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1.
Aten Primaria ; 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between maternal affective disorders (AD) before and during pregnancy, and pre-term birth. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. LOCATION: Sexual and reproductive health units at the Institut Català de la Salut (ICS) in Catalonia, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women with a result of live-born child from 1/1/2012 to 30/10/2015. INTERVENTIONS: Data were obtained from the ICS Primary Care electronic medical record. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Diagnosis of AD before and during pregnancy, months of pregnancy, and possible confusion factors were collected. Descriptive statistical analysis (median, interquartile range, and absolute and relative frequency), bivariate analysis (Wilcoxon test and Chi-square test), and multivariate analysis (logistic regression) were performed. RESULTS: 102,086 women presented valid information for the study. Prevalence of AD during pregnancy was 3.5% (4.29% in pre-term and 3.46% in term births; p<0.004). Pregnant women with pre-term births presented a higher age, smoking habit, lower inter-pregnancy interval, and a lower socio-economic status. Pre-term birth was significantly associated to previous history of stress and dissociative disorder (SDD), anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and eating disorders (ED), and use of antidepressants. It was also associated to abuse of alcohol, smoking, and use of psychoactive substances, as well as SDD, ED, use of antipsychotics, and divorce during pregnancy. Multivariate analysis confirmed the relationship between pre-term birth and history of AD, SDD, ED, and smoking, but not with AD during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Examining the previous history of SDD and ED in pregnant women, and SDD, and ED during pregnancy is highly relevant to avoid pre-term birth.

2.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(1): 9-15, ene. 2018. ^graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-170108

RESUMO

Introducción: La transmisión vertical (TV) es relevante en la epidemiología global del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), representando la principal vía de infección en la edad pediátrica. Los objetivos del estudio fueron determinar la tasa de TV del VIH y su tendencia epidemiológica entre la población autóctona e inmigrante en Catalunya entre 2000-2014. Métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo de parejas madre-hijo expuestas al VIH atendidas en 12 hospitales de Catalunya en 2000-2014. Se estimó la tasa de TV del VIH aplicando un modelo bayesiano de regresión logística. Se utilizó el software estadístico R y WinBUGS. Resultados: Se analizaron 909 gestantes, 1.009 embarazos y 1.032 niños; datos de origen materno en el 79,4% de las mujeres, el 32,7% inmigrantes y de estas el 53,0% de África subsahariana. La tasa de TV del VIH fue del 1,4% (14/1.023; IC95% 0,8-2,3). El riesgo de TV del VIH fue 10 veces menor en mujeres con buen control virológico (p=0,01), al que llegaron 2 tercios de ellas. No hubo diferencias en la tasa de TV del VIH entre mujeres autóctonas e inmigrantes (p=0,6). La proporción de mujeres inmigrantes fue significativamente mayor en el período 2008-2014 (p<0,0001), en relación con el diagnóstico de la infección por VIH (p<0,0001) y la administración de antirretrovirales (p=0,02) durante el embarazo, y con la viremia indetectable próxima al parto (p<0,001). Conclusiones: Existe un aumento progresivo de gestantes inmigrantes con VIH en Catalunya. Aun siendo la mayoría diagnosticadas durante el embarazo, la tasa de TV del VIH no fue diferente a la hallada en las mujeres autóctonas (AU)


Introduction: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is relevant in the global epidemiology of human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as it represents the main route of infection in children. The study objectives were to determine the rate of HIV-MTCT and its epidemiological trend between the Spanish-born and immigrant population in Catalonia in the period 2000-2014. Methods: A prospective observational study of mother-child pairs exposed to HIV, treated in 12 hospitals in Catalonia in the period 2000-2014. HIV-MTCT rate was estimated using a Bayesian logistic regression model. R and WinBUGS statistical software were used. Results: The analysis included 909 pregnant women, 1,009 pregnancies, and 1,032 children. Data on maternal origin was obtained in 79.4% of women, of whom 32.7% were immigrants, with 53.0% of these from sub-Saharan Africa. The overall HIV-MTCT rate was 1.4% (14/1,023; 95% CI; 0.8-2.3). The risk of MTCT-HIV was 10-fold lower in women with good virological control (P=.01), which was achieved by two-thirds of them. The proportion of immigrants was significantly higher in the period 2008-2014 (P<.0001), for the HIV-diagnosis (P<.0001), and antiretroviral administration (P=.02) during pregnancy, and for undetectable viral load next to delivery (P<.001). There were no differences in the rate of MTCT-HIV among Spanish-born and immigrant women (P=.6). Conclusions: There is a gradual increase in HIV pregnant immigrants in Catalonia. Although most immigrant women were diagnosed during pregnancy, the rate of MTCT-HIV was no different from the Spanish-born women (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Teorema de Bayes , Complicações na Gravidez/microbiologia
3.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 50(1): 44-52, ene. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-172630

RESUMO

Introducción: La información existente sobre la resistencia a los antibióticos se basa habitualmente en muestras de personas hospitalizadas. El objetivo fue evaluar la prevalencia de resistencia antibiótica de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus y Streptococcus pneumoniae de personas portadores nasales atendidas en las consultas de atención primaria según edad y sexo. Diseño: Estudio transversal. Emplazamiento. Siete centros de salud del área de Barcelona. Participantes. Personas portadoras nasales a partir de 4 años de edad, sin signos de enfermedad infecciosa y que no habían tomado antibióticos ni habían estado hospitalizados en los 3 meses anteriores. Mediciones principales: Se recogieron 3.969 frotis nasales válidos para identificación entre 2010 y 2011 y fueron enviados a un laboratorio central de microbiología para el aislamiento de ambos gérmenes. La resistencia a los antibióticos se estableció según los puntos de corte actuales de la guía del European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Resultados: La prevalencia de S. aureus resistente a meticilina fue del 1,3% (IC 95%: 0,5-2,1%), con porcentajes de resistencia frente a fenoximetilpenicilina del 87,1% y a azitromicina del 11,6%, sin observar diferencias significativas según edad y sexo. Un 2,4% (IC 95%: 0,1-4,7%) de las cepas de neumococo fueron altamente resistentes a fenoximetilpenicilina y macrólidos, mientras que las mayores resistencias se observaron frente a cefaclor (53,3%), tetraciclina (20%) y cefuroxima (12,1%). Conclusiones: Estos patógenos tienen resistencias más bajas en la comunidad que las que se observan en el medio hospitalario. Es importante que se conozca la resistencia antibiótica actual para poder hacer un uso más prudente de los antibióticos (AU)


Introduction: The information available on antibiotic resistance patterns are generally based on specimens from hospitalised individuals. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibiotic resistance rate of nasal carriage strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy individuals, in accordance with age and gender, attended in Primary Care Centres (PCC). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Seven PCC in the Barcelona area. Participants: Healthy nasal carriers aged 4 years or more who did not present with any sign of infectious disease, and had not taken any antibiotic or had been hospitalised in the previous 3 months. Main measurements: A total of 3,969 nasal swabs valid for identification were collected between 2010 and 2011 and were sent to one central microbiological laboratory for isolation of both pathogens. Resistance to common antibiotics was determined on the basis of the current European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines on cut-off points. Results: The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S.aureus was 1.3% (95% CI: 0.5-2.1%), with resistance rates of 87.1% to phenoxymethylpenicillin and 11.6% to azithromycin, with no significant differences with age and gender. A total of 2.4% (95 CI%: 0.1-4.7%) of the pneumococcal strains were highly resistant to both phenoxymethylpenicillin and macrolides, whereas the highest resistance rates were to cefaclor (53.3%), followed by tetracycline (20%) and cefuroxime (12.1%). Conclusions: These pathogens have lower resistance rates in the community than in the hospital setting. Primary Care physicians must be more aware of the current antimicrobial resistance, in order to ensure prudent use of antibiotics (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/estatística & dados numéricos , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Centros de Saúde , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos
4.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 36(1): 9-15, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27609632

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is relevant in the global epidemiology of human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as it represents the main route of infection in children. The study objectives were to determine the rate of HIV-MTCT and its epidemiological trend between the Spanish-born and immigrant population in Catalonia in the period 2000-2014. METHODS: A prospective observational study of mother-child pairs exposed to HIV, treated in 12 hospitals in Catalonia in the period 2000-2014. HIV-MTCT rate was estimated using a Bayesian logistic regression model. R and WinBUGS statistical software were used. RESULTS: The analysis included 909 pregnant women, 1,009 pregnancies, and 1,032 children. Data on maternal origin was obtained in 79.4% of women, of whom 32.7% were immigrants, with 53.0% of these from sub-Saharan Africa. The overall HIV-MTCT rate was 1.4% (14/1,023; 95% CI; 0.8-2.3). The risk of MTCT-HIV was 10-fold lower in women with good virological control (P=.01), which was achieved by two-thirds of them. The proportion of immigrants was significantly higher in the period 2008-2014 (P<.0001), for the HIV-diagnosis (P<.0001), and antiretroviral administration (P=.02) during pregnancy, and for undetectable viral load next to delivery (P<.001). There were no differences in the rate of MTCT-HIV among Spanish-born and immigrant women (P=.6). CONCLUSIONS: There is a gradual increase in HIV pregnant immigrants in Catalonia. Although most immigrant women were diagnosed during pregnancy, the rate of MTCT-HIV was no different from the Spanish-born women.

5.
Aten Primaria ; 50(1): 44-52, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28413102

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The information available on antibiotic resistance patterns are generally based on specimens from hospitalised individuals. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibiotic resistance rate of nasal carriage strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy individuals, in accordance with age and gender, attended in Primary Care Centres (PCC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Seven PCC in the Barcelona area. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy nasal carriers aged 4years or more who did not present with any sign of infectious disease, and had not taken any antibiotic or had been hospitalised in the previous 3months. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: A total of 3,969 nasal swabs valid for identification were collected between 2010 and 2011 and were sent to one central microbiological laboratory for isolation of both pathogens. Resistance to common antibiotics was determined on the basis of the current European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines on cut-off points. RESULTS: The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S.aureus was 1.3% (95%CI: 0.5-2.1%), with resistance rates of 87.1% to phenoxymethylpenicillin and 11.6% to azithromycin, with no significant differences with age and gender. A total of 2.4% (95CI%: 0.1-4.7%) of the pneumococcal strains were highly resistant to both phenoxymethylpenicillin and macrolides, whereas the highest resistance rates were to cefaclor (53.3%), followed by tetracycline (20%) and cefuroxime (12.1%). CONCLUSIONS: These pathogens have lower resistance rates in the community than in the hospital setting. Primary Care physicians must be more aware of the current antimicrobial resistance, in order to ensure prudent use of antibiotics.

6.
Clin Interv Aging ; 12: 223-231, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28184153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The population is aging and multimorbidity is becoming a common problem in the elderly. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of multimorbidity patterns on mortality for all causes at 3- and 5-year follow-up periods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective community-based cohort (2009-2014) embedded within a randomized clinical trial was conducted in seven primary health care centers, including 328 subjects aged 85 years at baseline. Sociodemographic variables, sensory status, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidity, and geriatric tests were analyzed. Multimorbidity patterns were defined as combinations of two or three of 16 specific chronic conditions in the same individual. RESULTS: Of the total sample, the median and interquartile range value of conditions was 4 (3-5). The individual morbidities significantly associated with death were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; hazard ratio [HR]: 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3; 4.7), atrial fibrillation (AF; HR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.3; 4.3), and malignancy (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0; 3.6) at 3-year follow-up; whereas dementia (HR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.3; 3.2), malignancy (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.2; 2.8), and COPD (HR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.1; 2.8) were the most associated with mortality at 5-year follow-up, after adjusting using Barthel functional index (BI). The two multimorbidity patterns most associated with death were AF, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and visual impairment (HR: 4.19; 95% CI: 2.2; 8.2) at 3-year follow-up as well as hypertension, CKD, and malignancy (HR: 3.24; 95% CI: 1.8; 5.8) at 5 years, after adjusting using BI. CONCLUSION: Multimorbidity as specific combinations of chronic conditions showed an effect on mortality, which would be higher than the risk attributable to individual morbidities. The most important predicting pattern for mortality was the combination of AF, CKD, and visual impairment after 3 years. These findings suggest that a new approach is required to target multimorbidity in octogenarians.


Assuntos
Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/mortalidade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Multimorbidade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia
7.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 52(1): 44-52, ene.-feb. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-159276

RESUMO

Se presenta una revisión de los diversos estudios que forman parte de la valoración inicial y del seguimiento durante 5años de una cohorte de personas que cumplieron 85años en el momento de la inclusión: el estudio Octabaix. Se trata de un estudio poblacional con 328 participantes; de ellos el 61,6% eran mujeres, el 53% viudos y un tercio vivían solos. En cuanto a antecedentes, el 75,9% de pacientes presentaban hipertensión arterial, el 51,2% dislipemia y el 17,7% diabetes mellitus. Al inicio del estudio la mediana del índice de Barthel era de 95, la del Mini-Examen Cognitivo de 28, la del índice Charlson de 1, la del Mini-Nutritional Assessment de 25, la de la Escala de riesgo social de Gijón de 10, la de la escala visual analógica del test Euroqol-5D de salud percibida de 60; la media de fármacos era de 6,1. Tener una menor calidad de vida se asoció a género femenino, presentar un fenotipo de fragilidad, insuficiencia cardiaca y un elevado índice de riesgo social. A los 5años de seguimiento la tasa de mortalidad fue elevada (42,1%), lo que representaba una tasa de mortalidad del 8,4% al año. Un denominador común de los estudios incluidos en esta revisión ha sido el de la mayor importancia de la funcionalidad y comorbilidad global, como factores asociados a mortalidad en este grupo de edad muy avanzada frente a otros factores más clásicos presentes en poblaciones más jóvenes. También en este grupo de estudios se han analizado la fragilidad, las caídas, el riesgo nutricional, la diabetes y el envejecimiento satisfactorio, entre otros aspectos importantes para mejor conocer este grupo poblacional (AU)


This is a review of a prospective, community-based study with a follow-up period of 5years. It is a study of 328 participants aged 85 at baseline, of which 62% were female, 53% widows, and a third of them living alone. High blood pressure was observed in 75.9%, dyslipidaemia in 51.2%, and diabetes in 17.7%. At baseline the median Barthel Index was 95, the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination was 28, the Charlson index 1, the Mini Nutritional Assessment 25, the Gijón test 10, the visual analogue scale of the Quality of Life Test was 60, and with a mean of 6.1 prescription drugs. A lower quality of life was also associated with female gender, a phenotype of frailty, heart failure, and a high level of social risk. At 5years of follow-up, the mortality rate was high, with 138 (42.1%) of the population sample dying at the end of the period. It represents an annual mortality rate of 8.4%. Thus, a common denominator of this review has been the high importance of functionality and overall comorbidity factors associated with mortality in this very old age group, compared to other more traditional factors in younger populations. Several studies of frailty have also been assessed in this group, as well as falls, nutritional risk, diabetes and successful aging, including important aspects to better understand this population group (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Idoso , Idoso Fragilizado , Cognição/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Saúde do Idoso Institucionalizado , Comorbidade , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade
8.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 52(1): 44-52, 2017 Jan - Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27133765

RESUMO

This is a review of a prospective, community-based study with a follow-up period of 5years. It is a study of 328 participants aged 85 at baseline, of which 62% were female, 53% widows, and a third of them living alone. High blood pressure was observed in 75.9%, dyslipidaemia in 51.2%, and diabetes in 17.7%. At baseline the median Barthel Index was 95, the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination was 28, the Charlson index 1, the Mini Nutritional Assessment 25, the Gijón test 10, the visual analogue scale of the Quality of Life Test was 60, and with a mean of 6.1 prescription drugs. A lower quality of life was also associated with female gender, a phenotype of frailty, heart failure, and a high level of social risk. At 5years of follow-up, the mortality rate was high, with 138 (42.1%) of the population sample dying at the end of the period. It represents an annual mortality rate of 8.4%. Thus, a common denominator of this review has been the high importance of functionality and overall comorbidity factors associated with mortality in this very old age group, compared to other more traditional factors in younger populations. Several studies of frailty have also been assessed in this group, as well as falls, nutritional risk, diabetes and successful aging, including important aspects to better understand this population group.


Assuntos
Avaliação Geriátrica , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Sex Transm Infect ; 92(5): 387-92, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26888659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of HIV testing among patients diagnosed with an indicator condition (IC) for HIV, seen in primary care (PC) in Catalonia, and to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among those patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and population-based study in patients aged between 16 and 65 diagnosed with an IC within PC in Catalonia. METHODS: Data used in this study were extracted from a large population-based public health database in Spain, the Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP). All participants registered in SIDIAP from 1 January 2010 to 31 August 2012 and with a diagnosis of an IC were screened to identify those with an HIV test within the following 4 months. RESULTS: 99 426 patients were diagnosed with an IC during the study period. In these patients, there were 102 647 episodes in which at least one IC was diagnosed. An HIV test was performed within 4 months in only 18 515 of the episodes in which an IC was diagnosed (18.5%). The prevalence of HIV infection was 1.46%. Women (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.39), people aged 50 or over (OR 2.85, 95% CI 2.69 to 3.00) and patients having a single IC (OR 3.59. 95% CI 3.20 to 4.03) had the greatest odds of not having an HIV test. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the persistence of missed opportunities for HIV testing within PC in Catalonia. Urgent engagement with PC professionals is required in order to increase HIV testing and prevent late HIV diagnoses.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dermatite Seborreica , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Herpes Zoster , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Espanha , Trombocitopenia , Tuberculose , Adulto Jovem
10.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 29(5): 347-352, sept.-oct. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-143002

RESUMO

Background: Studies of the prevalence of HIV in sentinel populations are one of the key strategies to monitor the HIV epidemic. We describe HIV prevalence trends and identify differences across time in the sociodemographic characteristics of HIV-infected women giving birth in Catalonia. Methods: We used dried blood specimens, residual to newborn screening, which have been collected in Catalonia every 2 months since 1994. The total number of samples obtained until 2009 and in 2013 represented half of yearly newborns. From 2010 to 2012, the total number of samples obtained represented a quarter of yearly newborns. We studied the prevalence by year and place of current residence (Barcelona-city, cities>200,000 inhabitants and cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants) and by the mother's birth country. A total of 624,912 infants were tested for HIV antibodies from January 1994 to December 2013. Results: HIV prevalence trends among women giving birth in Catalonia decreased until 2007. Thereafter, there was a change to a steady trend until 2013. However, among foreign women giving birth and living in cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants, the prevalence of HIV increased from 2007 to 2013. Conclusion: To ensure early identification and treatment of HIV-infected mothers, it is essential to maintain HIV surveillance programs and pre- and post-natal screening programs, both in Barcelona and in cities with 200,000 inhabitants or less, especially in immigrant women (AU)


Antecedentes: Los estudios de prevalencia del VIH en poblaciones centinela son una de las estrategias clave para monitorizar la epidemia. Describimos tendencias de la prevalencia de VIH e identificamos diferencias en el tiempo y según las características socio-demográficas de las mujeres que dan a luz infectadas por el VIH en Cataluña. Métodos: Utilizamos muestras de sangre seca, residuales al cribado de recién nacidos que se recoge cada dos meses desde el año 1994. El total de muestras obtenidas hasta el 2009 y en 2013, representa la mitad de los recién nacidos anuales. En los años 2010 a 2012, el total de muestras obtenidas representa un cuarto de los recién nacidos anuales. Estudiamos la prevalencia por año y lugar de residencia (Barcelona-ciudad, ciudades de más de 200.000 habitantes y otras ciudades o pueblos de ≤ a 200.000 habitantes) y por lugar de nacimiento de la madre. Entre enero 1994 y diciembre 2013, fueron cribados de existencia de anticuerpos anti-VIH 624.912 recién nacidos. Resultados: La prevalencia de VIH en las mujeres que dan a luz en Cataluña decrece hasta el año 2007, estabilizándose en 2013. Sin embargo, entre las extranjeras que dieron a luz y que viven en ciudades de ≤ a 200.000 habitantes la prevalencia de VIH aumenta entre 2007 y 2013. Conclusión: Es fundamental mantener la vigilancia del VIH y los programas pre y post natal en Barcelona ciudad y ciudades de ≤ a 200.000 habitantes, y especialmente en las mujeres extranjeras para asegurar un temprano abordaje de las infectadas por el VIH (AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Resultado da Gravidez , Soroprevalência de HIV/tendências , Infecções por HIV/congênito , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 33(7): 451-457, ago.-sept. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-140508

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de portadores nasales de Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) y Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) en personas atendidas en las consultas de Atención Primaria del área de Barcelona, así como los factores que se asocian a la condición de portador sano. Métodos: Estudio transversal multicéntrico realizado entre 2010-2011, en el que participaron 27 profesionales de Atención Primaria. Se obtuvieron 3969 frotis nasales de población mayor de 4 años y sin signos de enfermedad infecciosa. Variables dependientes: ser portador de S.aureus y/o de S. pneumoniae. Variables independientes: características socio demográficas, estado de salud, estado vacunal, ocupación laboral y convivencia con niños. Se realizó el análisis descriptivo, cálculo de la prevalencia de portadores sanos de S.aureus y/o de S. pneumoniae y se ajustaron modelos de regresión logística según edad. Resultados: En niños de 4 a 14 años, la prevalencia de portadores de S.aureus fue 35,7%, de S. pneumoniae del 27,1% y co-colonizados del 5,8%. En adultos mayores de 14 años fue del 17,8, del 3,5 y del 0,5% respectivamente. En niños, ser portador de S.aureus se asoció con no presentar S. pneumoniae, y ser portador de S. pneumoniae con no presentar S.aureus y menor edad. En adultos, ser portador de S.aureus se asoció con ser hombre, menor e dad y trabajar en sanidad, y ser portador de S. pneumoniae con convivir con menores de 6 años. La proporción de portadores co-colonizados es baja (1,0%). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de portadores en niños es mayor que en los adultos. Salvo la edad, no se observan otros factores comunes que se asocien a la condición de portador sano de estas 2 bacterias por separado (AU)


Objective: To determine (i) the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) nasal carriage in Primary Health Care patients in area of Barcelona, and (ii) the factors associated with S.aureus and S. pneumoniae colonization. Methods: Multi-center cross-sectional study conducted in 2010-2011 with the participation of 27 Primary Health Care professionals. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 3,969 patients over 4 years of age who did not present with any sign of infection. Dependent variables: S.aureus and/or S. pneumoniae carrier state. Independent variables: socio-demographic characteristics, health status, vaccination status, occupation, and living with children. A descriptive analysis was performed. The prevalence of carriers of S.aureus and/or S. pneumoniae was calculated and logistic regression models were adjusted by age. Results: In children from 4 to 14 years old, the prevalence of S.aureus carriers was 35.7%, of S.pneumoniae 27.1%, and 5.8% were co-colonized. In adults older than 14 years old, the prevalence was 17.8%, 3.5%, and 0.5%, respectively. In children, S.aureus carrier state was inversely associated with S. pneumoniae carrier state; S. pneumoniae was associated with younger age, and inversely associated with S.aureus carrier state. In adults, being a carrier of S.aureus was associated with male gender, younger age, and a health-related occupation, whereas S. pneumoniae carrier state was associated with living with children under 6 years of age. The proportion of co-colonized carriers was low (1.0%). Conclusions: The proportion of S.aureus and S. pneumoniae carriers was higher in children than in adults. Age was the only factor associated with healthy carrier status for S. aureus and for S. pneumoniae (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Estudos Transversais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais/tendências , Modelos Logísticos
12.
Qual Life Res ; 24(11): 2701-11, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26003314

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The proportion of very old people is rising, and so, describing their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important point of interest. The aim of this study was to analyse the predictive factors on HRQoL throughout a 3-year follow-up period, in a community-based cohort of octogenarian people. METHODS: From 290 subjects aged 85 and over, sociodemographic and geriatric data, including levels of frailty phenotype assessment, and HRQoL using the EuroQol 5D3L (EQ-5D) instrument were collected. A longitudinal analysis was performed by generalized estimating equations (jointly testing the bivariate effect of variables and its time dependence) and regression mixed models to evaluate the adjusted effect of variables on HRQoL after a 3-year follow-up. RESULTS: In the EQ-5D baseline assessment, the average visual analogue self-rating scale value was 63.82 (SD ± 19.45), the EQ-5D index was 0.67 (0.34) and the most significant issues were pain/discomfort (61.2 %), depression (45.3 %) and mobility (44.6 %). The third year index was 0.55 (0.38). Independent predictive factors of a lower HRQoL identified by the regression mixed models were female gender (marginal effect ME = -0.101; p = 0.003), being pre-frail (ME = -0.142; p = 0.011) or frail (ME = -0.071; p = 0.030), having heart failure (ME = -0.081; p = 0.037) and having a high social risk score (ME = -0.020; p = 0.015). In contrast, higher functional status (ME = 0.050; p < 0.001) and nutritional score (ME = 0.013; p = 0.011) appeared to be predictive factors of an enhanced HRQoL. The adjusted effect of "time of follow-up" had no statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Frail individuals at baseline have a significant lower HRQoL, whereas a higher functional status and nutritional status are independent predicting factors of an enhanced HRQoL after 3 years of follow-up. These findings may encourage clinicians in order to asses HRQoL.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
13.
Gac Sanit ; 29(5): 347-52, 2015 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25814033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of the prevalence of HIV in sentinel populations are one of the key strategies to monitor the HIV epidemic. We describe HIV prevalence trends and identify differences across time in the sociodemographic characteristics of HIV-infected women giving birth in Catalonia. METHODS: We used dried blood specimens, residual to newborn screening, which have been collected in Catalonia every 2 months since 1994. The total number of samples obtained until 2009 and in 2013 represented half of yearly newborns. From 2010 to 2012, the total number of samples obtained represented a quarter of yearly newborns. We studied the prevalence by year and place of current residence (Barcelona-city, cities>200,000 inhabitants and cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants) and by the mother's birth country. A total of 624,912 infants were tested for HIV antibodies from January 1994 to December 2013. RESULTS: HIV prevalence trends among women giving birth in Catalonia decreased until 2007. Thereafter, there was a change to a steady trend until 2013. However, among foreign women giving birth and living in cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants, the prevalence of HIV increased from 2007 to 2013. CONCLUSION: To ensure early identification and treatment of HIV-infected mothers, it is essential to maintain HIV surveillance programs and pre- and post-natal screening programs, both in Barcelona and in cities with 200,000 inhabitants or less, especially in immigrant women.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Soroprevalência de HIV/tendências , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/congênito , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , América Latina/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triagem Neonatal , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
14.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 33(7): 451-7, 2015 Aug-Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25617018

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine (i) the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S.pneumoniae) nasal carriage in Primary Health Care patients in area of Barcelona, and (ii) the factors associated with S.aureus and S.pneumoniae colonization. METHODS: Multi-center cross-sectional study conducted in 2010-2011 with the participation of 27 Primary Health Care professionals. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 3,969 patients over 4 years of age who did not present with any sign of infection. DEPENDENT VARIABLES: S.aureus and/or S.pneumoniae carrier state. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: socio-demographic characteristics, health status, vaccination status, occupation, and living with children. A descriptive analysis was performed. The prevalence of carriers of S.aureus and/or S.pneumoniae was calculated and logistic regression models were adjusted by age. RESULTS: In children from 4 to 14 years old, the prevalence of S.aureus carriers was 35.7%, of S.pneumoniae 27.1%, and 5.8% were co-colonized. In adults older than 14 years old, the prevalence was 17.8%, 3.5%, and 0.5%, respectively. In children, S.aureus carrier state was inversely associated with S.pneumoniae carrier state; S.pneumoniae was associated with younger age, and inversely associated with S.aureus carrier state. In adults, being a carrier of S.aureus was associated with male gender, younger age, and a health-related occupation, whereas S.pneumoniae carrier state was associated with living with children under 6 years of age. The proportion of co-colonized carriers was low (1.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of S.aureus and S.pneumoniae carriers was higher in children than in adults. Age was the only factor associated with healthy carrier status for S.aureus and for S.pneumoniae.


Assuntos
Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Distribuição por Sexo , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
15.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 14(3): 702-9, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23998431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of the risk of being undernourished in a community-dwelling population of 85-year-olds, and to study associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based survey of 328 inhabitants assigned to seven primary healthcare teams was carried out. Geriatric assessment was based on sociodemographic variables, the Barthel Index (BI), the Lawton Index (LI), the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Charlson Comorbidity Index, chronic diseases, social risk measured by Gijon's Social-Familial Evaluation Scale, prescriptions and blood tests. Nutritional status was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Participants were defined as being at risk of undernourishment when they had a MNA score above or equal to 23.5. A comparative analysis was carried out between patients with and without risk of being undernourished, and a multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out. RESULTS: The prevalence risk of being undernourished was 34.5%. A statistically significant association was found with being female (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.28-4.54), LI (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.29-1.66), social risk (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02-1.29) and prescription drugs taken (OR 5.58, 95% CI 2.09-14.92). Cardiovascular prescription showed a protective association (OR 4.34, 95% CI 1.78-10.0). No statistical differences between the risks of being undernourished were found in the laboratory analysis. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high risk of being undernourished in 85-year-old subjects. This nutritional status was positively associated with being female, disability, increased social risk and a high number of prescription drugs, whereas there was a protective relationship with cardiovascular prescription. In evaluations of nutritional status in the community, a multidisciplinary assessment is more valid than analytical findings.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha
16.
Respirology ; 18(4): 718-27, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23438203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The best strategy to achieve optimal integrated management to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care (PC) is not clear. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention in PC based on an integrated programme, which combines diverse strategies directed at health professionals to improve quality of life and clinical outcomes of their patients with COPD. We compared the outcome with results from standard practice. METHODS: A prospective, multicentre, quasi-experimental study and a 12-month follow up was performed. Intervention consisted of an integrated education programme in PC. The main outcome variable was the change in total score of the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) at the end of follow up between the control and intervention group. RESULTS: A total of 801 patients participated in the study with a mean age of 70.2 years and a mean FEV1 (% predicted) of 55%. At 1-year follow up, the SGRQ score did not significantly differ. Although the intervention group showed an improvement in dietary, exercise and smoking habits, there was an increase in reported exacerbations and hospital admissions (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of an integrated education programme in a PC setting, which combines diverse strategies directed at health professionals, did not achieve the expected changes in quality of life measured by SGRQ at 1-year follow up. Nonetheless, this study observed an improvement in patients' lifestyle choices, even though this did not result in a significant change in the clinical evolution or heath status over 12 months.


Assuntos
Educação Profissionalizante , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Testes de Função Respiratória
17.
BMJ Open ; 2(6)2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23204141

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Colonoscopies are being requested with increasing frequency in the last few years, as they are used both as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in several gastrointestinal diseases. Our purpose is to describe the appropriateness of colonoscopy requests issued both from primary care centres and from hospitals, according to the EPAGE II guidelines (European Panel on the Appropriateness of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Cross-sectional study. Colonoscopy requests issued since January 2011 and received at the endoscopy units of all six reference hospitals serving the primary care centres of the South Metropolitan and Central Catalonia districts will be collected (total=1500 requests). Variables to be collected include gender, date of birth, origin of the request and reference hospital, priority of the procedure, type of clinician requesting the procedure, date and indication of request, abdominal examination performed, anal inspection examination performed, date of last colonoscopy if applicable, diagnosis and date of diagnosis. Using the available information and the EPAGE II website, colonoscopy requests will be assigned as an appropriateness score. The association between the variables collected and the EPAGE II scores will be assessed using a Student's t test and a χ(2) test. A multilevel logistic model will be generated on the factors associated with the appropriateness of the requests. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Colonoscopy is a costly procedure and not free from complications. In order to increase cost effectiveness, reduce waiting lists and optimise resources, it is necessary to use tools such as the EPAGE II guidelines, which establish criteria to assess the appropriateness of colonoscopies. The purpose of this study is to describe the current situation and to discuss whether current clinical practice is appropriate. The results of the study will be published in the next few years. In consideration of the ethical principles and methods of the research study, approval was granted for the project.

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