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Sci Adv ; 5(7): eaaw3651, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328163


Electrogenic cable bacteria can couple spatially separated redox reaction zones in marine sediments using multicellular filaments as electron conductors. Reported as generally absent from disturbed sediments, we have found subsurface cable aggregations associated with tubes of the parchment worm Chaetopterus variopedatus in otherwise intensely bioturbated deposits. Cable bacteria tap into tubes, which act as oxygenated conduits, creating a three-dimensional conducting network extending decimeters into sulfidic deposits. By elevating pH, promoting Mn, Fe-oxide precipitation in tube linings, and depleting S around tubes, they enhance tube preservation and favorable biogeochemical conditions within the tube. The presence of disseminated filaments a few cells in length away from oxygenated interfaces and the reported ability of cable bacteria to use a range of redox reaction couples suggest that these microbes are ubiquitous facultative opportunists and that long filaments are an end-member morphological adaptation to relatively stable redox domains.

Bactérias , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água
Nature ; 525(7568): 234-8, 2015 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26354482


The amount of ice present in clouds can affect cloud lifetime, precipitation and radiative properties. The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice-nucleating particles. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice. Sea-spray aerosol contains large amounts of organic material that is ejected into the atmosphere during bubble bursting at the organically enriched sea-air interface or sea surface microlayer. Here we show that organic material in the sea surface microlayer nucleates ice under conditions relevant for mixed-phase cloud and high-altitude ice cloud formation. The ice-nucleating material is probably biogenic and less than approximately 0.2 micrometres in size. We find that exudates separated from cells of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana nucleate ice, and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates is a likely candidate for the observed ice-nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. Global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, in combination with our measurements, suggest that marine organic material may be an important source of ice-nucleating particles in remote marine environments such as the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean.

Atmosfera/química , Gelo , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Ar , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Regiões Árticas , Diatomáceas/química , Congelamento , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Fitoplâncton/química , Água do Mar/química
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(44): 19882-94, 2011 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21912788


Biogenic particles have the potential to affect the formation of ice crystals in the atmosphere with subsequent consequences for the hydrological cycle and climate. We present laboratory observations of heterogeneous ice nucleation in immersion and deposition modes under atmospherically relevant conditions initiated by Nannochloris atomus and Emiliania huxleyi, marine phytoplankton with structurally and chemically distinct cell walls. Temperatures at which freezing, melting, and water uptake occur are observed using optical microscopy. The intact and fragmented unarmoured cells of N. atomus in aqueous NaCl droplets enhance ice nucleation by 10-20 K over the homogeneous freezing limit and can be described by a modified water activity based ice nucleation approach. E. huxleyi cells covered by calcite plates do not enhance droplet freezing temperatures. Both species nucleate ice in the deposition mode at an ice saturation ratio, S(ice), as low as ~1.2 and below 240 K, however, for each, different nucleation modes occur at warmer temperatures. These observations show that markedly different biogenic surfaces have both comparable and contrasting effects on ice nucleation behaviour depending on the presence of the aqueous phase and the extent of supercooling and water vapour supersaturation. We derive heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, J(het), and cumulative ice nuclei spectra, K, for quantification and analysis using time-dependent and time-independent approaches, respectively. Contact angles, α, derived from J(het)via immersion freezing depend on T, a(w), and S(ice). For deposition freezing, α can be described as a function of S(ice) only. The different approaches yield different predictions of atmospheric ice crystal numbers primarily due to the time evolution allowed for the time-dependent approach with implications for the evolution of mixed-phase and ice clouds.

Gases/química , Gelo , Água/química , Clorófitas/química , Congelamento , Haptófitas/química , Transição de Fase , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Termodinâmica , Fatores de Tempo , Temperatura de Transição
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 65(1): 74-87, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18479447


Like Bacteria, Archaea occur in a wide variety of environments, only some of which can be considered 'extreme'. We compare archaeal diversity, as represented by 173 16S rRNA gene libraries described in published reports, to bacterial diversity in 79 libraries from the same source environments. An objective assessment indicated that 114 archaeal libraries and 45 bacterial libraries were large enough to yield stable estimates of total phylotype richness. Archaeal libraries were seldom as large or diverse as bacterial libraries from the same environments. However, a relatively larger proportion of libraries were large enough to effectively capture rare as well as dominant phylotypes in archaeal communities. In contrast to bacterial libraries, the number of phylotypes did not correlate with library size; thus, 'larger' may not necessarily be 'better' for determining diversity in archaeal libraries. Differences in diversity suggest possible differences in ecological roles of Archaea and Bacteria; however, information is lacking on relative abundances and metabolic activities within the sampled communities, as well as the possible existence of microhabitats. The significance of phylogenetic diversity as opposed to functional diversity remains unclear, and should be a high priority for continuing research.

Archaea/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Archaea/genética , Archaea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodiversidade , DNA Arqueal/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico , Biblioteca Gênica , Genes de RNAr , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 57(2): 169-81, 2006 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16867136


In spite of the nonsulfidic conditions and abundant reactive iron(III) commonly found in mobile tropical deltaic muds, genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsr) were successfully amplified from the upper approximately 1 m of coastal deposits sampled along French Guiana and in the Gulf of Papua. The dsr sequences retrieved were highly diverse, were generally represented in both study regions and fell into six large phylogenetic groupings: Deltaproteobacteria, Thermodesulfovibrio groups, Firmicutes and three groups without known cultured representatives. The spatial and temporal distribution of dsr sequences strongly supports the contention that the sulfate-reducing prokaryote communities in mobile mud environments are cosmopolitan and stable over a period of years. The decrease in the (35)SO(4) (2-) tracer demonstrates that, despite abundant reactive sedimentary iron(III) ( approximately 350-400 mumol g(-1)), the sulfate-reducing prokaryotes present are active, with the highest levels of sulfide being generated in the upper zones of the cores (0-30 cm). Both the time course of the (35)S-sulfide tracer activity and the lack of reduced sulfur in sediments demonstrate virtually complete anaerobic loss of solid phase sulfides. We propose a pathway of organic matter oxidation involving at least 5-25% of the remineralized carbon, wherein sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing prokaryotes is cyclically oxidized biotically or abiotically by metal oxides.

Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Sulfito de Hidrogênio Redutase/genética , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Bactérias/classificação , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Compostos Férricos/análise , Geografia , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Guiné , Oxirredução , Papua Nova Guiné , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Enxofre/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Clima Tropical , Microbiologia da Água
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 47(2): 161-77, 2004 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19712332


We evaluate the substantial amount of information accumulated on bacterial diversity in a variety of environments and address several fundamental questions, focusing on aquatic systems but including other environments to provide a broader context. Bacterial diversity data were extracted from 225 16S rDNA libraries described in published reports, representing a variety of aquatic and non-aquatic environments. Libraries were predominantly composed of rare phylotypes that appeared only once or twice in the library, and the number of phylotypes observed was correlated with library size (implying that few libraries are exhaustive samples of diversity in the source community). Coverage, the estimated proportion of phylotypes in the environment represented in the library, ranged widely but on average was remarkably high and not correlated with library size. Phylotype richness was calculated by methods based on the frequency of occurrence of different phylotypes in 194 libraries that provided appropriate data. For 90% of aquatic-system libraries, and for 79% of non-aquatic libraries, the estimated phylotype richness was <200 phylotypes. Nearly all of the larger estimates were in aquatic sediments, digestive systems and soils. However, the approaches used to estimate phylotype richness may yield underestimates when libraries are too small. A procedure is described to provide an objective means of determining when a library is large enough to provide a stable and unbiased estimate of phylotype richness. A total of 56 libraries, including 44 from aquatic systems, were considered 'large enough' to yield stable estimates suitable for comparing richness among environments. Few significant differences in phylotype richness were observed among aquatic environments. For one of two richness estimators, the average phylotype richness was significantly lower in hyperthermal environments than in sediment and bacterioplankton, but no other significant differences among aquatic environments were observed. In general, and with demonstrated exceptions, published studies have captured a large fraction of bacterial diversity in aquatic systems. In most cases, the estimated bacterial diversity is lower than we would have expected, although many estimates should be considered minimum values. We suggest that on local scales, aquatic bacterial diversity is much less than any predictions of their global diversity, and remains a tractable subject for study. The global-scale diversity of aquatic Bacteria, on the other hand, may be beyond present capabilities for effective study.

Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Biblioteca Gênica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbiologia da Água , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie