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1.
Blood ; 128(2): 227-38, 2016 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27099149

RESUMO

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a human disorder characterized by defective Fas signaling, resulting in chronic benign lymphoproliferation and accumulation of TCRαß(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) double-negative T (DNT) cells. Although their phenotype resembles that of terminally differentiated or exhausted T cells, lack of KLRG1, high eomesodermin, and marginal T-bet expression point instead to a long-lived memory state with potent proliferative capacity. Here we show that despite their terminally differentiated phenotype, human ALPS DNT cells exhibit substantial mitotic activity in vivo. Notably, hyperproliferation of ALPS DNT cells is associated with increased basal and activation-induced phosphorylation of serine-threonine kinases Akt and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin abrogated survival and proliferation of ALPS DNT cells, but not of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells in vitro. In vivo, mTOR inhibition reduced proliferation and abnormal differentiation by DNT cells. Importantly, increased mitotic activity and hyperactive mTOR signaling was also observed in recently defined CD4(+) or CD8(+) precursor DNT cells, and mTOR inhibition specifically reduced these cells in vivo, indicating abnormal programming of Fas-deficient T cells before the DNT stage. Thus, our results identify the mTOR pathway as a major regulator of lymphoproliferation and aberrant differentiation in ALPS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/imunologia , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transativadores/imunologia
2.
J Immunol ; 195(7): 3139-48, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26324773

RESUMO

Recently, a novel subset of TCRαß(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) double-negative (DN) T cells was described to suppress immune responses in both mice and humans. Moreover, in murine models, infusion and/or activation of DN T cells specifically suppressed alloreactive T cells and prevented the development of graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We demonstrated that human DN T cells, like their murine counterparts, are highly potent suppressor cells of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and other lymphopenic conditions, IL-7 plays an important role in the reconstitution, survival, and homeostasis of the T cell compartment. Because IL-7 was shown to interfere with T cell functionality, we asked whether IL-7 affects the functionality of human DN T cells. Intriguingly, IL-7 diminished the suppressive activity of DN T cells toward allogeneic CD4(+) effector T cells. Of interest, our studies revealed that IL-7 activates the Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in human DN T cells. Importantly, selective inhibition of the protein kinases Akt or mTOR reversed the IL-7 effect, thereby restoring the functionality of DN T cells, whereas inhibition of other central T cell signaling pathways did not. Further analyses suggest that the IL-7/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade downregulates anergy-associated genes and upregulates activation- and proliferation-associated factors that may be crucial for DN T cell functionality. These findings indicate that IL-7 and Akt/mTOR signaling are critical factors for the suppressive capacity of DN T cells. Targeting of these pathways by pharmacological agents may restore and/or enhance DN T cell functionality in graft-versus-host disease.


Assuntos
Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Interleucina-7/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/imunologia , Antígenos CD4/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Antígenos CD8/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores
3.
Blood ; 124(6): 851-60, 2014 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24894771

RESUMO

Accumulation of CD3(+) T-cell receptor (TCR)αß(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative T cells (DNT) is a hallmark of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). DNT origin and differentiation pathways remain controversial. Here we show that human ALPS DNT have features of terminally differentiated effector memory T cells reexpressing CD45RA(+) (TEMRA), but are CD27(+)CD28(+)KLRG1(-) and do not express the transcription factor T-bet. This unique phenotype was also detected among CD4(+) or CD8(+) ALPS TEMRA cells. T-cell receptor ß deep sequencing revealed a significant fraction of shared CDR3 sequences between ALPS DNT and both CD4(+) and CD8(+)TEMRA cells. Moreover, in ALPS patients with a germ line FAS mutation and somatic loss of heterozygosity, in whom biallelic mutant cells can be tracked by absent Fas expression, Fas-negative T cells accumulated not only among DNT, but also among CD4(+) and CD8(+)TEMRA cells. These data indicate that in human Fas deficiency DNT cannot only derive from CD8(+), but also from CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, defective Fas signaling leads to aberrant transcriptional programs and differentiation of subsets of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Accumulation of these cells before their double-negative state appears to be an important early event in the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferation in ALPS patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/imunologia , Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/patologia , Receptor fas/deficiência , Receptor fas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Immunotoxicol ; 11(4): 328-36, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24512329

RESUMO

Despite the transient immunosuppressive properties of local radiotherapy (RT), this classical treatment modality of solid tumors is capable of inducing immunostimulatory forms of tumor-cell death. The resulting 'immunotoxicity' in the tumor, but not in healthy tissues, may finally lead to immune-mediated destruction of the tumor. However, little is known about the best irradiation scheme in this setting. This study examines the immunological effects of differently irradiated human colorectal tumor cells on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). Human SW480 tumor cells were irradiated with a norm-fractionation scheme (5 × 2 Gy), a hypo-fractionated protocol (3 × 5 Gy), and with a high single irradiation dose (radiosurgery; 1 × 15 Gy). Subsequently, human immature DC (iDC) were co-incubated with supernatants (SN) of these differently treated tumor cells. Afterwards, DC were analyzed regarding the expression of maturation markers, the release of cytokines, and the potential to stimulate CD4(+) T-cells. The co-incubation of iDC with SN of tumor cells exposed to norm- or hypo-fractionated RT resulted in a significantly increased secretion of the immune activating cytokines IL-12p70, IL-8, IL-6, and TNFα, compared to iDC co-incubated with SN of tumor cells that received a high single irradiation dose or were not irradiated. In addition, DC-maturation markers CD80, CD83, and CD25 were also exclusively elevated after co-incubation with the SN of fractionated irradiated tumor cells. Furthermore, the SN of tumor cells that were irradiated with norm- or hypo-fractionated RT triggered iDC to stimulate CD4(+) T-cells not only in an allogenic, but also in an antigen-specific manner like mature DC. Collectively, these results demonstrate that norm- and hypo-fractionated RT induces a fast human colorectal tumor-cell death with immunogenic potential that can trigger DC maturation and activation in vitro. Such findings may contribute to the improvement of irradiation protocols for the most beneficial induction of anti-tumor immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/radioterapia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos da radiação , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Protocolos Antineoplásicos , Morte Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Comunicação Parácrina
5.
Biochem J ; 441(2): 609-21, 2012 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21950347

RESUMO

The reaction of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with peroxynitrite (a key mediator in numerous pathological states) was studied in vitro and in different cellular models. The results show that H2S can scavenge peroxynitrite with a corresponding second order rate constant of 3.3 ± 0.4 × 10³ M⁻¹·s⁻¹ at 23°C (8 ± 2 × 10³ M⁻¹·s⁻¹ at 37°C). Activation parameters for the reaction (ΔH‡, ΔS‡ and ΔV‡) revealed that the mechanism is rather associative than multi-step free-radical as expected for other thiols. This is in agreement with a primary formation of a new reaction product characterized by spectral and computational studies as HSNO2 (thionitrate), predominantly present as sulfinyl nitrite, HS(O)NO. This is the first time a thionitrate has been shown to be generated under biologically relevant conditions. The potential of HS(O)NO to serve as a NO donor in a pH-dependent manner and its ability to release NO inside the cells has been demonstrated. Thus sulfide modulates the chemistry and biological effects of peroxynitrite by its scavenging and formation of a new chemical entity (HSNO2) with the potential to release NO, suppressing the pro-apoptotic, oxidative and nitrative properties of peroxynitrite. Physiological concentrations of H2S abrogated peroxynitrite-induced cell damage as demonstrated by the: (i) inhibition of apoptosis and necrosis caused by peroxynitrite; (ii) prevention of protein nitration; and (iii) inhibition of PARP-1 [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1] activation in cellular models, implying that a major part of the cytoprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide may be mediated by modulation of peroxynitrite chemistry, in particular under inflammatory conditions.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/síntese química , Nitritos/síntese química , Ácido Peroxinitroso/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/química , Células Jurkat , Cinética , Ácido Peroxinitroso/química , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1 , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases
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