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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(8): e198898, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397861

RESUMO

Importance: Large studies investigating long-term outcomes of patients with bilateral pheochromocytomas treated with either total or cortical-sparing adrenalectomies are needed to inform clinical management. Objective: To determine the association of total vs cortical-sparing adrenalectomy with pheochromocytoma-specific mortality, the burden of primary adrenal insufficiency after bilateral adrenalectomy, and the risk of pheochromocytoma recurrence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from a multicenter consortium-based registry for 625 patients treated for bilateral pheochromocytomas between 1950 and 2018. Data were analyzed from September 1, 2018, to June 1, 2019. Exposures: Total or cortical-sparing adrenalectomy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary adrenal insufficiency, recurrent pheochromocytoma, and mortality. Results: Of 625 patients (300 [48%] female) with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 30 (22-40) years at diagnosis, 401 (64%) were diagnosed with synchronous bilateral pheochromocytomas and 224 (36%) were diagnosed with metachronous pheochromocytomas (median [IQR] interval to second adrenalectomy, 6 [1-13] years). In 505 of 526 tested patients (96%), germline mutations were detected in the genes RET (282 patients [54%]), VHL (184 patients [35%]), and other genes (39 patients [7%]). Of 849 adrenalectomies performed in 625 patients, 324 (52%) were planned as cortical sparing and were successful in 248 of 324 patients (76.5%). Primary adrenal insufficiency occurred in all patients treated with total adrenalectomy but only in 23.5% of patients treated with attempted cortical-sparing adrenalectomy. A third of patients with adrenal insufficiency developed complications, such as adrenal crisis or iatrogenic Cushing syndrome. Of 377 patients who became steroid dependent, 67 (18%) developed at least 1 adrenal crisis and 50 (13%) developed iatrogenic Cushing syndrome during median (IQR) follow-up of 8 (3-25) years. Two patients developed recurrent pheochromocytoma in the adrenal bed despite total adrenalectomy. In contrast, 33 patients (13%) treated with successful cortical-sparing adrenalectomy developed another pheochromocytoma within the remnant adrenal after a median (IQR) of 8 (4-13) years, all of which were successfully treated with another surgery. Cortical-sparing surgery was not associated with survival. Overall survival was associated with comorbidities unrelated to pheochromocytoma: of 63 patients who died, only 3 (5%) died of metastatic pheochromocytoma. Conclusions and Relevance: Patients undergoing cortical-sparing adrenalectomy did not demonstrate decreased survival, despite development of recurrent pheochromocytoma in 13%. Cortical-sparing adrenalectomy should be considered in all patients with hereditary pheochromocytoma.

2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 514-522, May-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012319

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate risk factors for complications in patients undergoing adrenalectomy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective search of our institutional database was performed of patients who underwent adrenalectomy, between 2014 and 2018. Clinical parameters and adrenal disorder characteristics were assessed and correlated to intra and post-operative course. Complications were analyzed within 30-days after surgery. A logistic regression was performed in order to identify independent predictors of morbidity in patients after adrenalectomy. Results: The files of 154 patients were reviewed. Median age and Body Mass Index (BMI) were 52-years and 27.8kg/m2, respectively. Mean tumor size was 4.9±4cm. Median surgery duration and estimated blood loss were 140min and 50mL, respectively. There were six conversions to open surgery. Minor and major post-operative complications occurred in 17.5% and 8.4% of the patients. Intra-operative complications occurred in 26.6% of the patients. Four patients died. Mean hospitalization duration was 4-days (Interquartile Range: 3-8). Patients age (p=0.004), comorbidities (p=0.003) and pathological diagnosis (p=0.003) were independent predictors of post-operative complications. Tumor size (p<0.001) and BMI (p=0.009) were independent predictors of intra-operative complications. Pathological diagnosis (p<0.001) and Charlson score (p=0.013) were independent predictors of death. Conclusion: Diligent care is needed with older patients, with multiple comorbidities and harboring unfavorable adrenal disorders (adrenocortical carcinoma and pheocromocytoma), who have greater risk of post-operative complications. Patients with elevated BMI and larger tumors have higher risk of intra, but not of post-operative complications.

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(10): 4695-4702, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216002

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension (HT). HT remission (defined as blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg without antihypertensive drugs) has been reported in approximately 50% of patients with unilateral PA after adrenalectomy. HT duration and severity are predictors of blood pressure response, but the prognostic role of somatic KCNJ5 mutations is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical and molecular features associated with HT remission after adrenalectomy in patients with unilateral PA. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 100 patients with PA (60 women; median age at diagnosis 48 years with a median follow-up of 26 months). Anatomopathological analysis revealed 90 aldosterone-producing adenomas, 1 carcinoma, and 9 unilateral adrenal hyperplasias. All patients had biochemical cure after unilateral adrenalectomy. KCNJ5 gene was sequenced in 76 cases. RESULTS: KCNJ5 mutations were identified in 33 of 76 (43.4%) tumors: p.Gly151Arg (n = 17), p.Leu168Arg (n = 15), and p.Glu145Gln (n = 1). HT remission was reported in 37 of 100 (37%) patients. Among patients with HT remission, 73% were women (P = 0.04), 48.6% used more than three antihypertensive medications (P = 0.0001), and 64.9% had HT duration <10 years (P = 0.0015) compared with those without HT remission. Somatic KCNJ5 mutations were associated with female sex (P = 0.004), larger nodules (P = 0.001), and HT remission (P = 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, only a somatic KCNJ5 mutation was an independent predictor of HT remission after adrenalectomy (P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: The presence of a KCNJ5 somatic mutation is an independent predictor of HT remission after unilateral adrenalectomy in patients with unilateral PA.

4.
Int Braz J Urol ; 45(3): 514-522, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038857

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate risk factors for complications in patients undergoing adrenalectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective search of our institutional database was performed of patients who underwent adrenalectomy, between 2014 and 2018. Clinical parameters and adrenal disorder characteristics were assessed and correlated to intra and post-operative course. Complications were analyzed within 30-days after surgery. A logistic regression was performed in order to identify independent predictors of morbidity in patients after adrenalectomy. RESULTS: The files of 154 patients were reviewed. Median age and Body Mass Index (BMI) were 52-years and 27.8kg/m2, respectively. Mean tumor size was 4.9±4cm. Median surgery duration and estimated blood loss were 140min and 50mL, respectively. There were six conversions to open surgery. Minor and major post-operative complications occurred in 17.5% and 8.4% of the patients. Intra-operative complications occurred in 26.6% of the patients. Four patients died. Mean hospitalization duration was 4-days (Interquartile Range: 3-8). Patients age (p=0.004), comorbidities (p=0.003) and pathological diagnosis (p=0.003) were independent predictors of post-operative complications. Tumor size (p<0.001) and BMI (p=0.009) were independent predictors of intra-operative complications. Pathological diagnosis (p<0.001) and Charlson score (p=0.013) were independent predictors of death. CONCLUSION: Diligent care is needed with older patients, with multiple comorbidities and harboring unfavorable adrenal disorders (adrenocortical carcinoma and pheocromocytoma), who have greater risk of post-operative complications. Patients with elevated BMI and larger tumors have higher risk of intra, but not of post-operative complications.


Assuntos
Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/cirurgia , Adrenalectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/complicações , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/cirurgia , Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/complicações , Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/complicações , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral
5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(8): 3245-3248, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779841

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Lipodystrophy syndromes are rare disorders characterized by the selective loss of adipose tissue. We aimed to report a case of acquired generalized lipodystrophy possibly associated with nivolumab. CASE DESCRIPTION: A woman was referred to our Endocrinology Department for uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. At 50 years of age, she was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes after a routine laboratory test and her diabetes was well controlled with low doses of metformin. In 2010, she was diagnosed with clear cell renal carcinoma. The cancer progressed in the following years, leading to the initiation of treatment with nivolumab in 2017. Two months later she presented with facial lipoatrophy, with loss of the buccal fat pads and prominent zygomatic arch. Her neck, shoulders, arms, and buttocks were also affected. Her diabetes control worsened. She received maximal doses of metformin and pioglitazone and was administered 1.5 units/kg/d insulin. Subcutaneous biopsy of medial surface of the arm revealed chronic lobular panniculitis. Despite nivolumab's possible involvement in the onset of lipodystrophy, the maintenance of nivolumab therapy was justified by the observed reduction in the progression of the cancer, combined with the lack of an alternative chemotherapy. The therapy was withdrawn after 8 months of treatment because of grade 3 hepatitis. CONCLUSION: Anti-PD1 therapy has great potential. Early recognition of the onset of unusual collateral effects is important to improve decision making regarding the treatment of patients with tumors.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(11): 3276-3288, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770352

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, aggressive malignancy with few therapies; however, patients with locoregional disease have variable outcomes. The Cancer Genome Atlas project on ACC (ACC-TCGA) identified that cancers of patients with homogeneously rapidly recurrent or fatal disease bear a unique CpG island hypermethylation phenotype, "CIMP-high." We sought to identify a biomarker that faithfully captures this subgroup.Experimental Design: We analyzed ACC-TCGA data to characterize differentially regulated biological processes, and identify a biomarker that is methylated and silenced exclusively in CIMP-high ACC. In an independent cohort of 114 adrenocortical tumors (80 treatment-naive primary ACC, 22 adrenocortical adenomas, and 12 non-naive/nonprimary ACC), we evaluated biomarker methylation by a restriction digest/qPCR-based approach, validated by targeted bisulfite sequencing. We evaluated expression of this biomarker and additional prognostic markers by qPCR. RESULTS: We show that CIMP-high ACC is characterized by upregulation of cell cycle and DNA damage response programs, and identify that hypermethylation and silencing of G0S2 distinguishes this subgroup. We confirmed G0S2 hypermethylation and silencing is exclusive to 40% of ACC, and independently predicts shorter disease-free and overall survival (median 14 and 17 months, respectively). Finally, G0S2 methylation combined with validated molecular markers (BUB1B-PINK1) stratifies ACC into three groups, with uniformly favorable, intermediate, and uniformly dismal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: G0S2 hypermethylation is a hallmark of rapidly recurrent or fatal ACC, amenable to targeted assessment using routine molecular diagnostics. Assessing G0S2 methylation is straightforward, feasible for clinical decision-making, and will enable the direction of efficacious adjuvant therapies for patients with aggressive ACC.

7.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 73(suppl 1): e756s, 2018 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540124

RESUMO

Malignancy must be considered in the management of adrenal lesions, including those incidentally identified on imaging studies. Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumors with an estimated annual incidence of 0.7-2 cases per year and a worldwide prevalence of 4-12 cases per million/year. However, a much higher incidence of these tumors (>15 times) has been demonstrated in south and southeastern Brazil. Most ACCs cause hypersecretion of steroids including glucocorticoids and androgens. ACC patients have a very poor prognosis with a 5-year overall survival (OS) below 30% in most series. Pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma (PPGL) is a metabolically active tumor originating from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. The incidence of PPGL is 0.2 to 0.9 cases per 100,000 individuals per year. Pheochromocytomas are present in approximately 4-7% of patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Classically, PPGL manifests as paroxysmal attacks of the following 4 symptoms: headaches, diaphoresis, palpitations, and severe hypertensive episodes. The diagnosis of malignant PPGL relies on the presence of local invasion or metastasis. In this review, we present the clinical and biochemical characteristics and pathogenesis of malignant primary lesions that affect the cortex and medulla of human adrenal glands.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/terapia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/terapia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/terapia , Paraganglioma/terapia , Feocromocitoma/terapia , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Mitotano/uso terapêutico , Paraganglioma/diagnóstico , Paraganglioma/patologia , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico , Feocromocitoma/patologia
8.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 25(9): 783-793, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748190

RESUMO

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are rare in von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) but cause serious morbidity and mortality. Management guidelines for VHL-PanNETs continue to be based on limited evidence, and survival data to guide surgical management are lacking. We established the European-American-Asian-VHL-PanNET-Registry to assess data for risks for metastases, survival and long-term outcomes to provide best management recommendations. Of 2330 VHL patients, 273 had a total of 484 PanNETs. Median age at diagnosis of PanNET was 35 years (range 10-75). Fifty-five (20%) patients had metastatic PanNETs. Metastatic PanNETs were significantly larger (median size 5 vs 2 cm; P < 0.001) and tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) was faster (22 vs 126 months; P = 0.001). All metastatic tumors were ≥2.8 cm. Codons 161 and 167 were hotspots for VHL germline mutations with enhanced risk for metastatic PanNETs. Multivariate prediction modeling disclosed maximum tumor diameter and TVDT as significant predictors for metastatic disease (positive and negative predictive values of 51% and 100% for diameter cut-off ≥2.8 cm, 44% and 91% for TVDT cut-off of ≤24 months). In 117 of 273 patients, PanNETs >1.5 cm in diameter were operated. Ten-year survival was significantly longer in operated vs non-operated patients, in particular for PanNETs <2.8 cm vs ≥2.8 cm (94% vs 85% by 10 years; P = 0.020; 80% vs 50% at 10 years; P = 0.030). This study demonstrates that patients with PanNET approaching the cut-off diameter of 2.8 cm should be operated. Mutations in exon 3, especially of codons 161/167 are at enhanced risk for metastatic PanNETs. Survival is significantly longer in operated non-metastatic VHL-PanNETs.

9.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 460: 36-46, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676429

RESUMO

The participation of aberrant receptors and intra-adrenal ACTH in hyperplastic tissue are considered mechanisms that regulate hypercortisolism in PMAH. Additionally, germline ARMC5 mutations have been described as the most frequent genetic abnormality found in patients diagnosed with PMAH. Previous functional studies analyzed ARMC5 role using H295R cells. Therefore, we investigated the role of ARMC5 in cell cultures obtained from PMAH nodules containing steroidogenic cells, aberrant receptors and intra-adrenal ACTH. ARMC5 silencing in non-mutated PMAH cell cultures decreased steroidogenesis-related genes and increased CCNE1 mRNA expression and proliferative capacity without affecting cell viability. Additionally, ARMC5 overexpression induced cell death in PMAH mutated cell cultures, thereby decreasing cell viability. We confirmed the role of ARMC5 as an important pro-apoptotic protein involved in PMAH-related steroidogenesis. We also report for the first time the involvement of ARMC5 in controlling proliferation and regulating cell cycle in PMAH cell cultures; these effects need to be explored further.

10.
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e756s, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-974949

RESUMO

Malignancy must be considered in the management of adrenal lesions, including those incidentally identified on imaging studies. Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumors with an estimated annual incidence of 0.7-2 cases per year and a worldwide prevalence of 4-12 cases per million/year. However, a much higher incidence of these tumors (>15 times) has been demonstrated in south and southeastern Brazil. Most ACCs cause hypersecretion of steroids including glucocorticoids and androgens. ACC patients have a very poor prognosis with a 5-year overall survival (OS) below 30% in most series. Pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma (PPGL) is a metabolically active tumor originating from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. The incidence of PPGL is 0.2 to 0.9 cases per 100,000 individuals per year. Pheochromocytomas are present in approximately 4-7% of patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Classically, PPGL manifests as paroxysmal attacks of the following 4 symptoms: headaches, diaphoresis, palpitations, and severe hypertensive episodes. The diagnosis of malignant PPGL relies on the presence of local invasion or metastasis. In this review, we present the clinical and biochemical characteristics and pathogenesis of malignant primary lesions that affect the cortex and medulla of human adrenal glands.

11.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 11: 773, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29104610

RESUMO

Background: Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that can originate from any part of the gastrointestinal tract, bronchi, thyroid and pancreas. These tumours may be functioning or not depending on their ability to produce active substances, such as adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). ACTH-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are rare, with limited data about effective antitumor therapies. Case Report: A 58-year-old man with a history of type-2 diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome (CS) secondary to an ACTH ectopic production from a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour of the pancreas metastatic to the liver. The patient underwent initial body-caudal pancreatectomy, splenectomy and hepatic nodulectomy with subsequent recurrence. Hepatic embolisation and somatostatin analogues were used to control CS but without success. Bilateral adrenalectomy led to CS control, while capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) was effective in controlling tumour growth and ACTH production. Discussion: ACTH-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are rare, aggressive and difficult to treat with available therapies. In settings of limited resources, such as in developing countries where targeted therapies are not available, cytotoxic chemotherapy with CAPOX represents a good and inexpensive option to control ACTH-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Because of its complexity, the management of this tumour should be performed by multidisciplinary teams.

12.
Oncotarget ; 8(38): 63835-63845, 2017 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discrimination between benign and malignant tumors is a challenging process in pediatric adrenocortical tumors. New insights in the metabolic profile of pediatric adrenocortical tumors may contribute to this distinction, predict prognosis, as well as identify new molecular targets for therapy. The aim of this work is to characterize the expression of the metabolism-related proteins MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, CD147, CD44, GLUT1 and CAIX in a series of pediatric adrenocortical tumors. METHODS: A total of 50 pediatric patients presenting adrenocortical tumors, including 41 clinically benign and 9 clinically malignant tumors, were included. Protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry in samples arranged in tissue microarrays. RESULTS: The immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant increase in plasma membrane expression of GLUT1 in malignant lesions, when compared to benign lesions (p=0.004), being the expression of this protein associated with shorter overall and disease-free survival (p=0.004 and p=0.001, respectively). Although significant differences were not observed for proteins other than GLUT1, MCT1, MCT4 and CD147 were highly expressed in pediatric adrenocortical neoplasias (around 90%). CONCLUSION: GLUT1 expression was differentially expressed in pediatric adrenocortical tumors, with higher expression in clinically malignant tumors, and associated with shorter survival, suggesting a metabolic remodeling towards a hyperglycolytic phenotype in this malignancy.

13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(5): 841-848, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-892887

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the role of ARDT after surgical resection of ACC. Materials and Methods: Records of patients from our institutional ACC database were retrospectively assessed. A paired comparison analysis was used to evaluate the oncological outcomes between patients treated with surgery followed by ARDT or surgery only (control). The endpoints were LRFS, RFS, and OS. A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was also performed to evaluate local recurrence of ACC when ARDT was used. Results: Ten patients were included in each Group. The median follow-up times were 32 months and 35 months for the ARDT and control Groups, respectively. The results for LRFS (p=0.11), RFS (p=0.92), and OS (p=0.47) were similar among subsets. The mean time to present with local recurrence was significantly longer in the ARDT group compared with the control Group (419±206 days vs. 181±86 days, respectively; p=0.03). ARDT was well tolerated by the patients; there were no reports of late toxicity. The meta-analysis, which included four retrospective series, revealed that ARDT had a protective effect on LRFS (HR=0.4; CI=0.17-0.94). Conclusions: ARDT may reduce the chance and prolong the time to ACC local recurrence. However, there were no benefits for disease recurrence control or overall survival for patients who underwent this complementary therapy.

14.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 61(3): 305-312, 2017 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28699986

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension (HTN), with an estimated prevalence of 4% of hypertensive patients in primary care and around 10% of referred patients. Patients with PA have higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than age- and sex-matched patients with essential HTN and the same degree of blood pressure elevation. PA is characterized by an autonomous aldosterone production causing sodium retention, plasma renin supression, HTN, cardiovascular damage, and increased potassium excretion, leading to variable degrees of hypokalemia. Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) account for around 40% and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism for around 60% of PA cases. The aldosterone-to-renin ratio is the most sensitive screening test for PA. There are several confirmatory tests and the current literature does not identify a "gold standard" confirmatory test for PA. In our institution, we recommend starting case confirmation with the furosemide test. After case confirmation, all patients with PA should undergo adrenal CT as the initial study in subtype testing to exclude adrenocortical carcinoma. Bilateral adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is the gold standard method to define the PA subtype, but it is not indicated in all cases. An experienced radiologist must perform AVS. Unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the preferential treatment for patients with APAs, and bilateral hyperplasia should be treated with mineralocorticoid antagonist (spironolactone or eplerenone). Cardiovascular morbidity caused by aldosterone excess can be decreased by either unilateral adrenalectomy or mineralocorticoid antagonist. In this review, we address the most relevant issues regarding PA screening, case confirmation, subtype classification, and treatment.


Assuntos
Hiperaldosteronismo/complicações , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Hiperaldosteronismo/terapia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adrenalectomia , Aldosterona/sangue , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/sangue , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Renina/sangue , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Int Braz J Urol ; 43(5): 841-848, 2017 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727379

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of ARDT after surgical resection of ACC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records of patients from our institutional ACC database were retrospectively assessed. A paired comparison analysis was used to evaluate the oncological outcomes between patients treated with surgery followed by ARDT or surgery only (control). The endpoints were LRFS, RFS, and OS. A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was also performed to evaluate local recurrence of ACC when ARDT was used. RESULTS: Ten patients were included in each Group. The median follow-up times were 32 months and 35 months for the ARDT and control Groups, respectively. The results for LRFS (p=0.11), RFS (p=0.92), and OS (p=0.47) were similar among subsets. The mean time to present with local recurrence was significantly longer in the ARDT group compared with the control Group (419±206 days vs. 181±86 days, respectively; p=0.03). ARDT was well tolerated by the patients; there were no reports of late toxicity. The meta-analysis, which included four retrospective series, revealed that ARDT had a protective effect on LRFS (HR=0.4; CI=0.17-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: ARDT may reduce the chance and prolong the time to ACC local recurrence. However, there were no benefits for disease recurrence control or overall survival for patients who underwent this complementary therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/radioterapia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/radioterapia , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/cirurgia , Adrenalectomia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(3): 305-312, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887562

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension (HTN), with an estimated prevalence of 4% of hypertensive patients in primary care and around 10% of referred patients. Patients with PA have higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than age- and sex-matched patients with essential HTN and the same degree of blood pressure elevation. PA is characterized by an autonomous aldosterone production causing sodium retention, plasma renin supression, HTN, cardiovascular damage, and increased potassium excretion, leading to variable degrees of hypokalemia. Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) account for around 40% and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism for around 60% of PA cases. The aldosterone-to-renin ratio is the most sensitive screening test for PA. There are several confirmatory tests and the current literature does not identify a "gold standard" confirmatory test for PA. In our institution, we recommend starting case confirmation with the furosemide test. After case confirmation, all patients with PA should undergo adrenal CT as the initial study in subtype testing to exclude adrenocortical carcinoma. Bilateral adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is the gold standard method to define the PA subtype, but it is not indicated in all cases. An experienced radiologist must perform AVS. Unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the preferential treatment for patients with APAs, and bilateral hyperplasia should be treated with mineralocorticoid antagonist (spironolactone or eplerenone). Cardiovascular morbidity caused by aldosterone excess can be decreased by either unilateral adrenalectomy or mineralocorticoid antagonist. In this review, we address the most relevant issues regarding PA screening, case confirmation, subtype classification, and treatment.

17.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 88(2): 167-171, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395280

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Triple A syndrome (AAAS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by alacrima, achalasia, ACTH-resistant adrenal insufficiency, autonomic dysfunction, and progressive neurodegeneration. Increased oxidative stress, demonstrated in patients' fibroblasts in vitro, may be a central disease mechanism. N-acetylcysteine protects renal function in patients with kidney injuries associated with increased oxidative stress and improves viability of AAAS-knockdown adrenal cells in vitro. PATIENT AND RESULTS: A boy diagnosed with AAAS presented with short stature and increased oxidative stress in vivo assessed by increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which are markers of lipid peroxidation, and by the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation and the capacity of HDL to prevent it. A homozygous missense germline mutation (c.523G>T, p.Val175Phe) in AAAS was identified. N-acetylcysteine (600 mg orally, twice daily) decreased oxidative stress but did not change the patient's growth pattern. CONCLUSIONS: An increase in oxidative stress is reported for the first time in vivo in an AAAS patient. N-acetylcysteine was capable of decreasing TBARS levels, reducing the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation and improving the antioxidant role of HDL. The long-term effect of antioxidant treatment should be evaluated to determine the real benefit for the prevention of the degenerative process in AAAS.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Acalasia Esofágica/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Crescimento/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Insuficiência Adrenal/sangue , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Acalasia Esofágica/sangue , Transtornos do Crescimento/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Int Braz J Urol ; 42(4): 671-7, 2016 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27564276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the presentation and early surgical outcomes of elderly patients undergoing adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective search was performed of our adrenal disorders database for patients who underwent surgery for phaeochromocytoma or paraganglioma between 2009 and 2014. Patients >60 years old were classified as elderly. The clinical manifestations, intraoperative course, and early postoperative outcomes of elderly patients were compared to those of younger individuals (<60 years old). RESULTS: The mean (±standard deviation) age in the older (n=10) and younger (n=36) groups was 69.6±5.3 years and 34.0±12.9 years. Germ-line mutations were more common in younger patients (50.0% versus 0%; p=0.004), whereas incidental lesions were more common in the elderly (40.0% versus 5.3%; p=0.003). In both groups, surgery was most commonly performed by videolaparoscopy (90% in the elderly and 82% in the younger group), with similar intraoperative anesthetic and surgical outcomes. Postoperatively, the older group more commonly received vasoactive drugs (60.0% versus 10.5%; p<0.001) and had a longer intensive care unit stay (3.1±2.8 versus 1.4±1.0 days; p=0.014), more clinical complications (60% versus 18.9%; p=0.01), and longer hospital stay (10.2±8.4 versus 5.7±4.9 days; p=0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Although all patients received the same preoperative preparation, the elderly group exhibited a slower and more complicated recovery after adrenalectomy. Meticulous perioperative care should be used in the elderly when treating phaeochromocytoma; nevertheless, adrenalectomy is a relatively safe procedure in this patient population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/cirurgia , Adrenalectomia/normas , Feocromocitoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/classificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(4): 671-677, July-Aug. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-794685

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the presentation and early surgical outcomes of elderly patients undergoing adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma. Patients and Methods: A retrospective search was performed of our adrenal disorders database for patients who underwent surgery for phaeochromocytoma or paraganglioma between 2009 and 2014. Patients >60 years old were classified as elderly. The clinical manifestations, intraoperative course, and early postoperative outcomes of elderly patients were compared to those of younger individuals (<60 years old). Results: The mean (±standard deviation) age in the older (n=10) and younger (n=36) groups was 69.6±5.3 years and 34.0±12.9 years. Germ-line mutations were more common in younger patients (50.0% versus 0%; p=0.004), whereas incidental lesions were more common in the elderly (40.0% versus 5.3%; p=0.003). In both groups, surgery was most commonly performed by videolaparoscopy (90% in the elderly and 82% in the younger group), with similar intraoperative anesthetic and surgical outcomes. Postoperatively, the older group more commonly received vasoactive drugs (60.0% versus 10.5%; p<0.001) and had a longer intensive care unit stay (3.1±2.8 versus 1.4±1.0 days; p=0.014), more clinical complications (60% versus 18.9%; p=0.01), and longer hospital stay (10.2±8.4 versus 5.7±4.9 days; p=0.028). Conclusions: Although all patients received the same preoperative preparation, the elderly group exhibited a slower and more complicated recovery after adrenalectomy. Meticulous perioperative care should be used in the elderly when treating phaeochromocytoma; nevertheless, adrenalectomy is a relatively safe procedure in this patient population.

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