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3.
Sci Adv ; 5(4): eaav4310, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001586

RESUMO

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a major process in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle in which nitrite and ammonium are converted to dinitrogen gas and water through the highly reactive intermediate hydrazine. So far, it is unknown how anammox organisms convert the toxic hydrazine into nitrogen and harvest the extremely low potential electrons (-750 mV) released in this process. We report the crystal structure and cryo electron microscopy structures of the responsible enzyme, hydrazine dehydrogenase, which is a 1.7 MDa multiprotein complex containing an extended electron transfer network of 192 heme groups spanning the entire complex. This unique molecular arrangement suggests a way in which the protein stores and releases the electrons obtained from hydrazine conversion, the final step in the globally important anammox process.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Heme/química , Oxirredutases/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Transporte de Elétrons , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/enzimologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína
4.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 21(1): 142-149, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216618

RESUMO

Loss and fragmentation of native vegetation negatively affect crop pollinators and productivity of several crop species. The yellow passion fruit is an excellent model to investigate this issue, because its main pollinators are sensitive to deforestation. Seasonality also influences fruit set of crop species that are pollinated by bees. Climate determines plant flowering patterns and consequently affects pollinator activity. Little is known on effects of pollinators on crop quality in general, and particularly of many tropical fruits that have multiple fruiting seasons throughout the year, such as passion fruit. Our hypothesis is that the distance to the native vegetation and climate seasonality affect the pollination and fruit production of cultivated, hermaphrodite, self-incompatible, protandrous species that depend on large-sized bees to set fruit. We observed flowers of the yellow passion fruit in eight areas at different distances (600-4,000 m) from a dry seasonal forest (Caatinga). We compared the frequency of the main floral visitor (pollinators and robbers) visits and fruit set among areas at the beginning and end of the dry and rainy seasons. Xylocopa species were pollinators, and Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes and a hummingbird were robbers. Xylocopa visits diminished with increasing distance to native remnants, converse to what was observed for the robbers at the beginning of the dry season. Fruit set was higher at the beginning of the dry season. The distance to the forest affected quality of fruits in terms of length, diameter and skin thickness, which all decreased with increase in remnant distance. Our results show that insect pollination is higher in the dry season, increasing profitability and reducing labour costs for the producer. Considering the influence of distance to native vegetation on pollination, robbery and fruit quality, our study reinforces the necessity for conservation of native vegetation remnants.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Passiflora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Clima , Geografia , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
5.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 20(4): 797-801, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573080

RESUMO

Monomorphic enantiostylous species produce flowers with a displacement of the style to the left (L) or right (R) on the same individual, and may exhibit different dynamics for the production of these floral types, which may influence levels of selfing. We investigated the production dynamics of L and R floral types in seven species and a variety of monomorphic enantiostylous species of the genera Senna and Chamaecrista. Our hypothesis was that most species present similar proportions of floral morphs each day. Individuals were classified daily over a period of 7 days according to the functional status, i.e. the proportion of floral morphs as functionally L, R or reciprocal (REC, i.e. similar proportions of the two floral morphs), and also according to the number of consecutive days in which they exhibited the same functional status. All species presented low daily flower production. Most species had individuals classified as functionally R, L and REC, and tend to repeat the same functional status over a few days, although they may change functional status during the flowering period. All species exhibited individuals that were classified as functionally reciprocal when both the daily and total number of flowers produced over 7 days was considered. The occurrence of different functional status has not yet been reported in the literature for enantiostylous species. The distinct strategies observed in the dynamics of floral morph production seemed likely to minimise geitonogamy and to favour cross-pollination between individuals (xenogamy).


Assuntos
Fabaceae/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Brasil , Fabaceae/anatomia & histologia , Flores/anatomia & histologia
6.
Adv Microb Physiol ; 68: 219-352, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27134025

RESUMO

Electron transport phosphorylation is the central mechanism for most prokaryotic species to harvest energy released in the respiration of their substrates as ATP. Microorganisms have evolved incredible variations on this principle, most of these we perhaps do not know, considering that only a fraction of the microbial richness is known. Besides these variations, microbial species may show substantial versatility in using respiratory systems. In connection herewith, regulatory mechanisms control the expression of these respiratory enzyme systems and their assembly at the translational and posttranslational levels, to optimally accommodate changes in the supply of their energy substrates. Here, we present an overview of methods and techniques from the field of proteomics to explore bacterial electron transfer chains and their regulation at levels ranging from the whole organism down to the Ångstrom scales of protein structures. From the survey of the literature on this subject, it is concluded that proteomics, indeed, has substantially contributed to our comprehending of bacterial respiratory mechanisms, often in elegant combinations with genetic and biochemical approaches. However, we also note that advanced proteomics offers a wealth of opportunities, which have not been exploited at all, or at best underexploited in hypothesis-driving and hypothesis-driven research on bacterial bioenergetics. Examples obtained from the related area of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation research, where the application of advanced proteomics is more common, may illustrate these opportunities.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/ultraestrutura , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/ultraestrutura , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Oxirredução , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/fisiologia
7.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 17(3): 740-5, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25363754

RESUMO

Species of the subtribe Cassiinae present a wide diversity of floral types. Until recently it was considered that this diversity did not extend to their reproductive mechanisms. However, studies have recorded some variations in the enantiostylous pattern in this plant group. This study aims to investigate the morphological and functional variations of enantiostyly in species of the subtribe Cassiinae. Additionally, it proposes the recognition of enantiostylous types (ET) based on pollen deposition and capture mode. Morphological data were collected in fresh and fixed (alcohol 70%) buds and flowers, and also using photos and rehydrated material from herbarium sheets, for a total of 59 species. The parameters used to establish the ETs were pollination type, nature of pollen deposition on the pollinator body, deposition type, number of petals involved in pollen deposition, and pollen pathway. Morpho-functional features allowed the recognition of seven enantiostylous types (Flexuosa, Cana, Macranthera, Martiana, Amiciella, Repens and Ramosa) that present several levels of complexity. The type Ramosa was the most common and the Cana type was the least common. The types Repens, Martiana and Flexuosa do not have reciprocal pollen deposition, thus species with these types may be considered atypical. The groups resulting from similarity analysis partially coincide with the clades proposed in phylogenetic studies of Cassiinae. The recognition of functional ETs is important for understanding the evolution of reproductive strategies of Cassiinae species, and indicates an interesting line of investigation of enantiostyly in other plant groups.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fabaceae/anatomia & histologia , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Polinização , Fabaceae/genética , Pólen , Reprodução
8.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 15(2): 369-75, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23127184

RESUMO

Enantiostyly is a form of reciprocal herkogamy, in which floral morphs present reciprocal differences in the position of sexual elements, and occurs in monomorphic and dimorphic forms. This polymorphism maximises cross-pollination and reduces self-pollination, being very common within the subtribe Cassiinae (Fabaceae). Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the functionality of enantiostyly, particularly in this plant group. The present study aimed to investigate enantiostyly and its functionality in Chamaecrista ramosa, a monomorphic enantiostylous shrub, in an area of coastal vegetation in northeast Brazil. Pollen deposition and capture on the body of floral visitors, the relationship of these data with floral biology and breeding system, and morph ratio were evaluated. Pollen deposition and capture occurred in specific sites of the floral visitor body, showing the functionality of enantiostyly. The floral architecture, associated with the floral visitor behaviour, resulted in indirect pollen deposition on the floral visitor body. This occurred through a loop made by the pollen upon the inner petal surface, similar that generally reported for other Cassiinae. Chamaecrista ramosa is self-compatible, although no fruit set was observed through spontaneous self-pollination. The occurrence and number of floral morphs was similar within clumps. Enantiostyly seems to be advantageous for this species, as it results in efficient pollen capture and deposition, reduces the chances of autogamy and maximises intermorph pollen flow.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Fabaceae/anatomia & histologia , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Pólen/fisiologia , Animais , Abelhas/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil , Fabaceae/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Polinização , Autofertilização/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 76(2): 153-6, 2000.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14647690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe the hemodynamic response with rebound of pulmonary hypertension after withdrawal of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in a pediatric patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Case report of a child with ARDS and pulmonary hypertension evaluated through ecocardiografic with dopller, receiving inhaled NO for a period of 21 days. RESULTS: There was a decrease of the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) from 52 mmHg to 44 mmHg after the initial titulation of NO inhalation dose. After the withdrawal of inhaled NO an elevation of PAP was observed (55 mmHg). It was necessary to reinstall the inhaled NO to obtain a more appropriate value (34 mmHg). A new attempt of interruption of the inhaled NO after prolonged inhalation (20 days) resulted in a new clinic worsening and increase of PAP, with the indication to reinstall the inhaled NO. In the 24th day of permanence in the intensive care unit the patient died due to multiple organ dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of pulmonary hypertension rebound after withdrawal of inhaled NO is a complication that may have important clinical implications for patients who need a prolonged treatment with NO. This case report emphasizes these implications.

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