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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670763

RESUMO

AIMS : The benefits of physical activity (PA) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well known. However, studies suggest PA is associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC), a subclinical marker of CVD. In this study, we evaluated the associations of self-reported recreational and non-recreational PA with CAC composition and incident CVD events. Prior studies suggest high CAC density may be protective for CVD events. METHODS AND RESULTS : We evaluated 3393 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with prevalent CAC. After adjusting for demographics, the highest quintile of recreational PA was associated with 0.07 (95% confidence interval 0.01-0.13) units greater CAC density but was not associated with CAC volume. In contrast, the highest quintile of non-recreational PA was associated with 0.08 (0.02-0.14) units lower CAC density and a trend toward 0.13 (-0.01 to 0.27) log-units higher CAC volume. There were 520 CVD events over a 13.7-year median follow-up. Recreational PA was associated with lower CVD risk (hazard ratio 0.88, 0.79-0.98, per standard deviation), with an effect size that was not changed with adjustment for CAC composition or across levels of prevalent CAC. CONCLUSION : Recreational PA may be associated with a higher density but not a higher volume of CAC. Non-recreational PA may be associated with lower CAC density, suggesting these forms of PA may not have equivalent associations with this subclinical marker of CVD. While PA may affect the composition of CAC, the associations of PA with CVD risk appear to be independent of CAC.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e012139, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615321

RESUMO

Background Chronic psychological stress has been associated with hypertension, but few studies have examined this relationship in blacks. We examined the association between perceived stress levels assessed annually for up to 13 years and incident hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, a community-based cohort of blacks. Methods and Results Analyses included 1829 participants without hypertension at baseline (Exam 1, 2000-2004). Incident hypertension was defined as blood pressure≥140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication use at Exam 2 (2005-2008) or Exam 3 (2009-2012). Each follow-up interval at risk of hypertension was categorized as low, moderate, or high perceived stress based on the number of annual assessments between exams in which participants reported "a lot" or "extreme" stress over the previous year (low, 0 high stress ratings; moderate, 1 high stress rating; high, ≥2 high stress ratings). During follow-up (median, 7.0 years), hypertension incidence was 48.5%. Hypertension developed in 30.6% of intervals with low perceived stress, 34.6% of intervals with moderate perceived stress, and 38.2% of intervals with high perceived stress. Age-, sex-, and time-adjusted risk ratios (95% CI) associated with moderate and high perceived stress versus low perceived stress were 1.19 (1.04-1.37) and 1.37 (1.20-1.57), respectively (P trend<0.001). The association was present after adjustment for demographic, clinical, and behavioral factors and baseline stress (P trend=0.001). Conclusions In a community-based cohort of blacks, higher perceived stress over time was associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension. Evaluating stress levels over time and intervening when high perceived stress is persistent may reduce hypertension risk.

3.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(10): 2033-2040, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) is inversely associated with risk of heart failure and cardiovascular disease (CVD), whereas increased left ventricular (LV) mass and mass to volume (m:v) ratio are unfavorable CVD risk factors. We assessed whether changes in leisure time PA were associated with longitudinal changes in cardiac structure in a community-based population. METHODS: We included 2779 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants, free of baseline CVD, who had available data on PA and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at examinations 1 (2000-2002) and 5 (2010-2012). Physical activity was measured by a Typical Week PA Survey and converted to MET-minutes per week of moderate+vigorous activity. We used linear mixed effect models to estimate the associations of baseline and change in PA with baseline and change in cardiac structure, adjusting for CVD risk factors and body size. RESULTS: At baseline, the mean age was 59 yr, 53% were women, and 58% of nonwhite race/ethnicity. During average 10-yr follow-up, and after accounting for baseline PA levels, the highest quintiles of PA increase were significantly associated with increases in LV mass (2.3 g; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-4.2), LV end-diastolic volume (4.7 mL; 95% CI, 2.4-7.0), and stroke volume (3.3 mL; 95% CI, 1.6-5.1), but lower M:V ratio (-2.9; 95% CI, -5.0 to -0.8) compared with the lowest quintiles. Increasing exercise PA was associated with increases in LV diameter and reductions in M:V ratio, whereas occupational PA was associated with increases in m:v ratio. Increasing PA over 10 yr was also associated with greater risk of eccentric dilated LV hypertrophy at examination 5. CONCLUSIONS: After accounting for baseline PA, greater positive changes in leisure-time PA levels were associated with a more eccentric-type of LV remodeling pattern over 10 yr. The clinical implications of such findings remain to be determined.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(18): e012177, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500474

RESUMO

Background There are no available lifetime risk estimates of lower-extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Methods and Results Using data from 6 US community-based cohorts and the vital statistics, we estimated the prevalence and incidence of PAD, defined as an ankle-brachial index < 0.90, at each year of age from birth to 80 years for white, black, and Hispanic men and women. Then, we used Markov Monte Carlo simulations in a simulated cohort of 100 000 individuals to estimate lifetime risk of PAD. On the basis of odds ratios of PAD for traditional atherosclerotic risk factors (eg, diabetes mellitus and smoking), we developed a calculator providing residual lifetime risk of PAD. In an 80-year horizon, lifetime risks of PAD were 30.0% in black men and 27.6% in black women, but ≈19% in white men and women and ≈22% in Hispanic men and women. From another perspective, 9% of blacks were estimated to develop PAD by 60 years of age, while the same proportion was seen at ≈70 years for whites and Hispanics. The residual lifetime risk within the same race/ethnicity varied by 3.5- to 5-fold according to risk factors (eg, residual lifetime risk in 45-year-old black men was 19.9% when current smoking, diabetes mellitus, and history of cardiovascular disease were absent versus 70.4% when all were present). Conclusions In the United States, ≈30% of blacks are estimated to develop PAD during their lifetime, whereas the corresponding estimate is ≈20% for whites and Hispanics. The residual lifetime risk within the same race/ethnicity substantially varies according to traditional risk factors.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(19): e013249, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533514

RESUMO

Background Dietary patterns are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the general population, but diet-CVD association in populations with diabetes mellitus is limited. Our objective was to examine the association between diet quality and CVD risk in a population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods and Results We analyzed prospective data from 5809 women with prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus at baseline from the Women's Health Initiative. Diet quality was defined using alternate Mediterranean, Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, Paleolithic, and American Diabetes Association dietary pattern scores calculated from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable Cox's proportional hazard regression was used to analyze the risk of incident CVD. During mean 12.4 years of follow-up, 1454 (25%) incident CVD cases were documented. Women with higher alternate Mediterranean, Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, and American Diabetes Association dietary pattern scores had a lower risk of CVD compared with women with lower scores (Q5 v Q1) (hazard ratio [HR]aMed 0.77, 95% CI 0.65-0.93; HRDASH 0.69, 95% CI 0.58-0.83; HRADA 0.71, 95% CI 0.59-0.86). No association was observed between the Paleolithic score and CVD risk. Conclusions Dietary patterns that emphasize higher intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts/seeds, legumes, a high unsaturated:saturated fat ratio, and lower intake of red and processed meats, added sugars, and sodium are associated with lower CVD risk in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11410, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388106

RESUMO

Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) burden differs by race/ethnicity. Although familial aggregation and heritability studies suggest a genetic basis, little is known about the genetic susceptibility to PAD, especially in non-European descent populations. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the ankle brachial index (ABI) and PAD (defined as an ABI < 0.90) have not been conducted in Hispanics/Latinos. We performed a GWAS of PAD and the ABI in 7,589 participants aged >45 years from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). We also performed GWAS for ABI stratified by Hispanic/Latino ethnic subgroups: Central American, Mexican, and South American (Mainland group), and Cuban, Dominican, and Puerto Rican (Caribbean group). We detected two genome-wide significant associations for the ABI in COMMD10 in Puerto Ricans, and at SYBU in the Caribbean group. The lead SNP rs4466200 in the COMMD10 gene had a replication p = 0.02 for the ABI in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) African Americans, but it did not replicate in African Americans from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). In a regional look-up, a nearby SNP rs12520838 had Bonferroni adjusted p = 0.05 (unadjusted p = 7.5 × 10-5) for PAD in MESA Hispanics. Among three suggestive associations (p < 10-7) in subgroup-specific analyses, DMD on chromosome X, identified in Central Americans, replicated in MESA Hispanics (p = 2.2 × 10-4). None of the previously reported ABI and PAD associations in whites generalized to Hispanics/Latinos.

8.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that elevated cholesterol results in increased white blood cell counts in mouse models. However, there is insufficient evidence to support this in humans. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship of plasma lipids with white blood cell counts (basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. METHODS: The analysis included 2873 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants with a complete white blood count and differential analysis. The cross-sectional association of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels with different white blood cell counts was analyzed by multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: After adjusting for sociodemographic and confounding factors including red blood cell counts, platelet counts, use of lipid-lowering medication, cardiovascular disease risk factors and other lipid measures, and multiple testing correction, a one-standard deviation increment in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was associated with 2.8% and 2.3% lower total white blood cell counts, 3.7% and 3.0% lower monocyte counts, and 3.4% and 2.7% lower neutrophil counts (all P < .01). The same increment in logarithm-transformed triglyceride levels was associated with 2.3% higher total white blood cell counts and 4.5% higher lymphocyte counts (both P < .001). Similar results were obtained after excluding participants taking lipid-lowering medication. A one-standard deviation increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was associated with a 1.5% lower white blood cell count (P = .018) but was not significantly associated with changes in any individual cell type. CONCLUSION: While significant associations were observed between plasma lipid levels and white blood cell populations, the heterogeneous and modest nature of these relationships makes it hard to support the hypothesis that lipids are in the causal pathway for leukogenesis in humans.

9.
Eur Heart J ; 40(34): 2849-2855, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256194

RESUMO

AIMS: Central adiposity is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, even among people with normal body mass index (BMI). We tested the hypothesis that regional body fat deposits (trunk or leg fat) are associated with altered risk of CVD among postmenopausal women with normal BMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 2683 postmenopausal women with normal BMI (18.5 to <25 kg/m2) who participated in the Women's Health Initiative and had no known CVD at baseline. Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Incident CVD events including coronary heart disease and stroke were ascertained through February 2017. During a median 17.9 years of follow-up, 291 incident CVD cases occurred. After adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical risk factors, neither whole-body fat mass nor fat percentage was associated with CVD risk. Higher percent trunk fat was associated with increased risk of CVD [highest vs. lowest quartile hazard ratio (HR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-2.74; P-trend <0.001], whereas higher percent leg fat was associated with decreased risk of CVD (highest vs. lowest quartile HR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.43-0.89; P-trend = 0.008). The association for trunk fat was attenuated yet remained significant after further adjustment for waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. Higher percent trunk fat combined with lower percent leg fat was associated with particularly high risk of CVD (HR comparing extreme groups = 3.33, 95% CI 1.46-7.62). CONCLUSION: Among postmenopausal women with normal BMI, both elevated trunk fat and reduced leg fat are associated with increased risk of CVD.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(4): 498-507, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public statements about the effect of smoking on cardiovascular disease are predominantly based on investigations of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, although smoking is recognized as a strong risk factor for peripheral artery disease (PAD). No study has comprehensively compared the long-term association of cigarette smoking and its cessation with the incidence of 3 major atherosclerotic diseases (PAD, CHD, and stroke). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to quantify the long-term association of cigarette smoking and its cessation with the incidence of the 3 outcomes. METHODS: A total of 13,355 participants aged 45 to 64 years in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) study without PAD, CHD, or stroke at baseline (1987 to 1989) were included. The associations of smoking parameters (pack-years, duration, intensity, and cessation) with incident PAD were quantified and contrasted with CHD and stroke using Cox models. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 26 years, there were 492 PAD cases, 1,798 CHD cases, and 1,106 stroke cases. A dose-response relationship was identified between pack-years of smoking and 3 outcomes, with the strongest results for PAD. The pattern was consistent when investigating duration and intensity separately. A longer period of smoking cessation was consistently related to lower risk of PAD, CHD, and stroke, but a significantly elevated risk persisted up to 30 years following smoking cessation for PAD and up to 20 years for CHD. CONCLUSIONS: All smoking measures showed significant associations with 3 major atherosclerotic diseases, with the strongest effect size for incident PAD. The risk due to smoking lasted up to 30 years for PAD and 20 years for CHD. Our results further highlight the importance of smoking prevention and early smoking cessation, and indicate the need for public statements to take PAD into account when acknowledging the impact of smoking on overall cardiovascular health.

11.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association of fatty acids with coronary heart disease (CHD) has been examined, mainly through dietary measurements, and has generated inconsistent results due to measurement error. Large observational studies and randomized controlled trials have shown that plasma phospholipid fatty acids (PL-FA), especially those less likely to be endogenously synthesized, are good biomarkers of dietary fatty acids. Thus, PL-FA profiles may better predict CHD risk with less measurement error. METHODS: We performed a matched case-control study of 2428 postmenopausal women nested in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Plasma PL-FA were measured using gas chromatography and expressed as molar percentage (moL %). Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (95% CIs) for CHD associated with 1 moL % change in PL-FA. RESULTS: Higher plasma PL long-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) were associated with increased CHD risk, while higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were associated with decreased risk. No significant associations were observed for very-long-chain SFA, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), PUFA n-6 or trans fatty acids (TFA). Substituting 1 moL % PUFA n-6 or TFA with an equivalent proportion of PUFA n-3 were associated with lower CHD risk. CONCLUSIONS: Higher plasma PL long-chain SFA and lower PUFA n-3 were associated with increased CHD risk. A change in diet by limiting foods that are associated with plasma PL long-chain SFA and TFA while enhancing foods high in PUFA n-3 may be beneficial in CHD among postmenopausal women.

13.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361714

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week in-home self-monitored physical activity (PA) program targeting a combination of lifestyle physical activity program on changes in endothelial reactivity, arterial stiffness, sedentary behaviors, upright and stepping activities in individuals with asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (APAD). METHODS: Participants (n = 38) with APAD (ages 52-87) were randomized to attention control, (AC) or a PA and sedentary reduction (PASR) group employing an interactive online 3-month program focusing on increasing lifestyle PA and decreasing sedentary behaviors. The ActivPal™ PA monitor was utilized to measure postural and stepping parameters. Endothelial reactivity (PAT-RHI) and augmentation index (AIx) were measured using the EndoPAT™ system at baseline and 3 months. RESULTS: The PASR group significantly decreased daily sit/lie hours (-0.80 ± 0.87 vs. 0.18 ± 0.77 p= 0.001), increased sit to stand transitions/day (7.1 ±10.5 vs. -1.4 ± 5.71, p<0.001) and increased daily step counts (2814 ± 1753 vs. 742 ± 1321, p <0.001). The PASR group also increased steps/day accumulated within specific cadence bands 61-80 steps/min, (1252 ± 447 vs. 177 ± 359, p <0.001), 81-100 steps/min band, (919 ± 511 vs. -98 ± 697, p <0.001), and within the 101-120 steps/min band (415 ± 625 vs. -327 ± 467, p <0.001) versus the AC group. PAT-RHI significantly increased in the PASR group (0.179 ±0.180 vs .0.044 ±0.101, p = 0.019) while no significant changes were observed in PAT-AIx. CONCLUSIONS: Modest improvements in microvascular reactivity, physical activity, sedentary behavior, but not arterial stiffness were demonstrated following a 12-week intervention targeting sedentary behavior reduction and increased lifestyle PA in individuals with APAD.

14.
Atherosclerosis ; 287: 46-53, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been suggested as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially in people with high CVD risk. However, it is not known whether FGF21 is a CVD biomarker in an initially healthy cohort. We therefore investigated the relationship of plasma FGF21 levels with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants without known CVD at baseline. METHODS: A total of 5788 participants had plasma FGF21 levels measured at the baseline exam (2000-2002). Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) were measured at baseline. Participants were followed up for incident CVD events over a median period of 14 years. RESULTS: In cross-sectional analyses adjusting for socio-demographic variables, participants with higher FGF21 levels had higher carotid IMT, lower ABI, and higher prevalence of CAC (p < 0.001). However, these associations were not significant after simultaneously adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, traditional CVD risk factors, and biomarkers of inflammation and hemostasis. Among 5768 patients with follow-up data, 820 developed incident CVD endpoints. Higher baseline FGF21 levels were not associated with the risk for incident CVD endpoints after adjusting for multiple confounding factors (odds ratio 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.12, per SD increase in ln-transformed FGF21 levels). CONCLUSIONS: Although FGF21 has been suggested as a CVD biomarker for people with high CVD risk, our findings do not support a role of FGF21 as a CVD biomarker in those without a history of CVD.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 15-28, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178129

RESUMO

Circulating levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk, are highly heritable. To gain insights into the biology that regulates adiponectin levels, we performed an exome array meta-analysis of 265,780 genetic variants in 67,739 individuals of European, Hispanic, African American, and East Asian ancestry. We identified 20 loci associated with adiponectin, including 11 that had been reported previously (p < 2 × 10-7). Comparison of exome array variants to regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) results detected candidate variants (r2 > .60) spanning as much as 900 kb. To identify potential genes and mechanisms through which the previously unreported association signals act to affect adiponectin levels, we assessed cross-trait associations, expression quantitative trait loci in subcutaneous adipose, and biological pathways of nearby genes. Eight of the nine loci were also associated (p < 1 × 10-4) with at least one obesity or lipid trait. Candidate genes include PRKAR2A, PTH1R, and HDAC9, which have been suggested to play roles in adipocyte differentiation or bone marrow adipose tissue. Taken together, these findings provide further insights into the processes that influence circulating adiponectin levels.

16.
J Vasc Surg ; 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with systemic calcified atherosclerosis, other than the coronary arteries, has not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the association between NAFLD and calcification in eight different vascular beds. METHODS: In a community-based cohort with computed tomography scans for carotid artery, coronary artery, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, iliac artery, renal artery, celiac trunk, and superior mesenteric artery, the association between NAFLD and arterial calcification was evaluated with adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, current smoking status, and family history of heart disease in the first-degree relatives. RESULTS: In age- and sex-adjusted models, NAFLD was significantly associated with calcification in the coronary artery, carotid artery, thoracic aorta, celiac trunk, and superior mesenteric artery vascular beds (P < .05). However, adjustment for the traditional chronic venous disease risk factors attenuated the associations, except in the case of the thoracic aorta (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.78) and celiac trunk (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.16-3.65). In addition, NAFLD was independently associated with multiarterial calcification (four or more [OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.01-1.74], five or more [OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.09-1.97], and six or more [OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.09-2.30] of eight evaluated arterial segments). CONCLUSIONS: The association between NAFLD and arterial calcification is mainly mediated by conventional risk factors. The independent association between NAFLD and calcification in the thoracic aorta and celiac trunk as well as in a larger number of vascular beds needs confirmation in future prospective studies in diverse populations.

18.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 62, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although microvascular dysfunction is known to result from diabetes, it might also lead to diabetes. Lower values of C2, a derivative of the radial artery pressure waveform, indicate microvascular dysfunction and predict hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We studied the association of C2 with incident diabetes in subjects free of overt CVD. METHODS: Among multi-ethnic participants (n = 5214), aged 45-84 years with no diabetes, C2 was derived from the radial artery pressure waveform. Incident diabetes (N = 651) was diagnosed as new fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL or antidiabetic medicine over ~ 10 years. The relative incidence density (RID) for incident diabetes per standard deviation (SD) of C2 was studied during ~ 10 years follow-up using four levels of adjustment. RESULTS: Mean C2 at baseline was 4.58 ± 2.85 mL/mmHg × 100. The RID for incident diabetes per SD of C2 was 0.90 (95% CI 0.82-0.99, P = 0.03). After adjustment for demographics plus body size, the corresponding RID was 0.81 (95% CI 0.73-0.89, P < 0.0001); body mass index (BMI) was the dominant covariate here. After adjustment for demographics plus cardiovascular risk factors, the RID was 0.98 (95% CI 0.89, 1.07, P = 0.63). After adjustment for all the parameters in the previous models, the RID was 0.87 (95% CI 0.78, 0.96, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: In a multi-ethnic sample free of overt CVD and diabetes at baseline, C2 predicted incident diabetes after adjustment for demographics, BMI and CVD risk factors. Differences in arterial blood pressure wave morphology may indicate a long-term risk trajectory for diabetes, independently of body size and the classical risk factors.

19.
Psychosom Med ; 81(7): 668-674, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Older adults are among the most frequent users of emergency departments (EDs). Nonspecific symptoms, such as fatigue and widespread pain, are among the most common symptoms in patients admitted at the ED. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) are inflammation biomarkers associated with chronic stress (i.e., dementia caregiving) and nonspecific symptoms. This study aimed to determine whether IL-6 and TNF-α were prospectively associated with ED risk in dementia caregivers (CGs). METHODS: Participants were 85 dementia CGs, who reported during three assessments (3, 9, and 15 months after enrollment) if they had visited an ED for any reason. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relations between resting circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α obtained at enrollment and subsequent risk for an ED visit, adjusting for age, sex, use of ED 1 month before enrollment, physical and mental health well-being, body mass index, and CG demands. RESULTS: (log) IL-6 significantly predicted ED visits during the 15-month follow-up (B = 1.96, SE = 0.82, p = .017). For every (log) picogram per milliliter increase in IL-6, the risk of visiting an ED was 7.10 times greater. TNF-α was not associated with subsequent ED visits. Exploratory analyses suggested that CGs with levels of IL-6 above the 80th percentile and experiencing high CG demands were at highest risk of an ED visit. CONCLUSIONS: IL-6 levels and CG demands may be useful for predicting vulnerability for future ED visits. Although further studies should be conducted to replicate and extend these findings, interventions that successfully modify inflammation markers, including the underlying pathophysiology related to stress and/or comorbid illnesses, may be useful in preventing costly and detrimental outcomes in this population.

20.
Psychosom Med ; 81(6): 545-556, 2019 Jul/Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epidemiologic data increasingly support sleep as a determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Fewer studies have investigated the mechanisms underlying this relationship using objective sleep assessment approaches. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine associations between daily blood pressure (BP) and both objectively assessed sleep duration and efficiency. METHODS: A diverse community sample of 300 men and women aged 21 to 70 years, enrolled in the North Texas Heart Study, participated in the study. Actigraphy-assessed sleep was monitored for two consecutive nights with ambulatory BP sampled randomly within 45-minute blocks on the first and second day as well as the second night. RESULTS: Overall, sleep duration results paralleled those of sleep efficiency. Individuals with lower sleep efficiency had higher daytime systolic (B = -0.35, SE = 0.11, p = .0018, R = 0.26) but not diastolic BP (B = -0.043, SE = 0.068, p = .52, R = 0.17) and higher nighttime BP (systolic: B = -0.37, SE = 0.10, p < .001, R = .15; diastolic: B = -0.20, SE = 0.059, p < .001, R = .14). Moreover, lower sleep efficiency on one night was associated with higher systolic (B = -0.51, SE = 0.11, p < .001, R = 0.23) and diastolic BP (B = -0.17, SE = 0.065, p = .012, R = .16) the following day. When 'asleep' BP was taken into account instead of nighttime BP, the associations between sleep and BP disappeared. When both sleep duration and efficiency were assessed together, sleep efficiency was associated with daytime systolic BP, whereas sleep duration was associated with nighttime BP. CONCLUSIONS: Lower sleep duration and efficiency are associated with higher daytime systolic BP and higher nighttime BP when assessed separately. When assessed together, sleep duration and efficiency diverge in their associations with BP at different times of day. These results warrant further investigation of these possible pathways to disease.

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