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1.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 28(1): 81-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25486489

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anemia has been demonstrated to be detrimental in several populations such as high-surgical-risk patients, critically ill elderly, and cardiac patients. Red blood cell transfusion is the most commonly prescribed therapy for anemia. Despite being life-saving, it carries a risk that ranges from mild complications to death. The aim of this review is to discuss the risks of anemia and blood transfusion, and to describe recent developments in the strategies to reduce allogeneic blood transfusion. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past decades, clinical studies comparing transfusion strategies in different populations were conducted. Despite the challenges imposed by the development of such studies, evidence-based medicine on transfusion medicine in critically ill patients is being created. Different results arising from these studies reflect population heterogeneity, specific circumstances, and difficulties in measuring the impact of anemia and transfusion in a clinical trial. SUMMARY: An adequate judgment of a clinical condition associated with proper application of the available literature is the cornerstone in the management of transfusion in critical care. Apart from this individualized strategy, the institution of a patient blood management program allows goal-directed approach through preoperative recognition of anemia, surgical efforts to minimize blood loss, and continuous assessment of the coagulation status.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Anemia/etiologia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Humanos , América Latina , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reação Transfusional
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2014. 143 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-720623

RESUMO

Objetivos: O propósito do estudo foi avaliar se uma estratégia restritiva de transfusão de hemácias era superior a uma estratégia liberal em reduzir a incidência de morte ou complicações graves em 30 dias em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia abdominal de grande porte para tratamento do câncer. Desenho: Estudo fase III de superioridade, unicêntrico, randomisado e controlado. Local: Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Participantes: Pacientes adultos com câncer submetidos à cirurgia abdominal de grande porte que necessitaram de cuidados pós-operatórios na unidade de terapia intesiva imediatamente após a cirurgia. Intervenção: Os pacientes foram aleatoriamente alocados durante a internação na unidade de terapia intensiva para uma estratégia liberal de transfusão de hemácias (eram transfundidos se a hemoglobina fosse inferior a 9 g/dL) ou para uma estratégia liberal (eram transfundidos se a hemoglobina fosse inferior a 7 g/dL). Desfecho primário: Desfecho composto de morte por qualquer causa ou complicações graves (cardiovasculares, síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo, insuficiência renal com necessidade de diálise, choque séptico e reoperação) em 30 dias. Resultados: Foram incluídos 198 pacientes na análise final; 101 alocados no grupo restritivo e 97 no grupo liberal. A concentração de hemoblobina foi maior nos pacientes do grupo liberal durante o periodo do estudo. Também houve uma maior incidência de transfusão de hemácias neste grupo. O desfecho primário ocorreu em 19,6% (95% Intervalo de confiança [IC] 12,9 a 28,6) dos pacientes da estratégia liberal e em 35,6% (95% IC 27,0 a 45,4) dos pacientes da estratégia restrictiva (p= 0,012). Comparada com a estratégia restritiva, a estratégia liberal resultou em redução do risco absoluto do desfecho primário em 16% (95% IC 3,8 a 28,1) e um número necessário para tratar de 6,2 (95% IC 3,5 a 26,0). Conclusões: Uma estratégia liberal de...


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a restrictive strategy of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion was superior to a liberal one for reducing mortality or severe clinical complications among patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery. Design: Phase III, randomised, unicentric, controlled, parallel-group, superiority trial. Setting: Intensive care unit (ICU) of Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, a tertiary oncology university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil Participants: All adult patients with cancer who were undergoing major abdominal surgery requiring postoperative care in the ICU were included. Interventions: Patients were randomly allocated during intensive care unit stay to treatment with either a liberal RBC transfusion strategy (transfusion when haemoglobin concentration decreased below 9 g/dL) or a restrictive RBC transfusion strategy (transfusion when haemoglobin concentration decreased below 7 g/dL). Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of all cause mortality or severe complications (cardiovascular complications, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy, septic shock and reoperation) at 30 days. Results: A total of 198 patients were included in the final analysis; 101 randomised to the restrictive group and 97 to the liberal group. Haemoglobin concentrations were higher during the study period in the liberal group with a greater use of RBC transfusions. The primary composite endpoint occurred in 19.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.9 to 28.6) of patients in the liberal strategy group and in 35.6% (95%CI 27.0 to 45.4) of patients in the restrictive strategy group (p=.012). Compared to the restrictive strategy, the liberal transfusion strategy resulted in an absolute risk reduction for the composite outcome of 16% (95%CI 3.8 to 28.1) and a number needed to treat of 6.2...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Anemia , Cuidados Críticos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Neoplasias Abdominais/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Ensaio Clínico Controlado Aleatório
3.
Clinics ; 68(1): 33-38, Jan. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-665914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The failure to wean from mechanical ventilation is related to worse outcomes after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the serum level of B-type natriuretic peptide is a predictor of weaning failure from mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study of 101 patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. B-type natriuretic peptide was measured postoperatively after intensive care unit admission and at the end of a 60-min spontaneous breathing test. The demographic data, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, fluid balance, need for vasopressor or inotropic support, and length of the intensive care unit and hospital stays were recorded. Weaning failure was considered as either the inability to sustain spontaneous breathing after 60 min or the need for reintubation within 48 h. RESULTS: Of the 101 patients studied, 12 patients failed the weaning trial. There were no differences between the groups in the baseline or intraoperative characteristics, including left ventricular function, EuroSCORE and lengths of the cardiac procedure and cardiopulmonary bypass. The B-type natriuretic peptide levels were significantly higher at intensive care unit admission and at the end of the breathing test in the patients with weaning failure compared with the patients who were successfully weaned. In a multivariate model, a high B-type natriuretic peptide level at the end of a spontaneous breathing trial was the only independent predictor of weaning failure from mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: A high B-type natriuretic peptide level is a predictive factor for the failure to wean from mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery. These findings suggest that optimizing ventricular function should be a goal during the perioperative period.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Desmame do Respirador , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Hemodinâmica , Período Pós-Operatório , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Testes de Função Respiratória , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular/fisiopatologia
4.
Clinics ; 67(11): 1265-1269, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-656715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The standard therapy for patients with high-level spinal cord injury is long-term mechanical ventilation through a tracheostomy. However, in some cases, this approach results in death or disability. The aim of this study is to highlight the anesthetics and perioperative aspects of patients undergoing insertion of a diaphragmatic pacemaker. METHODS: Five patients with quadriplegia following high cervical traumatic spinal cord injury and ventilator-dependent chronic respiratory failure were implanted with a laparoscopic diaphragmatic pacemaker after preoperative assessments of their phrenic nerve function and diaphragm contractility through transcutaneous nerve stimulation. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01385384. RESULTS: The diaphragmatic pacemaker placement was successful in all of the patients. Two patients presented with capnothorax during the perioperative period, which resolved without consequences. After six months, three patients achieved continuous use of the diaphragm pacing system, and one patient could be removed from mechanical ventilation for more than 4 hours per day. CONCLUSIONS: The implantation of a diaphragmatic phrenic system is a new and safe technique with potential to improve the quality of life of patients who are dependent on mechanical ventilation because of spinal cord injuries. Appropriate indication and adequate perioperative care are fundamental to achieving better results.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Anestesia/métodos , Diafragma , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Marca-Passo Artificial , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Laparoscopia/métodos , Período Perioperatório , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Quadriplegia/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Clinics ; 66(12): 2037-2042, 2011. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-608999

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cancer patients frequently require admission to intensive care unit. However, there are a few data regarding predictive factors for mortality in this group of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether arterial lactate or standard base deficit on admission and after 24 hours can predict mortality for patients with cancer. METHODS: We evaluated 1,129 patients with severe sepsis, septic shock, or postoperative after high-risk surgery. Lactate and standard base deficit collected at admission and after 24 hours were compared between survivors and non-survivors. We evaluated whether these perfusion markers are independent predictors of mortality. RESULTS: There were 854 hospital survivors (76.5 percent). 24 h lactate .1.9 mmol/L and standard base deficit , -2.3 were independent predictors of intensive care unit mortality. 24 h lactate .1.9 mmol/L and 24 h standard base deficit , -2.3 mmol/Lwere independent predictors of hospital death. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that lactate and standard base deficit measurement should be included in the routine assessment of patients with cancer admitted to the intensive care unit with sepsis, septic shock or after highrisk surgery. These markers may be useful in the adequate allocation of resources in this population.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/sangue , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Análise de Sobrevida
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