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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e019519, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619972

RESUMO

The Go Red for Women movement was initiated by the American Heart Association (AHA) in the early 2000s to raise awareness concerning cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women. In 2016, the AHA funded 5 research centers across the United States to advance our knowledge of the risks and presentation of CVD that are specific to women. This report highlights the findings of the centers, showing how insufficient sleep, sedentariness, and pregnancy-related complications may increase CVD risk in women, as well as presentation and factors associated with myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in women. These projects were augmented by collaborative ancillary studies assessing the relationships between various lifestyle behaviors, including nightly fasting duration, mindfulness, and behavioral and anthropometric risk factors and CVD risk, as well as metabolomic profiling of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in women. The Go Red for Women Strategically Focused Research Network enhanced the evidence base related to heart disease in women, promoting awareness of the female-specific factors that influence CVD.

2.
Metabolism ; 116: 154706, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are established cardiovascular risk factors that correlate with each other. We hypothesized that other cardiovascular risk factors could affect their relationship. METHODS: We tested for interactions of 24 study variables related to dyslipidemia, diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, inflammation and coagulation with baseline Lp(a) on change in CAC volume and density over 9.5 years in 5975 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants, free of apparent cardiovascular disease at baseline. RESULTS: Elevated Lp(a) was associated with larger absolute increase in CAC volume (3.21 and 4.45 mm3/year higher for Lp(a) ≥30 versus <30 mg/dL, and Lp(a) ≥50 versus <50 mg/dL, respectively), but not relative change in CAC volume. No association was found with change in CAC density when assessing continuous ln-transformed Lp(a). The association between elevated Lp(a) (≥30 mg/dL) and absolute change in CAC volume was greater in participants with higher circulating levels of interleukin-2 soluble receptor α, soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 1 and fibrinogen (15.33, 11.81 and 7.02 mm3/year in quartile 4, compared to -3.44, -0.59 and 1.91 mm3/year in quartile 1, respectively). No significant interaction was found for other study variables. Similar interactions were seen when assessing Lp(a) levels ≥50 mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated Lp(a) was associated with an absolute increase in CAC volume, especially in participants with higher levels of selected markers of inflammation and coagulation. These results suggest Lp(a) as a potential biomarker for CAC volume progression.

3.
J Occup Environ Med ; Publish Ahead of Print2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research on the effect of occupation on cardiovascular health (CVH) among older women is limited. METHODS: Each of the 7 American Heart Association's CVH metrics was scored as ideal (1) or non-ideal (0) and summed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of poor overall CVH (CVH score of 0-2) comparing women employed in each of the top 20 occupational categories to those not employed in that category, adjusting for age, marital status, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: 1) Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks; 2) first-line supervisors of sales workers; 3) first-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers; and 4) nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides were more likely to have poor overall CVH compared to women who did not work in these occupations. CONCLUSIONS: Several commonly held occupations among women were associated with poor CVH.

4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(4): 1489-1496, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are more likely to live in neighborhoods with greater exposure to air pollution and are projected to have the largest increase in dementia among race/ethnic minority groups. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of air pollution with performance on cognitive function tests in Hispanic/Latino adults. METHODS: We used data from the San Diego site of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, an ongoing cohort of Hispanics/Latinos. This analysis focused on individuals ≥45 years of age who completed a neurocognitive battery examining overall mental status, verbal learning, memory, verbal fluency, and executive function (n = 2,089). Air pollution (PM2.5 and O3) before study baseline was assigned to participants' zip code. Logistic and linear regression were used to estimate the associations of air pollution on overall mental status and domain-specific standardized test scores. Models accounted for complex survey design, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics. RESULTS: We found that for every 10µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, verbal fluency worsened (ß: -0.21 [95%CI: -0.68, 0.25]). For every 10 ppb increase in O3, verbal fluency and executive function worsened (ß: -0.19 [95%CI: -0.34, -0.03]; ß: -0.01 [95%CI: -0.01, 0.09], respectively). We did not identify any detrimental effect of pollutants on other domains. CONCLUSION: Although we found suggestions that air pollution may impact verbal fluency and executive function, we observed no consistent or precise evidence to suggest an adverse impact of air pollution on cognitive level among this cohort of Hispanic/Latino adults.

5.
J Psychiatr Res ; 133: 119-124, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338734

RESUMO

Previous studies suggested a potential relationship between plasma lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and elevated depressive symptoms. We aimed to investigate any such relationship in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants who were free of cardiovascular events. Analysis included 4938 participants without elevated depressive symptoms and with Lp(a) levels measured at baseline. Participants were examined at four clinic visits over a 10-year period. Elevated depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and were defined as a CES-D score ≥16 or use of anti-depressants. Lp(a) level was measured with a latex-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay. After adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic factors and other confounding factors in Cox regression analyses, a higher ln-transformed Lp(a) level was associated with new elevated depressive symptoms since baseline (hazard ratio [95% CI] = 1.09 [1.02-1.16] per SD increment in ln-transformed level, P = 0.01). However, no association was found when elevated Lp(a) levels were assessed using clinical cut-off point (≥30 or 50 mg/dL), nor in sensitivity analyses using alternative definitions of elevated depressive symptoms. No significant interaction with race/ethnicity was found for all the above analyses. Also, no significant association was found between baseline Lp(a) levels and absolute or relative changes in CES-D score between baseline and last follow-up visits. Our study suggests a potential association between Lp(a) level and new elevated depressive symptoms, but such association was not robust in the sensitivity analyses. Future studies are warranted to investigate the role of Lp(a) in depressive symptoms in other cohorts.

6.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-10, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308330

RESUMO

South Asians, who are at a disproportionately greater risk of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD), represent a rapidly growing population in the USA. The relationship between dairy products, a major component of South Asian diets, and body composition - an established risk factor for ASCVD, is unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between dairy intake and multiple measures of body composition (BMI, waist and hip circumference, waist:hip ratio, abdominal lean mass, subcutaneous, visceral, and intermuscular fat areas) among South Asian adults in the USA. A baseline analysis was conducted using existing data from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America cohort. In women, the highest (>1·9 servings/d) v. lowest (<1 serving/d) tertile of dairy intake was associated with 53 % lower odds of a waist circumference >80 cm (95 % CI 0·25, 0·89, Pfor trend<0·05). No associations were observed between dairy intake and measures of body composition. However, >3 servings of low-fat yogurt/week was associated with a 9·9 cm2 lower visceral fat area (95 % CI -19·07, -0·72, P<0·05) and 2·3 cm2 lower intermuscular fat area (95 % CI -3·76, -0·79, P<0·05) as compared with those with three servings/week. Milk and cheese were not associated with body composition measures. These analyses suggest that higher consumption of low-fat yogurt is associated with lower visceral and intermuscular fat in the whole sample, and women with higher dairy intake have lower waist circumference. Our study supports dietary incorporation of dairy products, and recognises the utility of multidimensional measures of central adiposity.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential cardiovascular impact of dietary cholesterol intake has been actively debated for decades. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate associations of dietary cholesterol and egg intakes with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: We included 96,831 US postmenopausal women aged 50-79 y without known CVD or cancer during baseline enrollment (1993-1998) of the Women's Health Initiative. Dietary information was collected using a validated FFQ. Incident CVD [i.e., ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke] and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were ascertained and adjudicated through February 2018. RESULTS: A total of 9808 incident CVD cases and 19,508 all-cause deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 17.8 y and 18.9 y, respectively. After multivariable adjustment for traditional risk factors and key dietary nutrients including dietary saturated fat, there were modest associations of dietary cholesterol intake with incident CVD (HRQ5versusQ1: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21; P-trend < 0.001) and all-cause mortality (HRQ5versusQ1: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.15; P-trend < 0.001). Significant positive associations were also observed between dietary cholesterol and incident IHD (P-trend = 0.007), incident ischemic stroke (P-trend = 0.002), and CVD mortality (P-trend = 0.002), whereas there was an inverse association for incident hemorrhagic stroke (P-trend = 0.037) and no association for mortality from cancer, Alzheimer disease/dementia, respiratory diseases, or other causes (P-trend > 0.05). Higher egg consumption was also associated with modestly higher risk of incident CVD (P-trend = 0.004) and all-cause mortality (P-trend < 0.001), with HRs of 1.14 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.25) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.22), respectively, when comparing ≥1 egg/d with <1 egg/wk. CONCLUSIONS: Both higher dietary cholesterol intake and higher egg consumption appeared to be associated with modestly elevated risk of incident CVD and all-cause mortality in US postmenopausal women.

8.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309035

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate associations of health insurance with measures of glucose metabolism, and whether associations vary by diabetes status or insurance type. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Cohort a priori stratified by age <65 (N = 3,665) and ≥65 years (N = 2,924). Multivariable linear and logistic regression assessed associations between insurance and fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, and prevalent diabetes, controlling for relevant confounders, including age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education. RESULTS: In participants <65, compared to uninsured, having any insurance was associated with lower fasting glucose in participants with diabetes (Mean Difference = -20.4 mg/dL, P = 0.01), but not in participants without diabetes. Compared to Private insurance, uninsured participants had higher fasting glucose (Mean Difference = 3.8 mg/dL, P = 0.03), while participants with Medicaid had higher HOMA-IR (Mean Difference = 3.5 mg/dL, P < 0.01). In participants ≥65, compared to Private insurance, uninsured participants (Mean Difference = 7.5 mg/dL, P = 0.02), and participants with Medicaid only (Mean Difference = 19.9 mg/dL, P < 0.01) or Medicare + Medicaid (Mean Difference = 5.2 mg/dL, P = 0.03) had higher fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multiethnic cohort, having any insurance was associated with significantly lower fasting glucose for individuals with diabetes. Levels of fasting glucose and insulin resistance varied across different insurance types.

9.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if premature menopause and early menarche are associated with increased risk of AAA, and to explore potential effect modification by smoking history. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Despite worse outcomes for women with AAA, no studies have prospectively examined sex-specific risk factors, such as premature menopause and early menarche, with risk of AAA in a large, ethnically diverse cohort of women. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of Women's Health Initiative participants who were beneficiaries of Medicare Parts A&B fee-for-service. AAA cases and interventions were identified from claims data. Follow-up period included Medicare coverage until death, end of follow-up or end of coverage inclusive of 2017. RESULTS: Of 101,119 participants included in the analysis, the mean age was 63 years and median follow-up was 11.3 years. Just under 10,000 (9.4%) women experienced premature menopause and 22,240 (22%) experienced early menarche. Women with premature menopause were more likely to be overweight, Black, have ≥20 pack years of smoking, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and early menarche. During 1,091,840 person-years of follow-up, 1125 women were diagnosed with AAA, 134 had premature menopause (11.9%), 93 underwent surgical intervention and 45 (48%) required intervention for ruptured AAA. Premature menopause was associated with increased risk of AAA [hazard ratio 1.37 (1.14, 1.66)], but the association was no longer significant after multivariable adjustment for demographics and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Amongst women with ≥20 pack year smoking history (n = 19,286), 2148 (11.1%) had premature menopause, which was associated with greater risk of AAA in all models [hazard ratio 1.63 (1.24, 2.23)]. Early menarche was not associated with increased risk of AAA. CONCLUSIONS: This study finds that premature menopause may be an important risk factor for AAA in women with significant smoking history. There was no significant association between premature menopause and risk of AAA amongst women who have never smoked. These results suggest an opportunity to develop strategies for better screening, risk reduction and stratification, and outcome improvement in the comprehensive vascular care of women.

10.
Circulation ; : CIR0000000000000912, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251828

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women, who have a notable increase in the risk for this disease after menopause and typically develop coronary heart disease several years later than men. This observation led to the hypothesis that the menopause transition (MT) contributes to the increase in coronary heart disease risk. Over the past 20 years, longitudinal studies of women traversing menopause have contributed significantly to our understanding of the relationship between the MT and CVD risk. By following women over this period, researchers have been able to disentangle chronological and ovarian aging with respect to CVD risk. These studies have documented distinct patterns of sex hormone changes, as well as adverse alterations in body composition, lipids and lipoproteins, and measures of vascular health over the MT, which can increase a woman's risk of developing CVD postmenopausally. The reported findings underline the significance of the MT as a time of accelerating CVD risk, thereby emphasizing the importance of monitoring women's health during midlife, a critical window for implementing early intervention strategies to reduce CVD risk. Notably, the 2011 American Heart Association guidelines for CVD prevention in women (the latest sex-specific guidelines to date) did not include information now available about the contribution of the MT to increased CVD in women. Therefore, there is a crucial need to discuss the contemporary literature on menopause and CVD risk with the intent of increasing awareness of the significant adverse cardiometabolic health-related changes accompanying midlife and the MT. This scientific statement provides an up-to-date synthesis of the existing data on the MT and how it relates to CVD.

11.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The radial artery pulse waveform is a continuous measure of pressure throughout the cardiac cycle, and thus can provide more information than just systolic and diastolic blood pressures. New indices based on a Windkessel model of the waveform, PTC1 and PTC2, are related to arterial compliance and add information for prediction of incident cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, stroke, myocardial infarction) but their association with heart failure is unknown. METHODS: Among 6229 adults (mean age 62 years) from four race/ethnic groups who were initially free of clinical cardiovascular disease and heart failure in 2000-2002, we evaluated the associations of baseline PTC1 and PTC2 with incident heart failure. RESULTS: Mean ±â€Šstandard deviation PTC1 and PTC2 were 394 ±â€Š334 and 94 ±â€Š46 ms, respectively. During a median of 15.7 years follow-up, there were 357 heart failure events (148 with reduced, 150 with preserved, and 59 with unknown ejection fraction). After adjustment for traditional risk factors, the hazard ratio for heart failure per 1 standard deviation higher PTC2 was 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.63--0.85). Higher PTC2 was also significantly associated with lower risk of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (hazard ratio = 0.67; 95% confidence interval: 0.56--0.80). There was no evidence of a significant association between PTC2 and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction or between PTC1 and heart failure. CONCLUSION: The PTC2 measure of the radial artery pulse waveform may represent a novel phenotype related to heart failure, especially heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

12.
J Vasc Surg ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have prospectively examined the associations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels with the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), especially in women. Accounting for commonly recognized risk factors, we investigated the baseline Lp(a) levels and the risk of AAA among postmenopausal women participating in the ongoing national Women's Health Initiative. METHODS: Women's Health Initiative participants with baseline Lp(a) levels available who were beneficiaries of Medicare parts A and B fee-for-service at study enrollment or who had aged into Medicare at any point were included. Participants with missing covariate data or known AAA at baseline were excluded. Thoracic aneurysms were excluded owing to the different pathophysiology. The AAA cases and interventions were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th revision, codes and Current Procedural Terminology codes from claims data. Hazard ratios were computed using Cox proportional hazard models according to the quintiles of Lp(a). RESULTS: The mean age of the 6615 participants included in the analysis was 65.3 years. Of the 6615 participants, 66.6% were non-Hispanic white, 18.9% were black, 7% were Hispanic and 4.7% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Compared with the participants in the lowest Lp(a) quintile, those in higher quintiles were more likely to be overweight, black, and former or current smokers, to have hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and a history of cardiovascular disease, and to use menopausal hormone therapy and statins. During 65,476 person-years of follow-up, with a median of 10.4 years, 415 women had been diagnosed with an AAA and 36 had required intervention. More than one half had required intervention for a ruptured AAA. We failed to find a statistically significant association between Lp(a) levels and incident AAA. Additional sensitivity analyses stratified by race, with exclusion of statin users and alternative categorizations of Lp(a) using log-transformed levels, tertiles, and a cutoff of >50 mg/dL, were conducted, which did not reveal any significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: We found no statistically significant association between Lp(a) levels and the risk of AAA in a large and well-phenotyped sample of postmenopausal women. Women with high Lp(a) levels were more likely to be overweight, black, and former or current smokers, and to have hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and a history of cardiovascular disease, or to use hormone therapy and statins compared with those with lower Lp(a) levels. These findings differ from previous prospective, case-control, and meta-analysis studies that had supported a significant relationship between higher Lp(a) levels and an increased risk of AAA. Differences in the association could have resulted from study limitations or sex differences.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(12): 1455-1465, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors and biomarkers associate differentially with heart failure (HF) risk in men and women is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate sex-specific associations of CV risk factors and biomarkers with incident HF. METHODS: The analysis was performed using data from 4 community-based cohorts with 12.5 years of follow-up. Participants (recruited between 1989 and 2002) were free of HF at baseline. Biomarker measurements included natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, D-dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, sST2, galectin-3, cystatin-C, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. RESULTS: Among 22,756 participants (mean age 60 ± 13 years, 53% women), HF occurred in 2,095 participants (47% women). Age, smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, body mass index, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy, and left bundle branch block were strongly associated with HF in both sexes (p < 0.001), and the combined clinical model had good discrimination in men (C-statistic = 0.80) and in women (C-statistic = 0.83). The majority of biomarkers were strongly and similarly associated with HF in both sexes. The clinical model improved modestly after adding natriuretic peptides in men (ΔC-statistic = 0.006; likelihood ratio chi-square = 146; p < 0.001), and after adding cardiac troponins in women (ΔC-statistic = 0.003; likelihood ratio chi-square = 73; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CV risk factors are strongly and similarly associated with incident HF in both sexes, highlighting the similar importance of risk factor control in reducing HF risk in the community. There are subtle sex-related differences in the predictive value of individual biomarkers, but the overall improvement in HF risk estimation when included in a clinical HF risk prediction model is limited in both sexes.

14.
Kidney Med ; 2(1): 68-75, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734227

RESUMO

Rationale & Objective: A low ankle-brachial index (ABI) is used to diagnose peripheral artery disease (PAD) but may be normal or elevated in patients with medial arterial calcification and stiff vessels, as is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The toe-brachial index (TBI) has been recommended because it is not influenced by medial arterial calcification, but alone the TBI does not capture risk associated with medial arterial calcification. We hypothesized that the difference between ABI and TBI (ABI - TBI) would capture both PAD and medial arterial calcification and thus better identify mortality risk from PAD, particularly in those with CKD. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants: 471 patients with clinical suspicion for PAD referred for vascular testing. Exposures: ABI, TBI, and ABI - TBI. Outcome: All-cause mortality. Analytical Approach: Cox proportional hazards models evaluating the association of ABI - TBI with mortality over 7 years. Results: Mean age was 68 years, 89% were men, 35% had diabetes, 64% had CKD, and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 55 mL/min/1.73 m2. Median ABI was 0.96 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.73-1.08), median TBI was 0.62 (IQR, 0.46-0.81), and median ABI - TBI was 0.23 (IQR, 0.14-0.39). Higher ABI - TBI values were associated with increased risk in mortality only among participants with ABI values ≥ 0.9 (P = 0.03). Among participants with CKD and ABI values ≥ 0.9, participants with ABI - TBI values higher than the median had greater (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.18-2.72) risk for mortality (P = 0.005). This was attenuated after age adjustment (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.91-2.20) but did not change after further adjustment for confounders. Limitations: Mainly male cohort derived from a vascular laboratory; lack of limb outcomes and data for albuminuria. Conclusions: A high ABI - TBI value may be associated with higher risk for mortality in persons with CKD and a normal ABI. Age affects this association, and further studies evaluating ABI - TBI in larger populations are required.

15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(16): e015451, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752978

RESUMO

Background Underuse of cardiovascular medications for secondary prevention among individuals with peripheral artery disease (PAD) has been reported. Little is known about PAD treatment status in the Hispanic/Latino population in the United States, who may have limited access to health care and who have worse clinical outcomes than non-Hispanic individuals. Methods and Results We studied the use of cardiovascular therapies in 1244 Hispanic/Latino individuals recruited from 4 sites in the United States, including 826 individuals who reported diagnosis of PAD by physician and 418 individuals with coronary artery disease alone, in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We compared the prevalence of using antiplatelet therapy, lipid-lowering therapy and antihypertensive therapy by PAD and coronary artery disease status. Among those with PAD, we studied factors associated with taking cardiovascular medications, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, acculturation, access to health care and comorbidities, using multivariable regression models. The overall prevalence for individuals with PAD taking antiplatelet therapy, lipid-lowering therapy and, among hypertensive individuals, antihypertensive therapy was 31%, 26% and 57%, respectively. Individuals of Mexican background had the lowest use for all classes of cardiovascular medications. Older age, number of doctor visits and existing hypertension and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with taking cardiovascular therapies in adjusted models. Compared with those with PAD alone, individuals with PAD and concurrent coronary artery disease were 1.52 (95% CI, 1.20-1.93) and 1.74 (1.30-2.32) times more likely to use antiplatelet agents and statins according to multivariable analysis. No significant difference of antihypertensive medication use was found among PAD patients with or without coronary artery disease. Conclusions Hispanic/Latino individuals with known PAD underuse cardiovascular medications recommended in clinical guidelines. More efforts should be directed to improve treatment in this important group.

16.
Metabolism ; 107: 154230, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the opposing cardiovascular risk profiles of CAC volume and density, we tested the hypothesis that increased abdominal muscle area (AMA) and density (AMD) were significantly associated with lower coronary arterial calcium (CAC) volume and higher CAC density. METHODS: Using data from 787 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, Ancillary Body Composition Study, we analyzed abdominal and chest computed tomography (CT) scans. Abdominal scans were scored for muscle area, muscle density (attenuation) and visceral and subcutaneous fat. Chest scans were scored for CAC volume and Agatston values, which were used to derive CAC density scores. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age and BMI of the participants was 67.8 (9.0) years and 27.9 (4.8) kg/m2, respectively. Forty-one percent were female, 46% were Caucasian, 60% had hypertension, 17% had diabetes, and 46% had dyslipidemia. AMA was positively associated with CAC volume (p < .001) and inversely associated with CAC density (p < .001). Conversely, AMD was inversely associated with CAC volume and positively associated with CAC density in minimally adjusted models (p < .001), but not significant in confounder adjusted models. CONCLUSION: AMA and AMD had differing associations with CAC volume and density, with AMA significantly associated with a higher risk CAC profile (high volume, low density) and AMD not significantly associated with CAC volume or density. Future research needs to account for the unique components of both muscle composition and CAC.


Assuntos
Músculos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Americanos Asiáticos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico por imagem , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(11): 2215-2223, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined whether biological mechanisms linking dementia caregiving with an increased risk of coronary heart disease can be modified by psychosocial interventions and which caregivers might benefit the most from an intervention. METHODS: Spousal dementia caregivers were randomized to 12-week treatment with either a behavioral activation intervention (ie, Pleasant Events Program [PEP]; n = 60), or an active control Information and Support (IS; n = 63) condition. Indicators of caregiving stress were assessed pretreatment and circulating cardiovascular biomarkers were measured pre- and posttreatment. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in biomarker levels from pre- to posttreatment both by treatment condition and across all caregivers. Regardless of the treatment condition, exploratory regression analysis revealed that caregivers were more likely to show significant decreases in C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer when their spouse had severe functional impairment; in interleukin (IL)-6 and CRP when they had greater distress due to care recipient's problem behaviors; in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α when they had higher levels of negative affect; and in IL-6, CRP, TNF-α, and D-dimer when they had higher personal mastery. Within the PEP group, caregivers with higher negative affect and those with higher positive affect were more likely to show a reduction in von Willebrand factor and D-dimer, respectively. Within the IS group, caregivers whose spouse had severe functional impairment were more likely to show a decrease in IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike the average caregiver, caregivers high in burden/distress and resources might benefit from psychosocial interventions to improve cardiovascular risk, although these observations need confirmation.

18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(9): 951-962, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242233

RESUMO

Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (United States, 2000-2015), 6,527 racially/ethnically diverse adults (mean age, 62 (standard deviation, 10) years) free of known cardiovascular (CVD) had ankle brachial index (ABI) assessment of their bilateral dorsalis pedis/posterior tibial arteries (4 vessels total) and were followed for total mortality and incident CVD events/mortality. Individuals were classified into categories of 0-, 1-, 2-, 3- or 4-vessel peripheral artery disease (PAD) (ABI of ≤0.9). There were 1,202 deaths (18%), 656 incident CVD events (10%), and 282 CVD deaths (4.3%). Of the 6,527 individuals, 5,711 (87.5%) had 0-, 460 (7.0%) had 1-, 218 (3.3%) had 2-, 69 (1.1%) had 3-, and 69 (1.1%) had 4-vessel PAD, respectively. In multivariable Cox models, higher number of vessels with PAD was associated with higher risk of mortality (P for trend <0.001), CVD events (P for trend = 0.002), and CVD mortality (P for trend = 0.001). Compared with individuals who had 0-vessel disease, hazard ratios for mortality were 1.29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.59) for 1-, 1.45 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.86) for 2-, 1.58 (95% CI: 1.13, 2.21) for 3-, and 2.15 (95% CI: 1.58, 2.94) for 4-vessel disease. A similar pattern was seen for CVD events/mortality. These results suggest the importance of accounting for ABI values of all 4 leg arteries in clinical practice and research.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(12): 1794-1800, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307090

RESUMO

Experimental studies support a link between activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The relationship with subclinical atherosclerosis is uncertain. Among 1,699 individuals without prevalent CVD from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we measured plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone. Using multivariable logistic regression with restricted cubic splines, we assessed continuous log-transformed PRA and aldosterone associations with the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores (Agatston) with adjustment for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, kidney function, and inflammatory biomarkers. In fully adjusted models mutually adjusting for PRA and aldosterone, higher PRA was associated with an ABI <1.0 (p overall <0.001, p nonlinear = 0.02) and CAC Agatston score >300 (p overall = 0.02, p nonlinear = 0.22), while aldosterone was not associated with either outcome. For example, compared to the 10th percentile (0.16 ng/ml/hr) of PRA, the 90th percentile (2.68 ng/ml/hr) had 3.6 times (OR 3.62; 95% CI: 2.13 to 6.13) and 1.7 times higher odds (odds ratio 1.67; 95% confidence interval: 1.13 to 2.48) of ABI <1.0 and CAC >300, respectively. These associations persisted after adjustment for levels of C-reactive protein, Interleukin-6, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha. There were no significant differences in these associations by race/ethnicity or antihypertensive medication status. In conclusion, in a multiethnic cohort of community-living adults without prevalent clinical CVD, PRA was associated with greater burden of subclinical peripheral artery and coronary artery disease. These findings provide additional evidence that PRA may have deleterious effects on cardiovascular health through an atherosclerotic pathway.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/sangue , Renina/sangue , Aldosterona/sangue , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Calcificação Vascular/sangue
20.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 4(3): nzaa021, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159070

RESUMO

Background: Women without cardiovascular disease (CVD) or hypertension at baseline assigned to intervention in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) trial experienced 30% lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), whereas results in women with hypertension or prior CVD could have been confounded by postrandomization use of statins. Objectives: Intervention participants reported various self-selected changes to achieve the 20% total fat goals. Reviewed are intervention compared with comparison group HRs for CHD, stroke, and total CVD in relation to specific dietary changes in normotensive participants. Methods: Dietary change was assessed by comparing baseline with year 1 FFQ data in women (n = 10,371) without hypertension or CVD at baseline with intake of total fat above the median to minimize biases due to use of the FFQ in trial eligibility screening. Results: Intervention participants self-reported compensating reduced energy intake from total fat by increasing carbohydrate and protein. Specifically they increased plant protein, with those in the upper quartile (increased total protein by ≥3.3% of energy) having a CHD HR of 0.39 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.71), compared with 0.92 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.48) for those in the lower quartile of change (decreased total protein ≥0.6% of energy), with P-trend of 0.04. CHD HR did not vary significantly with change in percentage energy from carbohydrate, and stroke HR did not vary significantly with any macronutrient changes. Scores reflecting adherence to recommended dietary patterns including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial and the Healthy Eating Index showed favorable changes in the intervention group. Conclusions: Intervention group total fat reduction replaced with increased carbohydrate and some protein, especially plant-based protein, was related to lower CHD risk in normotensive women without CVD who reported high baseline total fat intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611. Link to the WHI trial protocol: https://www.whi.org/about/SitePages/Dietary%20Trial.aspx.

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