Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 8 de 8
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Appl Biomech ; 37(4): 343-350, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051696

RESUMO

The objective was to examine the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on lower-extremity joint angles and intralimb coordination in recruit-aged women. Twelve women walked, ran, and forced marched at body weight and with loads of +25%, and +45% of body weight on an instrumented treadmill with infrared cameras. Joint angles were assessed in the sagittal plane. Intralimb coordination of the thigh-shank and shank-foot couple was assessed with continuous relative phase. Mean absolute relative phase (entire stride) and deviation phase (stance phase) were calculated from continuous relative phase. At heel strike, forced marching exhibited greater (P < .001) hip flexion, knee extension, and ankle plantar flexion compared with running. At mid-stance, knee flexion (P = .007) and ankle dorsiflexion (P = .04) increased with increased load magnitude for all locomotion patterns. Forced marching (P = .009) demonstrated a "stiff-legged" locomotion pattern compared with running, evidenced by the more in-phase mean absolute relative phase values. Running (P = .03) and walking (P = .003) had greater deviation phase than forced marching. Deviation phase increased for running (P = .03) and walking (P < .001) with increased load magnitude but not for forced marching. With loads of >25% of body weight, forced marching may increase risk of injury due to inhibited energy attenuation up the kinetic chain and lack of variability to disperse force across different supportive structures.


Assuntos
Marcha , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Caminhada , Suporte de Carga , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho
2.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(10): 932-936, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this analysis was to describe and compare the incidence and pattern of musculoskeletal injuries in women and men during the United States Marine Corps Ground Combat Element Integrated Task Force work-up and assessment phases in sex-integrated units. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. METHODS: Certified athletic trainers and Navy corpsmen reported injury data for 302 Marines (women: 27.8%, men: 72.2%). Injury frequency, location, cause, type, and activity during injury were described. Fisher's exact tests were used to compare proportions of injured women and men. The cost of injuries was calculated using the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. RESULTS: A greater proportion of women (40.5%) sustained an injury compared with men (18.8%, p < 0.001). The lower extremity was the most frequent location for injury (women: 68% of injuries, men: 60%). The most frequent sub-location was the hip (24%) in women and foot/toes (26%) in men. Marching under load was the most common cause (women: 64%, men: 48%). Most injuries occurred during physical training (women: 78%, men: 66%), and were classified as pain/spasm/ache (women: 56%, men: 36%). The total lifetime cost of these injuries that occurred among 302 Marines was approximately $1.4 million U.S. dollars. CONCLUSIONS: The high risk of lower extremity injuries that occurred while marching under load during physical training, and the greater risk of injuries among women compared to men, indicates the need for further research to identify the components of combat Military Occupational Specialty specific training that could be modified to mitigate injuries.


Assuntos
Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
J Appl Biomech ; : 1-6, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914419

RESUMO

Warfighter performance may be compromised through the impact of load carriage on dynamic postural stability. Men and women may experience this impact to differing extents due to postural stability differences. Therefore, the authors investigated the effect of load magnitude on dynamic postural stability in men and women during a landing and stabilization task. Dynamic postural stability of 32 subjects (16 women) was assessed during the unilateral landing of submaximal jumps under 3 load conditions: +0%, +20%, and +30% body weight. Dynamic postural stability was measured using the dynamic postural stability index, which is calculated from ground reaction force data sampled at 1200 Hz. Two-way mixed-measures analysis of variance compared dynamic postural stability index scores between sexes and loads. Dynamic postural stability index scores were significantly affected by load (P = .001) but not by sex or by the sex by load interaction (P > .05). Dynamic postural stability index scores increased between the 0% (0.359 ± 0.041), 20% (0.396 ± 0.034), and 30% (0.420 ± 0.028) body weight conditions. Increased load negatively affects dynamic postural stability with similar performance decrements displayed by men and women. Men and women warfighters may experience similar performance decrements under load carriage conditions of similar relative magnitudes.

4.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 6(2): 2325967118756283, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29497623

RESUMO

Background: Musculoskeletal injuries to the extremities are a primary concern for the United States (US) military. One possible injury risk factor in this population is side-to-side strength imbalance. Purpose: To examine the odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury in US Marine Corps Ground Combat Element Integrated Task Force volunteers based on side-to-side strength differences in isokinetic shoulder strength. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Male (n = 219) and female (n = 91) Marines were included in this analysis. Peak torque values from 5 shoulder internal/external rotation repetitions were averaged and normalized to body weight. The difference in side-to-side strength measurements was calculated as the absolute value of the limb difference divided by the mean peak torque of the dominant limb. Participants were placed into groups based on the magnitude of these differences: <10%, 10% to 20%, and >20%. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated. Results: When separated by sex, 13.2% of men reported an injury, while 5.5% of women reported an injury. Female Marines with >20% internal rotation side-to-side strength differences demonstrated increased odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with female Marines with <10% strength differences (OR, 15.4; 95% CI, 1.4-167.2; P = .03 ) and female Marines with 10% to 20% strength differences (OR, 13.9; 95% CI, 1.3-151.2; P = .04). No significant ORs were demonstrated in male Marines. Conclusion: Marines with larger magnitude internal rotation strength differences demonstrated increased odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with those with lesser magnitude differences. Additionally, female sex appears to drastically affect the increased odds of reporting shoulder injuries (OR, 13.9-15.4) with larger magnitude differences (ie, >20%) compared with those with lesser magnitude differences (ie, <10% and 10%-20%). The retrospective cohort design of this study cannot delineate cause and effect but establishes a relationship between female Marines and greater odds of larger magnitude strength differences after returning from an injury.

5.
Growth Horm IGF Res ; 32: 33-40, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27979730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to: 1) evaluate differential responses of the IGF-I system to either a calisthenic- or resistance exercise-based program and 2) determine if this chronic training altered the IGF-I system during an acute resistance exercise protocol. DESIGN: Thirty-two volunteers were randomly assigned into a resistance exercise-based training (RT) group (n=15, 27±5y, 174±6cm, 81±12kg) or a calisthenic-based training group (CT) (n=17, 29±5y, 179±8cm, 85±10kg) and all underwent 8weeks of exercise training (1.5h/d, 5d/wk). Basal blood was sampled pre- (Week 0), mid- (Week 4) and post-training (Week 8) and assayed for IGF-I system analytes. An acute resistance exercise protocol (AREP) was conducted preand post-training consisting of 6 sets of 10 repetitions in the squat with two minutes of rest in between sets and the IGF-I system analytes measured. A repeated measures ANOVA (p≤0.05) was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: No interaction or within-subject effects were observed for basal total IGF-I, free IGF-I, or IGFBP-1. IGFBP-2 (pre; 578.6±295.7post-training; 14.3±1.9µg/mL; p=0.01). An interaction was observed for the RT group as IGFBP-3 increased from pre to mid (3462.4±216.4 vs. 3962.2±227.9ng/mL), but was not significant at the post-training time point (3770.3±228.7ng/mL). AREP caused all analytes except free IGF-I (40% decrease) to increase (17-27%; p=0.001) during exercise, returning to baseline concentration into recovery. CONCLUSION: Post-training, bioavailable IGF-I recovered more rapidly post-exercise. 8wks of chronic physical training resulted in increased basal IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3, decreased ALS, increased pre-AREP free IGF-I and a more rapid free IGF-I recovery post-AREP. While total IGF-I was insensitive to chronic physical training, changes were observed with circulating IGFBPs and bioavailable IGF-I. To glean the most robust information on the effects of exercise training, studies must move beyond relying solely on total IGF-I measures and should consider IGFBPs and bioavailable IGF-I as these components of the circulating IGF-I system are essential determinants of IGF-I physiological action.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Treinamento de Força , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Humanos , Masculino
6.
J Sport Rehabil ; 25(2): 155-63, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26308679

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Knee injuries commonly occur in later stages of competition, indicating that fatigue may influence dynamic knee stability. Force sense (FS) is a submodality of proprioception influenced by muscle mechanoreceptors, which, if negatively affected by fatigue, may result in less-effective neuromuscular control. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of peripheral fatigue on FS of the quadriceps and hamstrings. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study design. PARTICIPANTS: 20 healthy and physically active women and men (age 23.4 ± 2.7 y, mass 69.5 ± 10.9 kg, height 169.7 ± 9.4 cm). INTERVENTIONS: Fatigue was induced during a protocol with 2 sets of 40 repetitions, and the last set was truncated at 90 repetitions or stopped if torque production dropped below 25% of peak torque. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: FS of the hamstrings and quadriceps was tested on separate days before and after 3 sets of isokinetic knee flexion and extension to fatigue by examining the ability to produce a target isometric torque (15% MVIC) with and without visual feedback (FS error). Electromyographic data of the tested musculature were collected to calculate and determine median frequency shift. T tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were conducted to examine prefatigue and postfatigue FS error for flexion and extension. RESULTS: Despite verification of fatigue via torque-production decrement and shift in median frequency, no significant differences were observed in FS error for either knee flexion (pre 0.54 ± 2.28 N·m, post 0.47 ± 1.62 N·m) or extension (pre -0.28 ± 2.69 N·m, post -0.21 ± 1.78 N·m) prefatigue compared with the postfatigue condition. CONCLUSIONS: Although previous research has demonstrated that peripheral fatigue negatively affects threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM), it did not affect FS as measured in this study. The peripheral-fatigue protocol may have a greater effect on the mechanoreceptors responsible for TTDPM than those responsible for FS. Further investigation into the effects of fatigue across various modes of proprioception is warranted.


Assuntos
Músculos Isquiossurais/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Joelho/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Propriocepção , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Traumatismos do Joelho/etiologia , Traumatismos do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Risco , Torque , Adulto Jovem
7.
US Army Med Dep J ; : 22-32, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26101903

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The repeal of the Direct Ground Combat Assignment Rule has renewed focus on examining performance capabilities of female military personnel and their ability to occupy previously restricted military occupational specialties. Previous research has revealed female Soldiers suffer a greater proportion of musculoskeletal injuries compared to males, including a significantly higher proportion of lower extremity, knee, and overuse injuries. Potential differences may also exist in musculoskeletal, biomechanical, and physiological characteristics between male and female Soldiers requiring implementation of gender-specific training in order to mitigate injury risk and enhance performance. PURPOSE: To examine differences in musculoskeletal, biomechanical, and physiological characteristics in male and female Soldiers. METHODS: A total of 406 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) Soldiers (348 male; 58 female) participated. Subjects underwent testing for flexibility, isokinetic and isometric strength (percent body weight), single-leg balance, lower body biomechanics during a stop jump and drop landing, body composition, anaerobic power/capacity, and aerobic capacity. Independent t tests assessed between-group comparisons. RESULTS: Women demonstrated significantly greater flexibility (P<.01-P<.001) and better balance (P≤.001) than men. Men demonstrated significantly greater strength (P≤.001), aerobic capacity (47.5±7.6 vs 40.3±5.4 ml/kg/min, P<.001), anaerobic power (13.3±2.1 vs 9.5±1.7 W/kg, P<.001), and anaerobic capacity (7.8±1.0 vs 6.1±0.8 W/kg, P<.001) and lower body fat (20.1±7.5 vs 26.7±5.7 (%BF), P<.001). Women demonstrated significantly greater hip flexion and knee valgus at initial contact during both the stop jump and drop landing tasks and greater knee flexion at initial contact during the drop landing task (P<.05-P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Gender differences exist in biomechanical, musculoskeletal, and physiological characteristics. Sex-specific interventions may aid in improving such characteristics to optimize physical readiness and decrease the injury risk during gender-neutral training, and decreasing between-sex variability in performance characteristics may result in enhanced overall unit readiness. Identification of sex-specific differences in injury patterns and characteristics should facilitate adjustments in training in order for both sexes to meet the gender-neutral occupational demands for physically demanding military occupational specialties.


Assuntos
Militares , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Estados Unidos , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia
8.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 44(5): 793-9, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22051572

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exercise improves insulin resistance and is a first line for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. The extent, however, to which these responses are dose dependent is not known. The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercise dose was associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity after 4 months of exercise training in previously sedentary adults. METHODS: Fifty-five healthy volunteers participated in a 16-wk supervised endurance exercise intervention with a pre/postintervention design. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, peak oxygen uptake by a graded exercise test, and body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The exercise intervention consisted of three to five sessions per week with a minimum of three sessions supervised. A ramped exercise prescription protocol was used to achieve 75% of peak HR for 45 min per session. Exercise dose, expressed as average kilocalories expended per week, was computed as the product of exercise intensity, duration and frequency. RESULTS: Improved insulin sensitivity was significantly related to exercise dose in a graded dose-response relationship. No evidence of threshold or maximal dose-response effect was observed. Age and gender did not influence this dose-response relationship. Exercise intensity was also significantly related to improvements in insulin sensitivity, whereas frequency was not. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies a graded dose-response relationship between exercise dose and improvements in insulin sensitivity. The implication of this observation is of importance for the adaptation of exercise prescription in clinical situations.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Isomaltose/análogos & derivados , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Calorimetria Indireta , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/prevenção & controle , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isomaltose/administração & dosagem , Lactatos/sangue , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...