tactic in toothed whales. This research suggests there are multiple transmission pathways of foraging behaviors in dolphins, highlighting the similarities between cetaceans and great apes in the nature of the transmission of cultural behaviors. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/genética , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Aprendizado Social/fisiologia , Rede Social , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Austrália Ocidental
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1924): 20192944, 2020 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228413

RESUMO

Synchronous displays are hallmarks of many animal societies, ranging from the pulsing flashes of fireflies, to military marching in humans. Such displays are known to facilitate mate attraction or signal relationship quality. Across many taxa, synchronous male displays appear to be driven by competition, while synchronous displays in humans are thought to be unique in that they serve a cooperative function. Indeed, it is well established that human synchrony promotes cooperative endeavours and increases success in joint action tasks. We examine another system in which synchrony is tightly linked to cooperative behaviour. Male bottlenose dolphins form long-lasting, multi-level, cooperative alliances in which they engage in coordinated efforts to coerce single oestrus females. Previous work has revealed the importance of motor synchrony in dolphin alliance behaviour. Here, we demonstrate that allied dolphins also engage in acoustic coordination whereby males will actively match the tempo and, in some cases, synchronize the production of their threat vocalization when coercing females. This finding demonstrates that male dolphins are capable of acoustic coordination in a cooperative context and, moreover, suggests that both motor and acoustic coordination are features of coalitionary behaviour that are not limited to humans.


Assuntos
Acústica , Comportamento Animal , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/fisiologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
10.
Behav Ecol ; 31(2): 361-370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210525

RESUMO

Male alliances are an intriguing phenomenon in the context of reproduction since, in most taxa, males compete over an indivisible resource, female fertilization. Adult male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Shark Bay, Western Australia, form long-term, multilevel alliances to sequester estrus females. These alliances are therefore critical to male reproductive success. Yet, the long-term processes leading to the formation of such complex social bonds are still poorly understood. To identify the criteria by which male dolphins form social bonds with other males, we adopted a long-term approach by investigating the ontogeny of alliance formation. We followed the individual careers of 59 males for 14 years while they transitioned from adolescence (8-14 years of age) to adulthood (15-21 years old). Analyzing their genetic relationships and social associations in both age groups, we found that the vast majority of social bonds present in adolescence persisted through time. Male associations in early life predict alliance partners as adults. Kinship patterns explained associations during adolescence but not during adulthood. Instead, adult males associated with males of similar age. Our findings suggest that social bonds among peers, rather than kinship, play a central role in the development of adult male polyadic cooperation in dolphins.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 722: 137875, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199381

RESUMO

In September 2014, the Kashmir valley (north-west India) experienced a massive flood causing significant economic losses and fatalities. This disaster underlined the high vulnerability of the local population and raised questions regarding the resilience of Kashmiris to future floods. Although the magnitude of the 2014 flood has been considered unprecedented within the context of existing measurements, we argue that the short flow series may lead to spurious misinterpretation of the probability of such extreme events. Here we use a millennium-long record of past floods in Kashmir based on historical and tree-ring records to assess the probability of 2014-like flood events in the region. Our flood chronology (635 CE-nowadays) provides key insights into the recurrence of flood disasters and propels understanding of flood variability in this region over the last millennium, showing enhanced activity during the Little Ice Age. We find that high-impact floods have frequently disrupted the Kashmir valley in the past. Thus, the inclusion of historical records reveals large flood hazard levels in the region. The newly gained information also underlines the critical need to take immediate action in the region, so as to reduce the exposure of local populations and to increase their resilience, despite existing constraints in watershed management related to the Indus Water Treaty.


Assuntos
Desastres , Inundações , Previsões , Probabilidade
12.
Ecol Evol ; 9(12): 6986-6998, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380027

RESUMO

Genetic diversity is essential for populations to adapt to changing environments. Measures of genetic diversity are often based on selectively neutral markers, such as microsatellites. Genetic diversity to guide conservation management, however, is better reflected by adaptive markers, including genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Our aim was to assess MHC and neutral genetic diversity in two contrasting bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) populations in Western Australia-one apparently viable population with high reproductive output (Shark Bay) and one with lower reproductive output that was forecast to decline (Bunbury). We assessed genetic variation in the two populations by sequencing the MHC class II DQB, which encompasses the functionally important peptide binding regions (PBR). Neutral genetic diversity was assessed by genotyping twenty-three microsatellite loci. We confirmed that MHC is an adaptive marker in both populations. Overall, the Shark Bay population exhibited greater MHC diversity than the Bunbury population-for example, it displayed greater MHC nucleotide diversity. In contrast, the difference in microsatellite diversity between the two populations was comparatively low. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that viable populations typically display greater genetic diversity than less viable populations. The results also suggest that MHC variation is more closely associated with population viability than neutral genetic variation. Although the inferences from our findings are limited, because we only compared two populations, our results add to a growing number of studies that highlight the usefulness of MHC as a potentially suitable genetic marker for animal conservation. The Shark Bay population, which carries greater adaptive genetic diversity than the Bunbury population, is thus likely more robust to natural or human-induced changes to the coastal ecosystem it inhabits.

13.
Anim Cogn ; 22(6): 991-1000, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317352

RESUMO

Coercive mate guarding, where males use aggression to control female movements, is a form of sexual coercion which functions to constrain female mate choice. Non-human primates, for example, herd females to keep them away from competing males, but male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) also herd females to keep them close to their alliance partners. Indeed, pairs and trios of male dolphins work together to sequester single estrus females and defend them from competing alliances. Yet how males facilitate such coordination remains unknown. Here, we investigate the vocal behaviour of allied male bottlenose dolphins during the herding of individual females, examining how the production of whistles and 'pops' (a threat vocalisation) varied with behavioural state and inter-animal distances. Allied males produced both whistles and pops significantly more often and at higher rates during social interactions, though they differed in function. Whistle rates increased significantly when new individuals joined the consorting group, consistent with previous work showing that whistles are part of a greeting sequence for this species. Whistle matching also appeared to play a role in within-alliance coordination. Pop vocalisations increased significantly when the nearest male to the female changed, likely inducing the female to remain close as the males coordinate a guard switch. Building upon prior research examining female movements in response to pops, we show that males approach the female and current guard whilst popping, leading to a guard switch. Our results provide new insights into the use of vocal signals during cooperative mate guarding between allied male dolphins.


Assuntos
Agressão , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Social
14.
Biol Lett ; 15(7): 20190227, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311483

RESUMO

Behavioural differences among social groups can arise from differing ecological conditions, genetic predispositions and/or social learning. In the past, social learning has typically been inferred as responsible for the spread of behaviour by the exclusion of ecological and genetic factors. This 'method of exclusion' was used to infer that 'sponging', a foraging behaviour involving tool use in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) population in Shark Bay, Western Australia, was socially transmitted. However, previous studies were limited in that they never fully accounted for alternative factors, and that social learning, ecology and genetics are not mutually exclusive in causing behavioural variation. Here, we quantified the importance of social learning on the diffusion of sponging, for the first time explicitly accounting for ecological and genetic factors, using a multi-network version of 'network-based diffusion analysis'. Our results provide compelling support for previous findings that sponging is vertically socially transmitted from mother to (primarily female) offspring. This research illustrates the utility of social network analysis in elucidating the explanatory mechanisms behind the transmission of behaviour in wild animal populations.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Aprendizado Social , Animais , Ecologia , Feminino , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Austrália Ocidental
15.
Curr Biol ; 29(7): R239-R240, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939303

RESUMO

One of many challenges in the conservation of biodiversity is the recent trend in the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events [1]. The Shark Bay World Heritage Area, Western Australia, endured an unprecedented marine heatwave in 2011. Catastrophic losses of habitat-forming seagrass meadows followed [2], along with mass mortalities of invertebrate and fish communities [3]. Our long-term demographic data on Shark Bay's resident Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) population revealed a significant decline in female reproductive rates following the heatwave. Moreover, capture-recapture analyses indicated 5.9% and 12.2% post-heatwave declines in the survival of dolphins that use tools to forage and those that do not, respectively. This implies that the tool-using dolphins may have been somewhat buffered against the cascading effects of habitat loss following the heatwave by having access to a less severely affected foraging niche [4]. Overall, however, lower survival has persisted post-heatwave, suggesting that habitat loss following extreme weather events may have prolonged, negative impacts on even behaviourally flexible, higher-trophic level predators. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Calor Extremo/efeitos adversos , Longevidade , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Oceanos e Mares , Austrália Ocidental
16.
Curr Biol ; 28(12): 1993-1999.e3, 2018 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887310

RESUMO

Cooperation between allied individuals and groups is ubiquitous in human societies, and vocal communication is known to play a key role in facilitating such complex human behaviors [1, 2]. In fact, complex communication may be a feature of the kind of social cognition required for the formation of social alliances, facilitating both partner choice and the execution of coordinated behaviors [3]. As such, a compelling avenue for investigation is what role flexible communication systems play in the formation and maintenance of cooperative partnerships in other alliance-forming animals. Male bottlenose dolphins in some populations form complex multi-level alliances, where individuals cooperate in the pursuit and defense of an important resource: access to females [4]. These strong relationships can last for decades and are critical to each male's reproductive success [4]. Convergent vocal accommodation is used to signal social proximity to a partner or social group in many taxa [5, 6], and it has long been thought that allied male dolphins also converge onto a shared signal to broadcast alliance identity [5-8]. Here, we combine a decade of data on social interactions with dyadic relatedness estimates to show that male dolphins that form multi-level alliances in an open social network retain individual vocal labels that are distinct from those of their allies. Our results differ from earlier reports of signature whistle convergence among males that form stable alliance pairs. Instead, they suggest that individual vocal labels play a central role in the maintenance of differentiated relationships within complex nested alliances.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/psicologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Masculino
18.
Diseases ; 5(4)2017 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29117111

RESUMO

Chronic pain in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), NIH category III is difficult to treat without understanding its cause. The main symptom of chronic prostatitis is pain. In this study, we would like to explain the origin of pain in men with CP/CPPS and its therapy. Forty-five patients with CP/CPPS have received thermobalancing therapy (TT) enabled by Dr Allen's therapeutic device (DATD) for six months as mono-therapy. The control group comprised 45 men with CP/CPPS did not receive TT. Before and after six months the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) scores, prostatic volume (PV) by ultrasound measurement and uroflowmetry (Qmax) were compared between the groups. Baseline characteristics have shown no difference. After TT, significant improvements in pain score (p < 0.001), quality of life index (QoL) (p < 0.001), decrease of PV (p < 0.001), and increase Qmax (p < 0.001) were determined. There were not noteworthy changes in the control group. Chronic pain due to CP/CPPS happens as a consequence and challenges at the capillary level, namely pathological capillary activity. In response to initial triggers-such as inflammation, cold, psychological and other factors-constriction and spontaneous expansion of capillaries follows, creating a continuous secondary trigger-i.e., the micro-focus of hypothermia-which in turn provokes expansion of capillaries. The additional tissue due to vascular changes into the prostate increases pressure on nociceptors causing pain. TT relieves chronic pelvic pain by eliminating the lasting focus of hypothermia in the affected prostate tissue.

19.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 2017 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072571

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) type-III is a common disorder characterized by pelvic pain and lower urinary tract symptoms in the absence of active infection. The aim of this clinical study is to evaluate the results of thermobalancing therapy (TT) and to discus the possible etiology and pathophysiology of CP/CPPS. METHODS: 45 patients with CP/CPPS used TT by applying therapeutic device, namely Dr Allen's therapeutic device (DATD), for six months as monotherapy. The control group comprised 45 men who did not receive TT. The National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) scores, prostatic volume (PV) by ultrasound measurement, and uroflowmetry (Qmax) were compared between both groups. RESULTS: Compared to controls, the treatment group showed significant improvements from baseline to endpoint in pain score, (p<0.001), quality of life index (QoL) (p<0.001), PV (p<0.001), and Qmax (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical study has confirmed that six-month TT with DATD reduces CP/CPPS symptoms dramatically. DATD uses emitted body heat as a source of energy to the projection of prostate for a pronged period of time, which removes microfocus of hypothermia in the prostate tissue gradually, improving blood circulation and consequently relieving the problem. Thus, the etiology and pathophysiology of CP/CPPS may be viewed as a chain of events in which initial inflammation in the prostate tissue leads to spontaneous capillary expansion, increasing pressure in the gland that sets up secondary, continuous-trigger, microfocus of hypothermia. It makes the problem chronic. TT, by eliminating this focus of hypothermia and pressure in the prostate gland, provides pelvic pain relief and improves QoL of men with CP/CPPS. The effectiveness of therapy allows us to recommend DATD for patients with CP/CPPS.

20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4995, 2017 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28694444

RESUMO

The incidental capture of wildlife in fishing gear presents a global conservation challenge. As a baseline to inform assessments of the impact of bycatch on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) interacting with an Australian trawl fishery, we conducted an aerial survey to estimate dolphin abundance across the fishery. Concurrently, we carried out boat-based dolphin photo-identification to assess short-term fidelity to foraging around trawlers, and used photographic and genetic data to infer longer-term fidelity to the fishery. We estimated abundance at ≈ 2,300 dolphins (95% CI = 1,247-4,214) over the ≈ 25,880-km2 fishery. Mark-recapture estimates yielded 226 (SE = 38.5) dolphins associating with one trawler and some individuals photographed up to seven times over 12 capture periods. Moreover, photographic and genetic re-sampling over three years confirmed that some individuals show long-term fidelity to trawler-associated foraging. Our study presents the first abundance estimate for any Australian pelagic dolphin community and documents individuals associating with trawlers over days, months and years. Without trend data or correction factors for dolphin availability, the impact of bycatch on this dolphin population's conservation status remains unknown. These results should be taken into account by management agencies assessing the impact of fisheries-related mortality on this protected species.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/fisiologia , Animais , Austrália , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Dinâmica Populacional , Inquéritos e Questionários
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