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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Infection is a leading cause of death in the SLE population. Low immunoglobulin levels might be a potential risk for infection. We aimed to assess whether acquired low levels of any type of immunoglobulin increase the risk of clinically relevant infection in adult patients with SLE. METHODS: We compared adult SLE patients who had acquired any low immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgM or IgG) for 2 years with patients with normal or high levels with respect to clinically relevant infection (defined as infections requiring intravenous or oral antibiotics) in a prospective cohort study. Group balance was achieved using propensity score adjustment, matching and inverse probability weighting. Primary analysis was time to event using Cox-regression modelling adjusting for potential confounders. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine several exposure and outcome definitions. RESULTS: Patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia had longer disease duration, more lupus nephritis history, higher proteinuria and more accumulated damage. Low IgA level was associated with increased risk of clinically relevant infection [hazard ratio (HR): 2.24, 95% CI: 1.61, 3.12] while low IgG (HR: 1.15, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.59) or low IgM (HR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.23) was not. Low immunoglobulin recovery in the first year was 2.5% (11), second year 8.2% (36), third year 10.1% (44) and fourth year 18.4% (80), and 60% (263) of acquired hypogammaglobulinaemia recovered over 4 years. CONCLUSION: The majority of acquired hypogammaglobulinaemia in adult patients with SLE is transient. Only low acquired IgA was associated with increased risk of infection among adult patients with SLE. Whether immunoglobulin replacement provides additional protective effect requires further investigation.

2.
Open Access Rheumatol ; 12: 193-202, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982497

RESUMO

Background: Methotrexate (MTX) Intolerance Severity Score (MISS) has been previously validated in the Arabic language and has helped to detect high levels of intolerance in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The aim of the current study was to evaluate patient and disease characteristics associated with a high risk of MTX intolerance. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional interview-based survey was conducted using adult RA patients as a study group, who were visiting a specialized rheumatology clinic at King Saud University Medical City. The Arabic MISS was used in this survey. Statistical analyses were performed to understand associations between MTX-intolerant and MTX-tolerant patients. Results: A total of 117 patients were involved in this study. Of those, 101 (86.3%) were females with a mean (SD) disease duration of 6.6 (5.7) years. The median (interquartile range (IQR)) Disease Activity Score-28 (DAS28) was 3.6 (3.6-4.1). MTX intolerance was observed in 55 (47%) patients. The most predominant component in patients with a positive test was the behavioral component. Intolerant patients had a higher median of pain (47.3 vs. 50.0; P = 0.010) and patient global assessment (50.0 vs. 60.0; P = 0.004) scales compared to those in tolerant patients. Additionally, MTX intolerance was associated with the female gender (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 6.724; 95% CI 1.420, 31.843, P = 0.016), marital status (AOR 2.549; 95% CI 1.037, 6.270, P = 0.042) and DAS28 (AOR 1.612; 95% CI 1.032, 2.517, P = 0.036). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the remaining disease activity parameters, background therapies, seropositivity, and smoking status (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Patient characteristics, rather than disease activity, significantly impact MTX intolerance. Behavioral component is the main driver of intolerance. Intolerant patients have higher patient-reported outcomes. Qualitative studies are needed to explore causes and potential solutions to MTX intolerance.

3.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(5): 1191-1201, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931985

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is an acute respiratory viral infection that threatens people worldwide, including people with rheumatic disease, although it remains unclear to what extent various antirheumatic disease therapies increase susceptibility to complications of viral respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: The present study undertakes a scoping review of available evidence regarding the frequency and severity of acute respiratory viral adverse events related to antirheumatic disease therapies. METHODS: Online databases were used to identify, since database inception, studies reporting primary data on acute respiratory viral infections in patients utilizing antirheumatic disease therapies. Independent reviewer pairs charted data from eligible studies using a standardized data abstraction tool. RESULTS: A total of 180 studies were eligible for qualitative analysis. While acknowledging that the extant literature has a lack of specificity in reporting of acute viral infections or complications thereof, the data suggest that use of glucocorticoids, JAK inhibitors (especially high-dose), TNF inhibitors, and anti-IL-17 agents may be associated with an increased frequency of respiratory viral events. Available data suggest no increased frequency or risk of respiratory viral events with NSAIDs, hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine, methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide, or apremilast. One large cohort study demonstrated an association with leflunomide use and increased risk of acute viral respiratory events compared to non-use. CONCLUSION: This scoping review identified that some medication classes may confer increased risk of acute respiratory viral infections. However, definitive data are lacking and future studies should address this knowledge gap.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doenças Reumáticas , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 23(11): 1541-1549, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940963

RESUMO

AIM: The dynamics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become of special concern to the rheumatology community. Rheumatic patients are required to engage in effective health management but their behavior is often influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This cross-sectional study aims to examine patients' experiences during the current pandemic and its implication on their health perception and behavior. METHOD: A patient-centered electronic survey was used, randomly sampling rheumatic patients in Saudi Arabia during March and April 2020. Questions included patients' socio-demographics, diseases, medications, COVID-19 knowledge, source of information, fear level, disease activity perception, health care utilization, medication accessibility, and therapeutic compliance (measured using a modified version of Medication Adherence Reporting Scale). Correlation and regression coefficients were used to evaluate associations among the aforementioned variables. RESULTS: A total of 637 respondents were included. The majority were rheumatoid arthritis patients (42.7%). Patients' knowledge about COVID-19 was correlated with social media use (P = .012). Fear of COVID-19 infection correlated with healthcare facility for follow-up visits (P = .024) and fear of disease deterioration if contracting the infection correlated with patients' levels of knowledge (P = .035). Both types of fear did not correlate with patients' perceptions of disease activity. However, patients' perceptions of worsened disease activity were correlated with unplanned healthcare visits (P < .001), medication non-adherence, and difficulty accessing medication (P = .010 and .006, respectively). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic and surrounding public health measures could affect rheumatic patients' health management which might contribute to disease flare-up and subsequently taxing healthcare systems even further.

5.
J Vasc Surg ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we compared the outcomes of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in patients with and without rheumatoid arthritis (RA) stratified by the type of surgery. METHODS: A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted from 2003 to 2016. Linked administrative health data from Ontario, Canada were used to identify all patients aged ≥65 years who had undergone elective open or endovascular AAA repair during the study period. Patients were identified using validated procedure and billing codes and matching using propensity scores. The primary outcome was survival. The secondary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE)-free survival (defined as freedom from death, myocardial infarction, and stroke), reintervention, and secondary rupture. RESULTS: Of 14,816 patients undergoing elective AAA repair, a diagnosis of RA was present for 309 (2.0%). The propensity-matched cohort included 234 pairs of RA and control patients. The matched cohort was followed up for a mean ± standard deviation of 4.93 ± 3.35 years, and the median survival was 6.76 and 7.31 years for the RA and control groups, respectively. Cox regression analysis demonstrated no statistically significant differences in the hazards for death, MACE, reintervention, or secondary rupture. Analysis of the differences in outcomes stratified by repair approach also showed no statistically significant differences in the hazards for death, MACE, reintervention, or secondary rupture. CONCLUSION: We found no statistically significant differences in survival, MACE, reintervention, or secondary rupture among patients with RA undergoing elective AAA repair compared with controls. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of comorbidities and antirheumatic medications on the outcomes of elective AAA repair.

6.
Saudi Med J ; 41(8): 791-801, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To map research production by Saudi-affiliated investigators in order to identify areas of strength and weakness. Method: We followed the Arksey and O'Malley (2005) framework. Medline and Cochrane databases were searched with a focus on identifying articles related to COVID-19 and Saudi Arabia following the PRISMA protocol. The study was conducted at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March and May 2020. Results: A total of 53 articles were ultimately included. Most of the research production from Saudi Arabia was opinion and narrative reviews related to the clinicopathological features of COVID-19 as well as control and prevention of virus spread.  Conclusion: The results of this scoping review identify a relative deficiency in original research, which requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Pesquisa Biomédica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Arábia Saudita
7.
J Rheumatol ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611674

RESUMO

Observational studies allow researchers to understand the natural history of rheumatic conditions, risk factors for disease development, and factors affecting important disease-related outcomes, and to estimate treatment effect from real-world data. However, this design carries a risk of confounding bias. A propensity score (PS) is a balancing score that aims to minimize the difference between study groups and consequently potential confounding effects. The score can be applied in 1 of 4 methods in observational research: matching, stratification, adjustment, and inverse probability weighting. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rare disease characterized by a relatively small sample size and/or low event rates. In this article, we review the PS methods. We demonstrate application of the PS methods to achieve study group balance in a rare disease using an example of risk of infection in SLE patients with hypogammaglobulinemia.

9.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(7): 1382-1384, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), manifests with a wide spectrum of presentations. Most reports of COVID-19 highlight fever and upper respiratory symptoms as the dominant initial presentations, consistent with the World Health Organization guidelines regarding suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, atypical presentations of this disease have been evolving since the initial outbreak of the pandemic in December 2019. We report a case of an older male patient who presented at our hospital with an unusual manifestation of COVID-19. DESIGN: Brief report. SETTING: A university hospital in Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANT: A 73-year-old man who presented with confusion in the absence of any respiratory symptoms or fever. INTERVENTION: The patient was initially admitted with delirium and underwent a further work-up. MEASUREMENTS: Given his recent history of domestic travel and the declaration of a global COVID-19 pandemic status, the patient was administered a swab test for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The patient's positive test led to a diagnosis of COVID-19. Although he began to experience a spiking fever and mild upper respiratory symptoms, he recovered rapidly with no residual sequela. CONCLUSION: The recognition of atypical presentations of COVID-19 infection, such as delirium, is critical to the timely diagnosis, provision of appropriate care, and avoidance of outbreaks within healthcare facilities during this pandemic. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:1382-1384, 2020.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Delírio/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
10.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 75(12): 2124-2132, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27165176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin in which interleukin (IL) 17 has been genetically and therapeutically recognised as a key player. Identification of the cellular sources and inducers of IL-17 is crucial in our understanding of the drivers of inflammation in AS. Recently, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have been implicated in autoimmune diseases. Their gut origin, effector phenotype and expression of multiple AS-associated genes, such as IL7R and IL23R, makes them potential contributors to the pathogenesis of AS. METHODS: Mononuclear cells from patients with AS, healthy controls (HCs) and patients with rheumatoid arthritis were isolated from blood and synovial fluid (SF). Flow cytometry was used to identify MAIT cells. Phenotype was assessed by intracellular staining for cytokines and granzyme. Function was assessed by antigen-specific stimulation using Salmonella, or antigen non-specific activation via priming with IL-7 or IL-23. RESULTS: MAIT cells were reduced in frequency in the blood of patients with AS compared with HCs, yet patients with AS had an elevated frequency IL-17A+ MAIT cells. There was an enrichment of MAIT cells in SF, which had an exaggerated IL-17 phenotype. IL-17 elevation in AS MAIT cells was dependent on priming with IL-7 but not IL-23 or antigen stimulation. The AS-associated IL7R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs11742270, had no effect on IL-7R expression or function in the experiments performed. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals a potential role for MAIT cells in patients with AS and is the first linking IL-7 to the elevated IL-17 profile in patients through the AS-associated risk gene IL7R.


Assuntos
Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-7/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Interleucina-23/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Interleucina-7/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-7/metabolismo , Espondilite Anquilosante/sangue , Espondilite Anquilosante/genética , Líquido Sinovial/citologia , Células Th17/imunologia
12.
Respir Res ; 14: 118, 2013 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24283210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is characterized by airway inflammation in response to antigen exposure, leading to airway remodeling and lung dysfunction. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may play a role in airway remodeling through the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype in airway epithelial cells. TGF-ß1 is known to promote EMT; however, other cytokines expressed in severe asthma with extensive remodeling, such as IL-22, may also contribute to this process. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of IL-22 to EMT in primary bronchial epithelial cells from healthy and asthmatic subjects. METHODS: Primary bronchial epithelial cells were isolated from healthy subjects, mild asthmatics and severe asthmatics (n=5 patients per group). The mRNA and protein expression of epithelial and mesenchymal cell markers and EMT-associated transcription factors was evaluated following stimulation with TGF-ß1, IL-22 and TGF-ß1+IL-22. RESULTS: Primary bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with TGF-ß1 underwent EMT, demonstrated by decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and MUC5AC) and increased expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin) and EMT-associated transcription factors. IL-22 alone had no effect on epithelial or mesenchymal gene expression. However, IL-22+TGF-ß1 promoted the expression of some EMT transcription factors (Snail1 and Zeb1) and led to a more profound cadherin shift, but only in cells obtained from severe asthmatics. CONCLUSION: The impact of IL-22 on airway epithelial cells depends on the cytokine milieu and the clinical phenotype of the patient. Further studies are required to determine the molecular mechanism of IL-22 and TGF-ß1 cooperativity in driving EMT in primary human bronchial epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Asma/fisiopatologia , Brônquios/fisiopatologia , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Interleucinas/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Biópsia , Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Brônquios/patologia , Caderinas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucina-5AC/metabolismo , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
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